Bio technology 1

Biotechnology Timeline: Clarissa Martinez & Katherine Dang

  • Discovery of Proteins

    Discovery of Proteins
    Proteins were coined by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1838, but was discovered by Antoine Fourcroy in 1789, as a distinct class of biological molecules.
  • First Vaccine

    First Vaccine
    The first vaccine, made by Edward Jenner, that was developed as a treatment for any disease was produced from a weakened version of cowpox.
  • First Public Vaccination Campaign

    First Public Vaccination Campaign
    The Spanish government supported an effort to distribute vaccines worldwide, Doctor Fancisco Xavier de Balmis led an expedition from Asia to the Americas.
  • First Food Sterilization

    First Food Sterilization
    Nicolas Appert, the “Father of Canning” began to experiment with ways to preserve foods and successfully preserved soups, vegetables, juices, dairy products, jellies, jams and, and syrups. Appert placed the foods in glass jars, sealed them with a cork and sealing wax and placed them in boiling water.
  • Discovery of Enzymes

    Discovery of Enzymes
    Louis Pasteur discovered that fermentation was caused by yeast cells digesting sugar for its own nourishment. Also, Eduard Buchner discovered in 1897 that yeast extracts could ferment sugar to alcohol. His findings proved that fermentation was promoted by molecules that continued to function when removed fromc cells.
  • Discovery of Genetic Inheritance Patterns

    Discovery of Genetic Inheritance Patterns
    Mendel, in his study of peas, discovers that raits are transmitted from parents to progeny by discrete, independent units, later called genes.
  • First Antibiotic

    First Antibiotic
    Alexander Fleming discovered that a certain mold would stop the duplication of bacteria which eventually led to the discovery of the first antibiotic which is penicillin.
  • Avery’s & McLeod's Experiment

    Avery’s & McLeod's Experiment
    Experiment done by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarthy reported that DNA is what causes bacterial transformation.
  • Hershey-Chase Experiment

    Hershey-Chase Experiment
    Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did a series of experiments that confirmed that DNA was genetic material. The discovery was a breakthrough because scientists back then had believed that proteins were what carried genetic information.
  • Discovery of DNA Structure

    Discovery of DNA Structure
    James Watson and Francis Crick presented the structure of the DNA-helix, the molecule that carries genetic information from one generation to the other.
  • First Gene Sequenced

    First Gene Sequenced
    RNA sequencing was the earliest form of nucleotide sequencing. The first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, identified and published by Walter Fiers and his colleagues at the University of Ghent.
  • 1st Recombinant Organism

    1st Recombinant Organism
    Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the 1st recombinant organism in 1783 which has greatly affected the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology and has led to developments in modern genetic engineering.
  • 1st Biotech Drug Insulin

    1st Biotech Drug Insulin
    Humulin was discovered by Genentech for the treatment of diabetes. It was produced by genetically engineered bacteria and is the first biotech drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
  • First Transgenic Animal

    First Transgenic Animal
    A mouse was the first transgenic animal by transferring a gene from one mouse to another. The project was run by Richard Palmitter and Ralph Brinster.
  • PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Technique Conceived

    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Technique Conceived
    Developed by Karry Mullis, the PCR technique is used for a variety of reasons. PCR is used for DNA cloning, detection of diseases, diagnosis of hereditary diseases, and to identify genetic fingerprints.
  • 1st GM crop sold

    1st GM crop sold
    The first GM food is the “Flavr Savr” tomato. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
  • 1st Cloned Organism

    1st Cloned Organism
    Dolly the sheep was the first animal to be cloned using DNA from two adult sheep cells. This experiment was led by British scientists led by Ian Wilmut.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    The Human Genome Project successfully completed a rough draft of a human genome. The goal was to determine the sequence of DNA and identify the thousands of genes in the human genome.
  • Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Established

    Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Established
    A new stem line came from human embryos under complete cell and serum free conditions. These cells were able to develop 3 embryonic germ layers.