American History 1 Midterm

By jdrapes
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus lands in the Bahamas

    TURNING POINT: makes Europe dominant continent for next 500 years Columbian Exchange: Potatoes, Corn, Tobacco brought to Europe, coffee, sugar, horses, cows, pigs, small pox brought to Americas
  • Jan 22, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Split South America for Spain and Portugal; brokered by the Pope
  • Jan 22, 1513

    Balboa discovers Pacific Ocean

  • Jan 22, 1513

    Ponce de Leon explores Florida

  • Jan 22, 1519

    Magella circumnavigates world

  • Jan 22, 1519

    Cortez arrives in Tenochtitlan

    -Brings weapons, swords, cannon, armor, horses, dogs, Indian allies, diseas
    -Aztecs think he's Montezuma, the mythical God who was banished - to return
    - Driven from the city by the Aztecs
  • Jan 22, 1521

    Cortez conquers Tenochtitlan

    Returns with 1,000+ indian allies
  • Jan 22, 1532

    Pizarro conquers Incas

  • Jan 22, 1539

    De Soto explores Mississippi River

    1539 - 1542
  • Jan 22, 1540

    Cornado explores Southwest and Central US

    1540 - 1542
  • Roanoke founded by Sir Walter Raleigh

    -Founded in Virginia, which was named such for Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen"
    -Challenges Spain/Spanish new land - Spanish armada attacks 1588
  • Delaware separates from Pennsylvania

  • VIrginia Company recieves charter and founds Jamestown

    -Virginia Company is a "joint stock" company (multiple investors)
    -recieves charter from King James
    -looking for gold
    -colonists retain all rights of Englishmen
    -Jamestown is in a bad location - disease
    -poor relations with Native Americans (Powhaton Confederacy)
    -on again, off again war
    -Native America weaknesses: disease, disorganization, disposability
  • Starving Time

  • Henry Hudson lands in NY

    -financed by Dutch East India Co.
  • First black slaves brought to Virginia

  • House of Burgesses meets

    first form of representative government
  • Virginia charter revoked - becomes royal colony

  • Separatists recieve charter from Virginia Company, sail Mayflower

    -James I wants to get rid of separatists
    -Separatists go to Netherlands, but don't like losing their culture
    -sail off course on way to New World
    -squatters
    -Mayflower Compact (agreement)
  • celebrate first thanksgiving

  • New Netherlands established with New Amsterdam

    -Peter Stuuyvesant is governor of New Amsterdam
  • Puritans escape turmoil of England, fould Massachusetts Bay Colony

    -well financed - 11 ships, 1,000 settlers
    -wealthier, better educated than pilgrims
    -free members of Puritan church can vote for representatives
    -limited democracy - liberal for the times
  • Lord Baltimore founds Maryland

    -haven for Catholics
    -Indentured servants (white)
  • Pequot War

  • Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony

    -goes to Rhode Island, then New York
  • English Civil War

    Colonization is ignored, but renewed with more intensity after the Restoration
  • Phode Island recieves charter from Parliament

    • Roger Williams - believed Indians should be paid for land, civil government cannot regulate religious behavior -separation of Church and states -most religiously tolerant colony -against all priviledge -all male suffrage -freedom of opportunity -colony of dissenters - individualistic, independent
  • Maryland Toleration Act

    All Christians allowed in Maryland
  • English Restoration - Charles II takes control of colonies

    -charters to Connecticut and Rhode Island are against Massechusetts Bay Colony
    -King appoints Sir Edward Andros
    -Andros restricts press, courts, and town meetings
    -Navigation Acts - England as middle man
    -New England overthrows Andros
    -New England monarchs relax colonial enforcement
    -Navigation Acts get "salutary neglect"
  • Connecticut recieves charter from Kind

    -Thomas Hooker
    -Fundemental Orders of Connecticut - first written constitution
  • Charter for Carolina

    -8 Proprietors
    - close relationship with west Indies
    - Capture Indians and sell as slaves to West Indies
    - Rice - needs black slaves (immune to malaria)
    -Charlestown - aristocrats
    -Constant trouble with Spanish Florida
  • England sends warships to New Netherlands

    -takes colony without warfare
    -becomes New York and New York City
  • Kind Philip's War

    -1675 - 1676
    -alliance of Indian tribes
    -frontier settlement destroyed
    -eventually defeated - end of real NA resistance in New England
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    -Started by impoverished freemen (former indentured servants with little opportunity)
    -Nathaniel Bacon attacks Jamestown
    -Gentry vs. Backcountry frontiersmen
  • New Hampshire sparates from Massachusetts

    -charter from king
    -fishing and trade
  • William Penn founds Pennsylvania

    -advertising - diversity
    -good relations with Native Americans
    -Liberal: freedom to worship (Catholics and Jews could not vote), representative assembly, treason and murder only capital offenses, no limits on immagration, no tax supporting state church
  • Massechusetts is a royal colony

  • North Carolina separates from South Carolina

    -poorer Virginians
    -squatters
    -different from aristocrats in VA or SC
    -more democratic colony
  • Oglethorpe recieves charter to found Georgia

    -buffer zone between Spanish Florida and French Louisiana and English colonies
    -Kind George III
    -George Oglethorpe - founds Georgia as a haven for debtors
    -slow growing
    -Savannah, GA (mix of people, but no Catholics)
  • Washington kills French diplomat in Ohio Valley

  • Albany Congress meets

  • Period: to

    French and Indian War

  • General Braddock is ambushed by Indians in the Ohio Valley

  • British COmmander James Wolfe takes Quebec

  • Montreal falls

  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    -Great Britain gets all French land east of Mississippi and Canada, and Florida from Spain
    -Spain gets all land west of Mississippi, including New Orleans
    -France keeps Islands in West Indies and 2 fishing posts in Canada
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    -kill 2,000 soldiers and settlers
    -biological warfare
  • Proclamation Act of 1763

    No settlers allowed in Ohio Valley
  • PM Greenville enforces Navigation Acts

    England is in debt
  • Quartering Act

  • Sugar Act

    -indirect tax
    -lowered after protests
  • Stamp Act

    -direct tax English position on taxation: colonists are English citizens, people in England pay higher taxes, colonists should pay for war Colonial position on taxation: principle of taxation, liberty threatened - tried in English courts, no need for soldiers
  • stamp act repealed

  • Declatory Act

    Parliament can still tax colonies
  • Bostom Massacre

    -reaction to the Townshend acts (some protests, soldiers sent to Boston)
    -5 dead colonists
    - propaganda
    -trial of British soldiers - John Adams as lawyer
    -Townshend acts repealed by PM North
  • Tea Act

    -Parliament gives British East Inida Company monopoly of the tea trade
    -Lower price of tea, even without the tax
  • Boston Tea Party

  • Intolerable Acts

    -Boston Harbor closed until tea is paid for
    -close town meetings in Mass
    -New Quartering Act
    -British troops tried in England
  • Quebec Act

    -Gave French Canadians right to maintain their culture and religiou and some land in Ohio Valley
    -Colonists angry because: they're anti-Catholic, Canada has no democracy/representative government, there's a land issue
  • First Continental Congress

    -Reaction to Intolerable Acts
    -Philadelphia
    -"the Association" - no import/export/consumption of British goods
    -no independence
  • Lexington and Concord

    -British troops leave Britain for Concord to arrest Hancock and Sam Adams, and to confiscate weapons
    -several colonists dead
  • Second Continental Congress

    -Continental Army
    -Propose George Washington as leader, because: wealthy Virginian, military experience, leadership abilities
  • Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga

    -point cannons towards Boston
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

  • Olive Branch Petition rejected by King

  • Invasion of Canada

    -failed
    -B. Arnold wounded
  • Light fake fires to get around British

    -major morale boost
    -British strategy (war of posts) proven to be a failure
  • British evacuate Boston; sail to Nova Scotia

  • Declaration of INdependence signed

    -theory of government
    -all men created equal
    -all men endowed with certain unalienable rights
    -life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
    -goverments created to protect these rights - comes from the consent of the governed
    -when government fails to protect these rights, people have the right to abolish it
  • General Howe invades NYC with 30,000 soldiers

    -invasion is successful, but Gen William Howe could have captured and destroyed Washington's army; did not
    -Howe doesn't followe Washington: winter, bleieves Washington is beat, luxury of NYC
    -Washington - all seems lost, morale is low
  • Period: to

    Revolutionary War

  • Crossing of the Delaware

    -Trenton, NJ
    -total victory
  • New British Plan

    -Goal - split off New England from rest of colonies (divide and conquer 0 object is Albany NY
    -Three pronged attack: Johnny Burgoyne from North, Barry St. Leger from West, Howe from South
  • British Col. Barry St. Leger defeated at Oriskany NY

  • Howe catures Philadelphia, defeats Washington at Brandywin and Germantown

    -Howe winters in Philly, Washington winters at Valley Forge
  • Battle of Saratoga

    -Burgoyne had been being harassed by Benedict Arnold
    -Forced to surrender entire army to General Horatio Gates
  • Treaty of Alliance

    -American treaty with France, Spain and Holland join later
    -France provides weapons, soldiers, money, NAVY
    -international war
  • British evacuate Philadellphia to NYC

    -fear of French fleet
  • Battle of Monmouth

    -draw
  • Benedict Arnold gives West Point plans to British

  • New British Strategy

    -shift war to South
    -Loyalists
  • British success at Savannah and Charleston

  • American Victories at Kings Mountain and Cowpens

    Kings Mountain: Nathaniel Greene, Oct 1780
    Cowpens: Daniel Morgan, Jan 1781
  • Period: to

    Articles of Confederation

    -no executive govt, judicial stuff left to states
    -legislature: one house congress, each state has 1 vote, needs 9 states to pass legislature, unanimous to amend articles
    -weak on puropse- fearful of tyranny
    -state is sovereign
  • Yorktown

    -peninsula
    -Cornwalllis (British) goes to resupply
    -Washington and Richenbeau rush to meet him
    -Adm. de Grasse seals off Sea Route
    -Last major North American battle
    -After Yourktown, George III wants to keep fighting
    -Whigs take Parliament and force a peace
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

    -Franklin, Adams, John Jay are diplomats in Paris
    -Intructed by Congress to do no separate peace treaty outside of those organized by France
    -French, Spanish, American interests are in conflict
    -England offers generous terms - make separate peace with England
    -Florida returned to Spain
    -US agrees to pay Loyalists for property and to pay all debts owed to England
    -British agree to remove troops from Ohio Valley
  • Treaty of Fort Stanwix

    -first treaty with Americans and Native Americans
    -George Roger Clark captures British forts in Ohio Valley
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    -sell land to pay off national debt
  • Shay's Rebellion

    -federal government can do nothing
    -defeated by Massachusetts military
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    organize territories - subordinate to federal govt
  • Constitutional Convention

    -scrap articles
    -new constitution
  • Period: to

    Washington's Presidency

    Cabinet: Jefferson secretary of state, Hamilton secretary of treasury, Knox secretary of War
  • Compromise of 1790

    -Hamilton gets assumption
    -Madison and the South get the capital
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    -Western PA farmers
    -tax similar to ENgland taxing colonies
    -Jefferson sympathetic
    -Washingtom/Hamilton organize army to crush rebellion
    -Compare to Shay's rebellion - Federal govt much more able
  • Proclamation of Neutrality

    -Inherent Powers
    -In regard to whether or not to support France in its war against England
  • Jay's Treaty

    -Issues: impressment, giving arms to NA, British tariff on US goods
    -US concedes on most points in England agrees to leave NW and to pay for confiscated cargo
    -keeps US out of war
    -betting on ENgland over France as future power
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    Spain concedes use of New Orleans and 31st parallel line as northern boundary of Florida
  • Adams elected president

  • XYZ affair

    -French demand bribe
    -Hamiltonians want war
    -Jeffersonians don't want war
    -Adams wants to avoid war
    "millions for defense, not one cent for tribute"
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    -Federalist attempt to silence criticism
    -changes from 5 to 14 year requirement for citizenship
    -false, scandelous, or malicious statements against govt are prohibited
    -infringes on 1st amendment
    -more about states rights than sedition
  • Adams sends secret peace mission to France

    -To resolve issues over the Treaty of Alliance 1778
    -Napoleon in power - wants peace
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

    -assume nullification - if federal govt passes unconstitutional legislation, state can nullify
    -setting framework for sucession
  • Convention of 1800

    annuls Treaty of Alliance