American Foreign Policy of 1945 to Present

  • Yalta Conference

    The Yalta Conference was a confrence held by President Frankin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin. The purpose of the meeting was to estabish a plan for how to reconstruct Europe and how to deal with Germany after the war was over. They agreed on most subjects, but the subjects they didnt agree on were very crutial to the start of the Cold War. The subjects they didnt agree on were what kind of government Poland should have, and how to deal with Germany.
  • World War 2 ended

    This date is when World War 2 ended. The Soviet Union invaded Berlin and the Allied forces won the war. There was about to be a big debate on how to share the power which would cause the Cold War
  • Postdam Conference

    The Potsdam Conference was held by Harry Truman, Winston Churchill (Then Clement Attlee after he won the election) and Joseph Stalin. The conference was held to figure out how to make postwar peace and set up treaties. THe Potsdam Agreement and the Potsdam Decleration were signed here, which were the Surrender of Japan and how to deal with the USSR annexing Poland
  • Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima

    This is the day that America dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. This caused the end of the war in the pacific front of World War 2.
  • George Kennans Long Telegram

    George Kennan, who was the deputy chief of mission to the USSR, wrote a telegram known as the Long Telegram. In the telegram, it explained the idea of Cointainment which was that the USSR would fall apart if its not allowed to spread Communism. This became the idea of Proxy wars by preventing Communism to spread.
  • Morgenthau Plan Speech

    James F. Byrnes gave a speech about the plan to deindustialize Germany and told the Soviets that America was going to have a presence in Europe. Little did he know that the Soviets considered that a threat and tensions highly increased between the 2 countires.
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    The Cold War

    The Cold war was a war between America and USSR. The reason it was "cold" was because there was no fighting between the 2 superpowers, but instead there were alot of Porxy wars. The Americans used their idea of Cointainment to try to defeat the Soviets and they eventully did when the USSR Fell in late 1991. All of Americas foreign policy at the time had to do with preventing communism and making sure it didnt spread and that democracy was the main government system.
  • Truman Doctrine

    The Truman Doctrine was a speech given by president Harry Truman. The speech was a proposal for congress to give him 400$ million dollars to help stop communism from spreading into Greece and Turkey. The Soviets were trying to take over the Dardanelles and Britian couldnt afford to help Greece against Greeces communist rebels anymore in the Greek Civil War. Since we gave Turkey and Greece help, they ended up joining NATO in 1952.
  • America helped Japan rebuild

    After Japan surrendered from the war in 1945, Japan was in ruins because of the atomic bomb. America thought one of the keys for keeping communism out of Aisa is to keep it out of Japan, so we started a new age of friendship with them.
  • West Germany Unified

    As part of the Marshall Plan, Britian, France and America unifed there 3 parts of West Germany to unify it. The Soviets kept there part of East Germany and it didnt get unified until the Cold War was over.
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    Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan was a plan to help Europe rebuild after World War 2. Countries in west Europe accepted this plan but countires in the Eastern Bloc rejected it. This helped support Winston Churchills idea of a "Iron Curtain" in Europe. This also helped spread Democracy in European countries.
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    Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift

    The Soviets tried to blockade West Berlin from food, clothes, and supplies from the democracy countries. This led to the Berlin Airlift. The Berlin Airlift was a way for America, Britian, France, Canada, and other countries where theyd fly over Berlin and parachute down supplies for them instead of trying to get throught the blockade
  • America Funds Chinese Nationalist Government

    There has been a Chinese Civil War against a nationalist government and communist rebels led by Mao Zedong. We funded the government but they still ended up losing to the communist rebels and fled to Taiwan.
  • NATO founded

    NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was a defense alliance to make sure that if a country gets attacked, the other ones have to help defend it. The countries signed in 1949 included America, Britian, France, Canada, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Luxemborg, and Iceland.
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    Korean War

    Kim II-Sungs communist North Korea invaded South Korea. Stalin helped plan the invasion for North Korea. To Stop the spread of communism, America and other NATO countries team up to try to stop it, while communist China helps North Korea. Fighting happened until the signing of the Armistice Agreement, ending the war in a salesmate, While Kim II-Sung made a Totalitarian Dictatorship in North Korea and South Korea made a Corrupt American Backed Government.
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    First Indonesian War

    America supported the nationalist government during the First Indonesian War. The war was fought by a nationalist government vs. communist rebels. America helped arm the rebels until a american pilot was shot down.
  • Greece and Turkey join NATO

    Greece and Turkey Joined NATO because American and Britian helped stop Communism in there countries.
  • US Army Special Forces Founded

    The US Army Special Forces or "Green Berets" was founded during Eisenhowers presidency in 1952. Theyre still active today.
  • TPAJAX Project

    The CIA tried to overthrow the Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddegh because of nationalizing British owned oil companies in Iran. The Operation worked and the CIA appointed Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi to be Monarch of the country until 1979
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    Aid to South Vietnam

    Eisenhower supplied South Vietnam so it would fight communist North Vietnam so it would try to create a giant non-communist country. Eisenhowers "Domino Theory" was that if Vietnam falls to communism, then southest asia will too.
  • Guatemalan coup d'etat

    The Guatemalan coup d'etat was a plan created by the CIA to force president Jacobo Arbenz out of power and put in a military regime. The operation worked and after june 27th Guatemala was controlled by military.
  • West Germany join NATO

    West Germany was allowed to join NATO
  • America forces Britian, France, and Israel to withdraw from Suez Crisis

    The Suez Crisis was a Crisis over the Suez canal between Egypt vs. France, Britian, and Israel. America didnt play a big part in it until America forced Israel, France, and Britian to withdraw.
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    Space Race

    The Space Race was a "race" between the USSR and America to see who can get to the moon faster. The race was started when the satellite Sputnik 1 was launched into space by the USSR and it ended when Neil Armstrong was the first american to walk on the moon.
  • Berlin Ultimatum

    Nikita Khrushchev gave a ultimatum to Britan France and America to withdraw its troops from west Berlin to make it a "free state" but they refused the offer
  • Republic of the Congo coup d'etat

    Americas CIA also performed a coup d'etat on the Republic of the Congo. It was successful and they ended up removing the president from power to put in a military regime.
  • Peace Corp Founded

    John F Kennedy also founded the Peace Corp. The Peace Corp was so Americans could volunteer and theyd go to other countries and help build stuff and help the country. The Peace Corp is still running today.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a invasion set up by John F Kennedy to secretly try to remove Fidel Castro of Cuba from power. The Army secretly trained cuban exiles so that they could sneak into Cuba and try to removed Fidel Castro from power. It ended in a horrible failiure.
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    Berlin Crisis

    The Berlin Crisis was the last major european event of the Cold War. The USSR set up road blocks seperating East Belrin and West Berlin. This crisis started the first stages of the Berlin Wall.
  • Alliance for Progress

    Alliance for Progress was set up by John F Kennedy to make alliances with Latin American countries and to fund them. One of the reasons this was set up was to set up a good relationship with Latin America, or to prevent communism in Latin America. JFK was really the only president to really support the idea and it only lasted until 1973.
  • Cuban Project

    The Cuban Project were multiple ideas and stragties approved by JFK and performed by the CIA to try to remove Fidel Castro from power and try to prevent Communism in Cuba. These plans lasted until the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis started when the USSR put nukes on Cuba. They threatened America and in order to get the missiles off Cuba, we had to remove the nukes we had in Turkey and not to interfere with cuban affairs again. It was the closest point to nuclear war on the whole timeline.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is in responce to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. Since Veitcong blew up one of our attack boats, president Lyndon Johnson swore to use military force in southeast asia without declaring war.
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    Vietnam War

    The Vietnam war started for the Americans very late because we had no need to start it. There were alot of stages including Operation Rolling Thunder (The bombing of North Vietnam) The Tet Offensive in 1968 (The Noth attempting to attack all South Vietnam Citys/Bases) and the Chrismas Bombings (Bombing North Vietnam again and Cambonia). The war "ended" and as soon as we pulled out all of our troops North Vietnam went behind our backs and took control of the south.
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    Operation Power Pack

    Operation Power Pack was a operation by America to intervene in the Dominican Civil War. America sided with the nationalist government. The operation was officially declared over until the last american troops were home in 1966.
  • 2 Arms Control Treaties

    The SALT 1 treaty led to the Anti Ballistics Missile Treaty. Both treaties were arm control treaties and they were important because it showed the easing of the cold war. Richard Nixon then gave his new policy, detente, which meant the easing of a bad relationship.
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    Arming Kurds

    America armed the Kurdish rebels during the Second Kurdish-Iraqi War. After 30 years of the Cold War we are still trying to prevent communism and Cointainment policy is still around.
  • Chiles coup d'etat

    Chiles coup d'etat was a event that the chilean military, supported by the United States, overthrew Chiles marxist dictator and after it was over the military was in charge of Chile. This shows that America is still trying to get rid of communism even though tensions are easing.
  • Yom Kippur War

    Americans Supplied Israel during the war because the USSR was going to intervene with it. We supported the Israelites during it and the USSR supported the Arabs. This showed that we still had a high distrust for USSR still.
  • Camp David Accords

    The Camp David Accords were a american set up negotiation that eventually led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty to stop the Egyptian and Israelian war. President Jimmy Carter helped set it up and he was the witness to the signings. These Accords gave us good relations with Israel and Egypt and the Soviets felt threatened over it, which shows that we scared the Soviets.
  • SALT II Withdrawed

    SALT II was withdrawed by Jimmy Carter and the senate due to the USSR invading Afghanistan. This shows that Richard Nixons policy of detente is being lost and high Cold War tensions have been appering again. This also started the "Second Cold War", which marked the end of Detente and high tensions between America and the Soviet Union started up again.
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    Soviet War in Afghanistan

    America Intervered in this war by arming Afghani rebels to stop communism in Afghanistan. The Afghani Rebels (or the Majahideen) were fighting against the USSR and there government. This marked the official end of Detente and the war ended with Soviet withdrawel in 1989.
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    Iranian Hostage Crisis

    The Iranian Hostage Crisis was a major incident between Iran & America. For a year span, Iranian terrorists held 52 US citizens and diplomates hostage in there country. They used Blackmail but America wouldnt give in. With the Shah dieing, and Iran invaded Iraq, the US and Iran went into negotiations with Algeria as the middle man. They signed The Algiers Accords released the hostages. This event weakened Irans and Americas relationship.
  • Boycotted Olympics

    The USA and 65 other countries boycotted the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics in responce to the Soviet War in Afghanistan. This showed that we didnt approve of the war.
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    Iran-Iraq War

    The war started because of a long border disbute between Iran and Iraq. America interfered in early 1983 because the war would make the rate of oil prices increase a lot and it would cause a bigger war. Even though the Iraqis attacked a American boat, it had little effect on the American, Iraqi relationship and America sided with Iraq. Iraq ended up using chemical weapons against Iran and highly increased how much Iran hated America because America sided with Iraq and let them use chemicals.
  • Economic Sanctions on Poland

    Ronald Reagan put economic sanctions on Poland because the Polish leader put martial law on Pland. He did this because a communist attempted to assassinate Pope John Paul II due to his anti-communist beliefs. Economic Sanctions on Poland prevented the USSR from making allies with them because the USSR considered it a horrible idea. This shows that even one person with a communist idea in a country and America has to act on it.
  • Increasing Arms

    at this time, The Soviet Union and America increased there arms. Reagan did so by reviving the B-1 lancer program, made LGM-118 Peacekeepers, Installed US Cruise Missiles in Europe, and started a new program called Strategic Defensive Initiative, which was proposed to shoot missiles during flight. This lead to the Soviets targetting West Europe with his missiles, so we targetted back. This showed Europes and Americas hatred for communism
  • US Affairs in 1983

    During the Reagan Administration in 1983, they intervered with a lot of foreign crisises. They intervered in the Lebanese Civil War, helping to fight the Hezbollah, They Invaded Grenada, Bombed Libya, and Most Famously, they helped the Contras, which were rebels in Nicaragua.
  • Able Archer 83

    Able Archer 83 was America with NATO organizing and practicing a realistic nuclear launch. This was caused by the Soviet Union shooting down a airplane with Congressman Larry McDonald on it. The purpose of this was to scare the Soviet Union since they though a Nuclear war was about to happen.
  • Reagan Doctrine

    Reagans speech porposed the policy of the Cold War for the whole 1980s decade. The policy was to arm Anti Communist Guerrillas and to "roll back" communism in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to try and decrease its influence.
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    Iran-Contra Affair

    The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal about American arm sales. The Reagen Administration secrelty sold weapons to Iran and they thought that it would secure some hostages for them and help them fund the Nicaraguan Contra rebels. This scandal was uncovered in November of 1986. The Hostages were being held by a Islamic Shia terrorist group the Hezbollah. America still ended up helping the Contra and the Hezbollah ended up realising the hostages.
  • Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

    This Treaty was was to ease reations between the USSR and America. This treaty ended the nuclear part of this war. This showed a decline in a high tension war, Increasing the rate of Detente, and suggest that the war will end soon. This treaty was signed because the USSRs economy was hurting really badly at the time and couldnt afford a high tense war anymore.
  • Operation Just Cause

    Operation Just Cause, or the American Invasion of Panama, was a operation to depose a Panaminiam dictator from power and put a Panamanian president into power. The operation was a success. This shows that America still doesnt like communism even though the Cold War was over. The operation ended in January of the next year.
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    Operation Desert Storm

    Operation Desert Storm was led by the Americans and had a lot of other countries all against Iraq all in responce to Iraqs invasion of Kuwait. America was acting like a "global police force" by trying to get Iraq to leave Kuwait. Iraq was also led by Saddam Hussein in the invasion.
  • START 1

    The Soviet Unions economy became very bad and couldnt afford to keep up with a war. After signing this arms control treaty, The USSR declared that they would not intervene with European Affairs. This is really Important because it shows the Cold Wars Policies ending, Even though the Cold War already ended.
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    UNOSOM 1/UNOSOM 2 (Operation Restore Hope)

    UNOSOM 1 was America going into Somolia to provide help and aid against Somolian terrorists in the Somali Civil War. They infered because of the brokered cease-fire. In popular culture, BlackHawk Down is based of true events during UNOSOM 1. After UNOSOM 1, Operation Restore Hope or UNOSOM 2, which is to fix UNOSOM 1s failiure into giving aid to the people effected by the Somali Civil War.

    North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA was signed by Bill Clinton. It created a trade agreement between Mexico and Canada.
  • Operation Deliberate Force

    Operation Deliberate Force was a NATO organized operation based on the Bosnian War. NATO bombed Bosnia. This shows the strong alliance that America still has with all the NATO countries. This lasted until December 30th.
  • Dayton Agreement

    The Dayton Agreement was set up by the Americans in Dayton Ohio to end the Bosnian War. This shows a strong presence of foreign affairs in America.
  • 1998 American Embassy Bombings

    The 1998 American Embassy Bombings were Bombings of American Embassies in East Africa. These bombings were commited by Al-Qaeda and they were a responce to America trying to kill Osama Bin-Laden, their leader.
  • Iraq Liberation Act of 1998

    The Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 was a document signed by Bill Clinton. The document stated that America would support democratic movements in Iraq. During this time we are still a big democratic country and were trying to spread it around the world.
  • Operation Desert Fox

    Operation Desert Fox was a operation by America and the United Kingdom against Iraq. The operation consisted of the bombing of Iraq. This Operation became one of the main causes of the invasion in Iraq. The operation lasted for 3 days.
  • September 11 Attacks

    Osama Bin-Laden organized a Al-Qaeda suicide bombing where they hijacked planes from Boston Airport. One plane hit the pentagon, one plane ended up crashing outside of Philedelphia, and most famously, one landed into the twin towers, and made then crash in New York City. These were the biggest terrorist attacks in American history. This was a big cause to the war on terror in America.
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    War In Afghanistan

    The war in Afghanistan is a ongoing war caused by the Spetember 11 Attacks. The purpose of the war is to dismantle Al-Qaeda and remove the Taliban Terrorist Group from power in Afghanistan. This was is still going on but we made very good progress with it. We thought the Taliban Disappered in 2003, but during Operation Red Wing in 2005, we noticed that the Taliban returned. This is important because this war was one of the lost lasting effects of the ColdWar because we supported bad governments.
  • Bush Doctrine

    The Doctrine was George W. Bushes policys on terrorism and justifying war in other countries during this time period. The policy was to stop terrorist groups now like the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, before other major wars happen because of these terrorist groups terrorising the world. This is how we justified going into Iraq and starting the war in Afghanistan and this was one of our policys during the decade.
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    Iraqi War

    Iraq was invaded by America to depose Saddan Hussein. We also Invaded see if there were any weapons of mass destruction in the country. Another reason was to free the Iraqi people of there terrorist leader Saddam. The war started with the invasion of Iraq and ended with America trying to keep order in Iraq while they stabalized the new country. This shows that the new policy cares about the countries well being instead of just leaving it unorganized.
  • US India Civil Nuclear Agreement

    The Agreement was for India to place all of its Nukes under a safegaurd company and the United States worked to get a full nuclear agreement with India. This means that India and America wont have nuclear conflicts with each other, even though i dont think they were going to at anytime in history.
  • A New Beginning Speech

    A New Beginning was the name of Barrack Obamas speech regarding Foreign Policys in America. The speech was bacicly about how to deal with the Muslium world. Barrack Obama picked Egypt to do the speech in because Egypt is the "heart of the Muslium world" and Egypt was big in Arab and Middle Eastern affairs.
  • New START

    To replace the START 1 treaty, The New START was signed between America and Russia. This treaty was to replace the START 1 treaty that expired. This showed that America and Russia are still trying to keep up peace.
  • Osama Bin-Ladens Death

    Osama Bin-Laden died by US Navy seal team in his Pakistan home. America finally killed him after more than a decade of trying to. This stunned Al-Qaeda but they still hate America. This is important because killing terrorist leaders make the terrorist groups weaker and prevents wars.