AP Euro timeline(Black Death-Congress of Vienna)

  • Nov 29, 1293

    Ordinances of Justice

    (could not find exact date)
    Italy
    laws put in action in 1293 to control aristocratic families from holding office and commiting crimes; allowed for guilds in Florence to have more control and power for themselves
  • Feb 28, 1297

    Closing of Great Council

    Italy
    removed time limits for amount of time a person could be a member of the council, and only allowed any to be apart of the council if they had been affiliated with it for more than four years
  • Nov 18, 1302

    Unum Sanctam

    (could not find where it was enforced)
    Pope Boniface VIII enforces papal authority over all kings of Europe
    Reinforced power to the church over rulers
  • Jun 24, 1322

    Visconti Establish Themselves as Rulers of Milan

    (Do not know if exact date is correct)
    Italy
    became dukes ruling over Milan; causes tensions within own family and onther ruling families of different city-states
  • Aug 26, 1346

    Battle of Crecy

    France
    Battle faought between the French and English; English defeated the French; showed that proper tactics and weaponry would win over numbers
  • Sep 19, 1356

    Battle of Poitiers

    Poitiers, France
    Battle between England and France in the Hundred Years War
    Took place ten years after the Battle of Crecy; ended with another victory for England; French King is captured and causes more grief for the French army
  • Sep 19, 1356

    Capture at Poitiers

    Poitiers, France
    King John II of France is captured by the English
    Aftermath of the Battle of Poitiers; showed England's superiority onthe battlefield with their smaller numbers and tactics
  • Nov 29, 1356

    Golden Bull

    (Could not find Exact date)
    Germany
    Decree created the Holy Roman Emporer, Charles IV, that controled important aspects of the constitutional structure in the Holy Roman Empire
  • May 25, 1360

    Peace of Bretigny

    Bretigny, France
    Treaty signed by King Edward III of England and King John II of France
    Ended first phase of Hundred Years War; set standards for Both Kings to follow; Edward did not follow and France declared war again under the rule of Charles V
  • Jan 17, 1377

    Pope Gregory XI Returns to Rome

    Avignon, France and Rome
    Pope Gregory XI decides that the papal palace shall return to ROme as it was in the traditions
    his journey was filled with illnesses which helps him in his death; causes the Great Schism to begin
  • Jun 21, 1377

    Death of Edward III

    England
    Died after military success in his early ears in the Battles of Crecy and Poitiers
    English Rule declines as he was dealing with military and political failure before his death
  • Mar 27, 1378

    Great Schism Begins

    Germany
    Split between two popes wanting power
    there was distress of who the next pope would be caused an early election in Rome of a Roman pope, as he gained power another was elected in Avignon, leaving two papal powers in charge
  • Jun 30, 1395

    Giangaleazzo Visconti Purchases Title of Duke

    (cold not find exact date)
    Italy
    appionted Duke of Milan by the King of Romans for 100,000 florins
    ruled before the Renaissance and became great patron in the arts and of the Visconti Castle
  • Jun 26, 1409

    Failure of Council of Pisa; Election of Alexander V

    (could not find where event happened)
    council that had failed in its attempts to end the Great Schism, resulted in election of Pope Alexander V
    Later influenced the start of the Council of Constance which made three existing popes resign for one new one
  • Jul 6, 1415

    Burning of John Hus

    Germany
    Czech priest burned at the stake for heresy
    His studies and reforms influenced Martin Luther 100 years later in his "95 Thesis"
  • Oct 25, 1415

    Battle of Agincourt

    France
    Majore victory for English against the French in Hundred Years War
    results in Henry V marrying the daughter of the French king
  • Dec 4, 1415

    Hohenzollerns Established

    couldn't find exact date
    Brandenburg
    Hohenzollern family splits into 2 branches and the Protestant Franconian branch establishes itself in Brandenburg
    Member of this family later becomes Duke of Prussia
  • Nov 11, 1417

    End of Schism

    Germany
    Council of Constance makes three existing popes resign titles and allows for an election of a new pope
    Pope Martin the V is elected to rules as the papal authority
  • May 21, 1420

    Treaty of Troyes

    France
    Treaty declaring Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French throne once King Charles VI of France dies
    Creates tensions between France and England with who would rule over the French throne
  • Oct 19, 1453

    End of hundred Years War

    France
    ends with surrender of Bordeaux
    tensions continue with War of the Roses over who will inherit the French throne
  • Apr 9, 1454

    Peace of Lodi

    Italy
    "Treaty of Lodi"; ends war of succession for Milanese duchy between Venice and Milan; balances power between the five states that dominated Italy; begins a 40 year period of peace with the states of Italy
  • Jan 18, 1460

    Pius II Issues Papal Bull Execrabilis

    (could not Find where he issued it)
    Issued document that condemned conciliarism
    Stated that none could disobey any demands or orders of the Holy Council, would be punished , gave way for Luther's "95 Thesis"
  • Oct 19, 1467

    Marraige of Ferdinand and Isabella

    Spain
    Marraige of Ferdinand and Isabella; Strict catholic rulers who would begin the "Reconquista" or reconquering of Spain from Jews and Muslims; Causes Jews and Muslims to flee Spain or to convert to Cathilicism in fear of death
  • Nov 1, 1478

    Introduction of Inquisition

    Spain
    Ordered by Ferdinand and Isabella, begins religios intoleration in Spain; will end in the expulsion of the Jews and later of the Muslims.
  • Jan 3, 1488

    Bartholomew Dias Sails around Tip of Africa

    couldn't find exact date
    Africa (Dias is from Portugal)
    Dias sailed around the tip of Africa to the Middle East
    Dias sighted the Cape of Good Hope, named because there was hope that a trade route to India would soon be found
  • Mar 31, 1492

    Expulsion of the Jews

    Spain
    Religious intoleration against Jews ordered by Ferindand and Isabella, thousands flee Spain, convert, or burn at the stake for heresy.
  • Dec 3, 1492

    Columbus Begins his Voyage

    couldn't find exact date
    Spain
    Columbus begins his voyage to find a water route to India
    His voyages will result in him finding the Americas
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Tordesillas
    Treaty between Spain and Portugal to settle any conflicts over lands discovered by Columbus
    Spain gains papal support to claim lands found by Columbus afterward
  • Oct 18, 1494

    Beginning of Italian Wars

    (could not find exact day in October )
    Italy
    France Invades Italy
    causes series of Italian wars against the Holy Roman Empire and France
  • May 20, 1498

    Vasco da Gama Lands in Calicut, India

    Calicut
    da Gama finds a water route from Portugal to Calicut India
    Discovered that the inhabitants of the country were not Christian like they originally thought
  • Nov 29, 1502

    Expulsion of Muslims

    (could not find exact date)
    Spain
    Religious intoleration against Muslims later ordered by Ferdinand and Isabella after the expulsion of Jews. Leaves Muslims in same state Jews were in: convert, flee, or burn at the stake.
  • Aug 3, 1511

    Portuguese Seize Malacca

    couldn't find exact date
    Malacca
    Portugal subdues and captures the City of Malacca
    Resulted in Portugal buiding a fort on the lands to keep position
  • Dec 3, 1514

    Landing of Portuguese Ships in Southern China

    couldn't find exact date
    China
    Jorge Alvares lands Portuguese ships in Southern China
    relations would soon go bad with the Chinese in 1519 as a member of a Portuguese ship disregarded all of Chinese customs and laws
  • Oct 31, 1517

    "95 Thesis"

    Germany
    Catalyst that sparked the Protestant Reformation; protested the abuse of clerical powers
    sparked reformation ideas and lead to Lutheranism
  • Dec 2, 1518

    Zwingli made Catholic priest at Zurich

    (could not find exact date)
    Zurich
    Zwingli became a Priest in Zurich
    He would start preaching on ideas of reforming the church
  • Jul 2, 1519

    Leipzig Debate

    Leipzig, Germany
    Debate Luther joined, discussed matters of purgatory and the sale of indulgences
    influenced many protestant reformers over clerical abuses
  • Dec 3, 1519

    Magellan Begins His Voyage Around the World

    could not find exact date
    Portugal
    Magellan leaves Portugal to find an all water route to the East Indies
    Becomes the first explorer to circomnavigate the world
  • Dec 3, 1519

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico

    couldn't find Exact date
    Mexico
    Spain sends conquistadors to conquer Mexico
    Spanish conquistadors conquer the Aztecs
  • Jan 28, 1521

    Diet and Edict of Worms

    Worms, Germany
    meeting that called Luther for his affects on the Protestant Reformation
    lasted until May 25
    excommunicated Luther from the Church
  • Dec 2, 1523

    Reform Adopted in Zurich

    Zurich
    Zurich becomes a Protestant community
    creates a new protestant religion, Zwinglian relirion
  • Dec 2, 1523

    Anabaptist Expelled from Zurich

    Zurich
    Anabaptists Expelled from Zurich for refusing to baptise their infants
    Anabaptists become heavily persecuted by all people
  • Aug 29, 1526

    Battle of Mohacs

    Mohacs, Hungary
    Battle between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
    Hungary's forces were defeated by the Ottoman Empire and led to the Partition of Hungary
  • May 6, 1527

    Sack of Rome

    Italy
    Ends Italian Renaissance; Humanism, Individualism, Secularism; done by Charles V of Spain and his army; Gives ideas for religious reformers in the Protestant reformation
  • Sep 11, 1529

    Defeat of the Turks at Vienna

    (don't know if real date or not)
    Vienna
    Archduke Ferdinand of Austria took throne of Hungary and wan western Hungary
    Divided Hungary into Royal Hungary and Ottoman Hungary
  • Oct 1, 1529

    Marburg Colloquy

    Marburg
    Meeting at the Marburg Castle to solve Lutheran and Zwinlian differences
    both Luther and Zwingli left the meeting without solving their differences over sacramental union
  • Dec 2, 1530

    Diet of Augsburg

    Augsburg, Germany
    Meetings of Empirial Diet and Holy Roman Empire
    Tried to calm the rising tensions of Protestantism
    meeting rejected by most German princesas they were mainly Protestant and Catholic church was tryingto crush it
  • Dec 3, 1530

    Pizarro's Conquest of the Inca

    couldn't find exact date
    Mexico
    Spanish conquistador, Pizarro, takes 168 men to conquer the Inca
    conquers the Inca in 1535 after they are weakened by diseases brought by the Spanish
  • Dec 2, 1531

    Formation of Schmalkadic League

    (couldn't find exact date)
    Schmalkadic
    Alliance of Lutheran Princes within Holy Roman Empire
    Formed to eventually try to take over Holy Roman Empire
  • Dec 2, 1531

    Death of Zwingli on the Battlefield

    (couldn't find Exact date)
    Kappel
    Zwingli dies on the second Battle of Kappel
    causes his reforms to spread as far as England
  • Dec 2, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    Act that made King Henry VIII of England head of the church
    Marked the beginning of the English Reformation; made England a Protestant country
  • Jul 6, 1535

    Execution of Thomas More

    England
    Thomas More executed for not asscepting King Henry VIII's separation of church and becoming the hed of church
    He bacame known as one of the Greatest Britons
  • Dec 2, 1536

    Institutes of Christian Religion

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    book written by John Calvin
    Became an important theology for the Protestant religion
  • Dec 2, 1536

    Calvin Begins Ministry in Geneva

    Geneva
    Calvin Begins a ministry in Geneva for the Protestant religion
    planted the seeds in which Calvininsm would be born from his theology
  • Dec 3, 1540

    Papal Recognition of the Society of Jesus

    could not find exact date
    Rome
    Jesuits are recognized by Papal Authority
    Given orders by the church to go on Missions to convert people to christianity
  • Dec 2, 1541

    Ecclesiastical Ordinances

    Geneva
    constitution of the reformed Protestant church in Geneva
    Written by John Calvin; became by laws commonly used for Anglican communion
  • Dec 3, 1542

    Establishment of Roman Inquisition

    Culdn't find exact date
    Spain
    prosecuted any accused of religious crimes
    revised any views that were against the Catholic religion
  • Dec 3, 1543

    Portuguese Traders Land in Japan

    couldn't find exact date
    Japan
    Portuguese Traders, explorers, and missionaries land in Japan
    First europeans to be in Japan
  • Dec 8, 1543

    "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Shperes"

    couldn't find exact date
    Nuremberg
    written by Coppernicus; criticized the geocentric theory and came up with the Heliocentic theory
    would influence many philosophers and astronomers into researching the universe
  • Dec 8, 1543

    "On the Fabric of the Human Body"

    couldn't find exact date or place
    written by Vesalias; described many aspects of the human body in great detail
    corrected Galen's theory that great blood vessels started from the liver
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Augsburg
    Treaty between Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, and Lutheran Princes
    Ended religious struggle between Holy Roman Empire and Lutheranism
  • Dec 3, 1566

    Outbreak of Revolt in the Nethetlands

    couldn't find exact date
    Netherlands
    Revolt of seven Protestant Provinces, in Netherland, against King Phillip II of Spain, who was Roman Catholic
    Began the Dutch War of Independence
  • Mar 1, 1567

    Duke of Guise Massacres Huguenot Congregation at Vassy

    Wassy, France
    Duke of Guise orders the massacre of Huguenots
    Became the first event of the French Wars of Religion, followed by a series of battles
  • Dec 8, 1569

    Merger of Poland and Lithuania

    couldn't find exact date or place
    Poland and Lithuania merge military forces
    helped in evolving the Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  • Oct 7, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    Lepanto
    Battle between the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire
    Holy League defeats the Ottoman Empire and prevents them from expanding wesst of the Mediteranian Sea
  • Aug 23, 1572

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    France
    French King ordered the killing of Huguenots during a celebration
    Marked the turning point of the French Religios Wars; Huguenots were politically crippled by the attack
  • Dec 3, 1576

    Formation of the Holy League

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    league formed by Catholics for political defense, and to protect the Catholic religion
    would prepare their own heir to the French throne when a Protestant is found to be heir
  • Spanish Armada

    England
    Spanish Fleet attempts to attack England to bring back Catholicism to the county
    Spanish fleet decimated by English navy; Spain never fully recovers from loss
  • Assassination of Henry III

    France
    King Henry III of France killed
    brought Henry of Navarre as the new king of France
  • Coronation of Henry III

    France
    Henry of Navarre becomes king of France and changes his title to Henry IV
    Brought a Protestant Bourban to rule over the once Catholic France
  • Edict of Nantes

    Nantes
    Gave Calvinist Protesants (Huguenots) civil rights in a still predominately Catholic nation
    Ended the Religious Wars of France
  • British East India Company Formed

    Engalnd
    East India trading company is formed by merchants
    Established trade relations between England and East India
  • Dutch East India Company Formed

    couldn't find exact date
    Middelburg
    Merchants f different cities grouped together and formed the Dutch East India Trading Company
    Intervened with the British comany
  • English Settlement at Jamestown

    Jamestown, Virginia
    First English town to become a permanent settlement
    was the English capital of the Virginia Colony
  • Protestant Union

    Auhausen
    German princes form the Protestant Union for 10 years
    England, Dutch Republic, and Sweden promised support; union had provoked the Catholic League
  • Champlain Establishes Settlement at Quebec

    couldn't find exact date
    Quebec
    Champlain establishes the first French settlement in the Americas
    First explorer to describe the Great Lakes and Publish maps of his findings
  • 12 Year Truce ( Spain and Netherlands)

    Antwerp
    Gave United Provinces recognition from outside kingdoms
    allowed Phillip II of Spain to worry of his own county's matters with the failed Spanish Armada
  • Catholic League

    Germany
    Catholic league formed to retaliateagainst the Protestant Union
    Tensions Between Catholic Legue and the Protestant Union would end up leading to the first phase of the Thirty Years War
  • Hohenzollerns Aquire Lands along the Rhine

    couldn't find exact date
    Germany
    Hohenzollern family gains land along the Rhine River to gain power
    lands were under rule of single family member, John Sigismund
  • "The Starry Messenger"

    couldn't find Exact date
    Italy
    Written by Galileo; first scientific book based off observations through a telescope
    proved that the moon was imperfect and mountainous; proved there were stars around Jupiter
  • Election of Hapsburg Archduke Ferdinand

    couldn't find exact date
    Bohemia
    Ferdinand I is elected by the Bohemian Diet to be King of Bohemia
    Spark of the Thirty Years War; Protestant mob attaked a clerk and regents, throwing them out of a window
  • Bohemian Revolt Against Ferdinand

    couldn't find exact date
    Bohemia
    Bohemians revolt against the rule of the Hapsburg Dynasty
    created several battles, including the Battle of White Mountain
  • Hohenzollerns Aquire East Prussia

    couldn't find exact date
    Prussia
    Hohenzollerns gains the land of Prussia
    helps in their rise to power
  • Dutch Fort Established at Batavia

    couldn't find exact date
    Batavia
    Dutch fort established in Batavia
    became headquarters for the Dutch East India Trading Company
  • Battle of White Mountain

    Bohemia
    battle near Prague over religious differences in Bohemia
    marked the first success of the Hapsburgs over the Protestant Union
  • "The Great Instauration"

    couldn't find exact date or place
    written by Bacon; written as a version of paradise based off of the 7 days of creation
  • Spanish Conquest of Palinate

    couldn't find exact date
    Palinate
    Spanish conquer Protestant Palinate while Ferdinand is occupied with Bohemia
    Spanish gained control of western Palinate
  • Petition of Right

    England
    English document that gave specific liberties that the King was prohibited from taking from the people
    Made England go from an absolute monarch to a constitutional monarchy
  • "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood"

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    written by Harvey; described, in detaial, the circulation of blood, being pumped throughout the body
    proved that the Heart was was controlled circulation of blood in the body
  • Edict of Restitution

    Germany
    Ferdinand passes edict to make the "Ecclesiastical Reservation"be enforced
    Gave almost all property and power of the Protestants to the Catholics
  • Battle of Lutzen

    Lutzen
    Battle between Catholics and Protestants in which Protestants succeed in defeating the Catholics
    Costed Protestants to lose Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden,causing them to have no political and military direction
  • "Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems"

    couldn't find exact date
    Italy
    written by Galileo; described both the Geocentric theory of Ptolemy and the Heliocentric theory of Copernicus
    Book would end up being banned and placed in the Index of Forbidden Books
  • Battle of Nordlingen

    Nordlingen
    Battle fought during the Thirty Years War
    Protestants defeated by Spanish and Italian forces
    Sweden loses its role in the German area
  • "Discourse on Method"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    written by Descartes; "I think, therefore I am"
    becomes important to modern philosophy by using rationalism
  • Dutch seize Malacca from Portuguese

    couldn't find exat date
    Malacca
    Dutch battle the Portuguese in Malacca
    Portuguese lose battle along with Malacca itself
  • First Civil War

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    Didn't end until 1646, Series of battles in the English Civil War
    Battles left England and Scotland Politically weakened
  • Battle of Rocroi

    Rocroi
    Battle fought during Thirty Years War
    Frenchh victory over the Spanish; days after French King Lous XIII dies
  • Official Recognition of the United Provinces

    Munster
    United Provinces were finally recognized and gained power over their own states
    Tension would rise as each state begins to struggle over power
  • Independence of United Provinces

    couldn't find exact date
    Netherlands
    United Provinces gain independence from Spain
    Ends the religious struggle with Spain over the country
  • Peace of Westphalia

    couldn't find exact date
    Munster
    Multiple treaties that ended the Thirty Years War in Germany
    allowed rulers to decide what religion they could worship
  • First Fronde

    Couldn't find exact date
    France
    First civil war in France that didn't end until 1653
    resulted in the Royal authority to become stronger but weaken the economy
  • Second Civil War

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    Second half the the English Civil war
    led to the overthrow of Charles I of England and later, his death
  • Execution of Charles I

    England
    King Charles I of England is executed
    Oliver Cromwell will take over England and rule with an iron fist
  • Second Fronde

    couldnt find exact date
    France
    second phase of the French civil war
    Made the economy very weak from the battles and brought back absolute authority to the monarch
  • Beginning of Liberum Veto

    couldn't find exact date or place
    Parlaimentary device used in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and allowed any member of the legislature to end a meeting
    weakened a monarchy's power and kept the feudal features of Polands polotics
  • Death of Cromwell

    England
    Oliver Cromwell dies
    the English take this chance to restore the monarchy
  • Peace of Pyrenees

    Pyrenees
    treaty that ended Franco-Spanish war of 1648-1659
    created a marraige between Louis XIV and Maria Theresa and made France one of most powerful countries in Europe
  • "Bloodless Revolution"

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    English civil war in which Charles II was placed on the throne as the English monarchy
    Restored the monarchy and would eventually lead to the Glorious revolution
  • Restorations of the Monarchy

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    English Monarchy is restored by putting Charles II of England on the throne
    Charles II would begin to become corrupt and later be replaced
  • Cavalier Parliament

    England
    longest lasting English Parlaiment, mainly Royalist
    would target specific Protestants and persecute them and give power to the monarch
  • English Seize New Netherlands

    New Netherands
    English troops invaded and take over the DUtch settlement of New Netherlands
    Dutch could not protect settlement and surrendered land in shame
  • "Grounds of Natural Philosophy"

    couldn't find exact date or place
    written by Margaret Cavendish; book of poetry on the philosophy of women and other topics
    helped in influencing women to study philosophy and write works of their studies
  • "Pensees"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    Written by Pascal; tries to convert rationalists into Christianity;appealed to reasonings and emotions
    tried to unite both Christianity and science
  • Declaration of Indulgence

    England
    an attempt to Extend religious liberty and suspend the ececution of the penal laws
    would be revoked by Cavalier Parlaiment and replaced with the Test Acts
  • Test Act

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    English laws that served as religious tests on the public office
    would later be repealed by the Catholic relief Act
  • "Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner"

    couldn't find exact date
    Amsterdam
    Written by Spinoza;explained that God was the creator of the universe and was the universe
    book was thought of as Athiestic,influenced philosophy greatly
  • Turkish Siege of Vienna

    Vienna
    Ottomans Turks attack Vienna
    Hapsburgs ofAustralia occupied and controlled southern Hungary and Transylvania
  • Edict of Fontainebleau

    France
    Louis XIV passes the Edict and revokes the Edict of Nantes
    Huguenot churches are burned and Protestant schools destroyed as religious persecution is returned to France
  • Declaration of Indulgence

    England
    granted religious freedom by suspending laws against conforming to the Church of England
    Anglicans protested the act for religious freedom, act was argued over because KIng could suspend Parlaiment's laws
  • "Principia"

    England
    written by Isaac Newton; gave the three laws of motion
    would be used in sciences for years
  • Glorious Revolution

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    Invasion of England by William of Orange and overthrowing of King James II
    William of Orange would gain the throne and become King of England
  • Bill of Rights

    England
    put down limits of the monarchy and rules of freedom of speech in Parlaiment
    would influence political thinkers like that of John Locke
  • Treaty of Karlowitz

    Serbia
    treaty that ended Austo-Ottoman war
    Ottoman Empire begins to decline; Hapsburg Monarchy becomes the dominant power in central and southeast Europe
  • English Establish Trading Post at Canton

    couldn't find exact date
    canton
    English formed a trading post at Canton
    Allowed for more trading with other countries
  • Construction of St. Petersburg Begins

    Russia
    Tsar Peter I gives orders for a building for a fortress be built
    thousands would die in building the great city for this building
  • Battle of Poltava

    Poltava
    Battle between Russia and Sweden, in which Sweden was defeated
    Marked the start of Sweden's decline
  • "Persian Letters"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    written by Montesquieu; criticized French monarchy and the Catholic Church
    His attack on traditional religion, and reasoning of liberating humans from prejudices helped in spreading the Enlightenment
  • "Philosophic Letters on the English"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    written by Voltaire; admired the English and their religious freedom
    criticized the French laws and royal abslutism
  • War of Austrian Succession

    couldn't find exact date
    didn't end until 1748; war that involved most of Europe over whether Maria Theresa would take the throne of the Hapsburg Monarchy
    war would end with Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
  • Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle

    France
    treaty that ended the Austrian War of Succession
    left many resentments still standing
  • "Spirit of the Laws"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    written by Montesquieu; a treatise that compared governments and tried to combine them with scientific method to social and political areas
    would bring on the idea of separation of powers
  • "Age of Louis XIV"

    couldnt find exact date
    France
    written by Voltaire
    one of the works that had caused Voltaire to flee to the eastern border of France
  • Seven Yars War

    couldn't find exact date or place
    didn't end until 1763; war that brokeout throughout Europe, Africa, India and North America
    last war that involved all of Europe before the French Revolution took place
  • Diplomatic Revolution

    couldn't find exact date or place
    revolution where all European alliances were ended and reversed
    caused many tensions between British and Austria
  • Battle of Plassey

    Plassey
    Battle between East India Company and the Nwab of Bengal
    East India COmpany won; the Nawab of Bengal were actually bribed to lose battle
  • Battle of Rossbach

    Rossbach
    Battle during the Seven Years War; Prussia defeated French and Austrian power
    Frederick the Great became well known for the victory against two great armies
  • British Captures Forts Duquesne and Louisburg

    Louisburg
    British attack Louisburg and gain control of the Fort
    Caused Quebec and New France to lose naval support
  • Battle of Quebec

    Quebec
    battle between the British and the French during the Seven Years War
    French abandon the City and the British seige it afterwards
  • "The Social Contract"

    couldn't find exact date or place
    written by Rousseau; tried to bring together individual liberty and government authority
    influenced Enlightenment thinkers concerning the rights of men
  • "Emile"

    couldn't find exact date or place
    written by Rousseau; Greatest Enlightenment works on education; belived that education should help children instead of restricting them
    his movement on education helped start the movement Romanicism
  • French Cede Canada to the British

    Paris
    French and British sign the Treaty of Paris that gives up all land they ahd taken from each other and give Canada to England
    Britain gained almost all of France's possesions of North America
  • Treaty of Paris

    Paris
    treaty that helped end the Seven Years War between England, France, Spain, and Portugal
    British did not allow help for Prussia and they would have to find peace from Peace of Hubertusburg
  • Peace of Hubertusburg

    Hubertusburg
    Treaty that helped in ending the Seven Years War
    Brought peace between Austria, Prussia, and Saxony
  • "Treatise on Toleration"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    Written by Voltaire;argued for religious toleration and what it has done for English government
    "crush the infamous thing"
  • "On Crimes and Punishment"

    couldn't find exact date
    Italy
    written by Beccaria; greatly criticized the penal system of most countries and showed his distaste for torture and the death penalty
    caused many rulers to change their peanal systems and punishments
  • "The System of Nature"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    written by Holbach; tried to prove that life could continue without any help of a diety
    caused many other thinkers to write their own opinions of his ideas
  • First Partition

    Poland
    agreement between Poland, Austria, Prussia, and Russia that split Poland up into three equal territories
    was the beginning of Poland's Destruction
  • Purgachev's Rebellion

    couldn't find exact date
    Russia
    didn't end until 1775; revolt that took place after Catherine the Great took over
    ended with the defeat of the rebellion and new changes to the government and new elected officcials
  • Louis XV dies

    France
    King Louis XV of France dies
    would end up giving throne to his son Louis XVI
  • "Wealth of Nations"

    Scotland
    written by Adam Smith; believed that the government should protect the inalienable rights of the people
    influenced colonists in their revolution against the English
  • Charter of Nobility

    couldn't find exact date
    Russia
    charter passed by Catherine the Great that granted nobles rights
    angered peasants at the restriction that were put upon them
  • Assembly of Notables

    France
    Meeting of important nobles in discussing tax reforms
    accomplished nothing
  • Meeting of the Estates General

    France
    meeting of estates representing France
    Third estate would form National assembly and ask the other estates to join against the king
  • Formation of the National Assembly

    France
    Assemly formed by Third Estate and called for tax reductions on the Third Estate and egual rights
    Assembly writes the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Tennis Court Oath

    France
    oath made by members of the Third Estate that were locked out of a meeting with the Estates general; oath was made in a tennis court
  • Jaques Necker Dismissed

    France
    Necker dismissed by the king
    would anger third estate since necker sympathyzed with them
  • Fall of the Bastille

    France
    People of the Third Estate attacked the Batille and stole weapons
    was the start of the French Revolution
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    France
    Declaration written by the National Assembly
    motioned for equal rights, fair taxation, and didn't give king as many rights
  • Heredity Rights Abolished

    France
    Heredity rights of the throne of France are abolished
    would leave no king or ruler of France
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    France
    constitution that had put restrictions on the French church
    Pope rejected the constitution and refused to accept any of France's new restrictions
  • Massacre of Champ-de-Mars

    France
    revolt of the French people that leaves 50 dead
    people were fighting over whether France should be a republic or a constitutional Monarchy
  • Declaration of Pillnitz

    France
    Declaration written by the Holy Roman Emperor and Prussia staing that they supported Louis XVI against the revolution
    Austria threatened to go to war only if all other European Powers decided to go to war with France
  • French Jews Allowed Citizenship

    France
    French Jews are allowed to be Citizens
    France becomes tolerant to Jews
  • France Declares War on Austria

    France
    France declares war against Austria
    monarchy wanted war so that Louis would regain power; people wanted war to unite France and spread revolutionary ideas
  • Attack on the Royal Palace

    France
    the people attack the palace and demand the king returns to Paris
    King is sent back to Paris with Heads of the guards that were killed
  • Abolition of the Monarchy

    France
    legislative Assembly decides to abolish the French Monarchy
    decision would cause Louis to try and flee Frrance with his family but get caught and put on trial
  • "Vindication of the Rights of Woman"

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    written by Mary Wollstonecraft; respose to educational and political thinkers that believed that woman's duty was to please man
    brought about feminism
  • Execution of the King

    France
    King Louis XVI of France is executed by the people
    would soon be followed bythe Terror
  • Second Partition

    Poland
    Revoked the Polish reforms and split Poland between Prussa and Russia
    would end up starting a revolt in favor of the reformers and starting the thrd partition
  • France Declares war on Spain

    France
    France dlares war against Spain
    Catholics and Royalist begin to revolt against the revolution
  • Jean-Pual Marat Killed

    France
    Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated by Charlotte Corday
    Marat would be seen as a holy figure for revolutionists
  • Universal Mobilization of the Nation

    France
    Declared all males of France were to serve in the military
    took place during the Terror
  • Marie Antoinette on Trial

    France
    Queen of France Marie Antoinette is put on trial
    She is found guilty and sent to death
  • Death of Marie Antoinette

    France
    Marie Antoinette is executed by the people of France
    the Terror begins by Robespierre killing many others
  • British Mission to China

    couldn't find exact date
    China
    British embassy was sent to China to convince the emporer to ease restrictions for trade between Britain and China
    Mission fails horribly for both sides had conflicting views of customs
  • Robespierre arrested

    France
    Robespierre and his supporters arrested
    Ends the Great Terror
  • Execution of Robespierre

    France
    Robespierre is executed by the people
    leaves France leaderless and ends Great Terror
  • "The Progress of the Human Mind"

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    written by Condorcet; one of the most influential ideas of progress made in the Enlightenment
    made everyone believe that knowledge would bring individual freedom
  • Third Partition

    Poland
    ended the rebellion of Polish reformers
    marked the end of Poland
  • Louis Charles Dies

    France
    Prince Louis Charles from harsh treatment of the people
    leaves no heir to the French throne
  • Costitution of 1795 Adopted

    France
    constitution of France that was passed by the National Assembly
    Officially ended the French Revolution
  • Napoleon Becomes Leader of France

    France
    Napoleon takes over France
    Begins the Napoleon Wars
  • Napoleon Takes over the French Army

    Italy
    Napoleon begins to lead the French Army
    Invades Italy soon after he gains control
  • France Ends War with Austria

    France
    France and Austria sign a treaty to end war
  • French Revolution ends

    France
    New constitution formed and ends the revolution
    Did not have a declaration of rights
  • Condordat with the Catholic Church

    France
    Agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII
    stated that the Roman Catholic Church was the ruling religion of France
  • Peace of Amiens

    Amiens
    treaty that ended tensions between France and England during French Revolutionary Wars
    tensions would rise and war would break out a year later
  • Battle of Ulm

    Ulm
    skirmishes between austria and France
    France, under the rule of Napoleon, would defeat Austria with few losses to their side
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Trafalfar
    Naval battle between France and England
    French naval forces are defeated by England
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Austerlitz
    Battle between the French and the Third Coalition
    French completely defeat the Third Coalition
  • Battle of Eylau

    Eylau
    Battle between Napolean I and hiis army and Prussia
    First serious setback on the battle field for Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Battle of Jena

    Jena
    one of two battles being fought at the same time between France and Prussia
    Fance would win and defeat Prussian army
  • Battle of Aurstadt

    Aurstadt
    second battle between France and Prussia that was fought during the same time as the Battle of Jenna
    Greater victory than that of Jena as there were more Prussian troops in Aurstadt that France defeated
  • Continental System Established

    couldn't find exact date
    France
    Napoleon I of France's Foreign policy against the British
    Later would bring on a blockade of England by the French
  • Battle of Friedland

    Friedland
    Battle between French army led by Napoleon and the Russian army
    France Defeats Russian army
  • Invasion of Russia

    Russia
    Napoleon's French army attempts to invade Russia
    Attempt failed completely
  • War of Liberation

    couldn't find exact date
    Germany
    campaign in Germany on how to go against Napoleon and his forces; didn't end until 1814
    helped in ending the sixth coalition
  • Exile to Elba

    Elba
    Napoleon is exiled to Elba
    would come back to Paris and regain supporters
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Waterloo
    final battle of the Napoleon wars
    ended the reign of napoleon and France's power of all of europe
  • Exile to Saint Helena

    couldn't find exact date
    Saint Helena
    Napoleon is exiled again, to the Island of Saint Helena
    dies there and Napoleon's reign ends completely
  • Catholic Relief Act

    couldn't find exact date
    England
    act that repealed the Test Act; allowed members of the Catholic church get involved with Parlaiment