Biotechnology timeline

  • Robert Hooke

    Robert Hooke
    He observed the first microorganisms because of the invention of the microscope.
  • Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel
    He discovered the simple laws of inheritance of traits that allowed one to predict the outcome of crosses with certain traits.
  • Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur
    He was described the scientific basis for fermentation, wine making, and the brewing of beer, established the science of microbiology, and proposed the Germ Theory.
  • Johann Miescher

    Johann Miescher
    found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages. This later led scientists to believe that DNA might be the inheritable material of an organism.
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

    Thomas Hunt Morgan
    discovered that genes were on chromosomes. Also studyed fruit flies.
  • Fred Griffith

    Fred Griffith
    Using mice, he proved that genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another.
  • Sir Alexander Fleming

    Sir Alexander Fleming
    An isolated penicillin from a fungus. Many of his ideas are used to develop biotechnology drugs today.
  • Chargaff

    showed DNA in the number of units in thymine and guanine.
  • Beadle and Tatum

    Beadle and Tatum
    proposed a hypothesis
  • Avery, McCarthy, and McLead

    Avery, McCarthy, and McLead
    established that DNA was the hereditary material that was transferred.
  • Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins

    Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
    established through X-ray crystallography that DNA was indeed a double helix
  • Hershey and Chase

    Hershey and Chase
    proved viruses replicated wusing DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the hereditary.
  • Watson and Crick

    Watson and Crick
    discovered the structure of DNA
  • Hayes

    discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria.
  • Walter Gilbert

    Walter Gilbert
    discovered mechanismof gene expression through his study of messenger RNA
  • Arber, Nathans, and Smith

    Arber, Nathans, and Smith
    discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA
  • Khorana and Nirenberg

    Khorana and Nirenberg
    discovered the 64 codons that code for the 20 amino acids making up proteins.
  • Vinograd

    DNA plasmids were isolated and purified
  • madel and higa

    madel and higa
    were responsible for the first transformation of the bacterium Escherichia coli
  • Boyer and Cohen

    Boyer and Cohen
    Cloning experiments
  • Genentech

    the worlds first genetic engineering company, was founded
  • Paul berg

    Paul berg
    140 scientists met to draw up guidelines for work with recombinant DNA in microorganisms. Paul was the key organizer.
  • Boyer

    inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E. coli
  • Botstein

    found one identifed pattern made of one's DNA through a digest by diff. enzymes.
  • Louise Joy Brown

    Louise Joy Brown
    he was born the first human baby resulting from in vitro fertilization, in which sperm and egg are joined in a petri dish. The fertilized egg is later implanted in a womb.
  • The U.S. Supreme Court

    The U.S. Supreme Court
    ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented. This resulted in a huge startup of biotech companies.
  • Ohio University

    Ohio University
    scientists made the first transgenic animals.
  • Eli Lilly Company

    Eli Lilly Company
    Company placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria.
  • Schell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch

    Schell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch
    transformed plants with Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.
  • Kary Mullis

    Kary Mullis
    invented polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify DNA in the laboratory.
  • Jeffries

    applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases.
  • An automated fluorescence

    An automated fluorescence
    was invented for speeding up the labor- intense process.
  • Genes

    were moved into an organism through the use of a gene gun.
  • NIH

    revised safety guidelines for recombinant DNA to include plants grownin greenhouses and animals raised in barns.
  • Andrew Fire and Criag Mello

    Andrew Fire and Criag Mello
    discovered RNA interference, silencing of genes, in the warm
    C. elegans.
  • Kohler Millstein and Jerne

    Kohler Millstein and Jerne
    used monoclonal antibody technology.
  • Maynard Olson

    Maynard Olson
    Colleagues at Washington University invented "yeast artificial chromosomes," or YACs, which are expression vectors for large proteins.
  • Ian Wilmut

    Ian Wilmut
    cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of a ewe at the Roselin Institute in Scottland.
  • Sanger and Gilbert

    Sanger and Gilbert
    found a way to sequence DNA. Given an unknown piece of DNA, they were able to read the correct order of bases of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine.
  • DNA microarray technology

    DNA microarray technology
    looking at the expression of all the genes of an organism at one time on a microscope slide or silicon chip, was developed.
  • Dabri and Garner

    Dabri and Garner
    invented an automated DNA sequencer that had a capability of sequencing 76,600 base pairs per hr.
  • Ron Breaker

    Ron Breaker
    coined the term riboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity and therefore gene expression.
  • Francis Collins and Craig Venter

    Francis Collins and Craig Venter
    Announcement was made of the completion of the human genome project