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A Period of Transition

By frandog
  • Yalta Conference (Cold War)

    JFK, Stalin, and Churchill meet after WWII and decide to divide Germany between the U.S., Russia, and England. Russia claims to have joined the United Nations. This is important because the Yalta Conference is where the U.S. and the U.S.S.R, have their first tension on how to deal with Germany and the first tension against Communism starts.
  • Cold War Begins (Cold War)

    The Soviet Union declares their communist government and tension begins between America and the U.S.S.R. on a war against communism. This is important because it strikes the start of the longest war fought by the United States.
  • French-Indochina War Breaks Out

    French-Indochina War Breaks Out
    The French had overwhelming advantage in weaponry, making it easier for them to seize any area it wanted. However, the Vietminh had the advantage of homeground, making it easier for them to recruit soldiers, meaning they had the upper hand in manpower.
  • Truman Doctrine is Declared (Cold War)

    Truman defends Greece in their fight against Communism. This is pivotal because it strikes the United States defense against any country without the power to hold back the communist forces. It gives financial and military aid to Greece and any of those countries who wish to remain free from Communism.
  • Elysee Agreement Signed

    Elysee Agreement Signed
    Offered by the French, this agreement gave Bao Dai his power back and granted limited independence to Vietnam through the French Union. In return, France would have control over Vietnam.
  • NATO Created (Cold War)

    A treaty stating that if a democratic country was attacked, the others would get involved and help each other out, This is important because it puts a halt to the spread of Cmmunisn to weaker nations, with the backup of major powers communism has nowhere to spread.
  • Soviets Detonate Atomic Bomb (Cold War)

    The Soviets deetonate the atomic bomb, forcing America to panic and start their creation of their own atomic bombs. At this time the Soviets now had more military power over America. This is important because it represents a shift in power and ultimately changes Americas foreign policy to the use of the atomic bomb and less trust towards outside nations with the fear of atomic bomb use.
  • Korean War Begins (Cold War)

    The Communist North Korea invades Democratic South Korea with Soviet financial and weapon aid. America is now forced to jump in to help South Korea and teansion thickens between the two. This is important because it starts the first real physical war between the two power nations, although it isn't direct.
  • Eisenhower Elected President

    Eisenhower Elected President
    Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected 34th president of the United States. During his term he will increase U.S. military aid to the French to avoid Communist victory
  • Korean War Ends (Cold War)

    Korean War ends right where it started, the 38th parallel. This is important because it shifts the Soviets view to the Middle East and Carribean. The fighting has only begun at this point but it shows that both countries are willing to fight fot their beliefs, and that spreading these beliefs is going to be much harder than expected.
  • The Siege At Dien Bien Phu

    The Siege At Dien Bien Phu
    The Siege at Dien Bien Phu occurs as nearly 10,000 French troops are trapped by about 45,000 Vietminh. The French soon run out of water and medical supplies. They appeal to Washington for help, but Eisenhower does not have a proper way to help them, so no action is taken.
  • Geneva Conference Begins

    Geneva Conference Begins
    Delegates from eight countries (the U.S., Britain, China, the Soviet Union, France, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) come together in Geneva to start negotiations that will lead to the end of hostilities in Indochina and the idea of splitting Vietnam is first explored at this forum.
  • Brown vs. Board of Ed (Civil Rights)

    The Brown vs. Board of Education court case was decided. This decided that segregation in public schools would be stopped and overturned the ruling in Plessey vs. Ferguson which said that the two races would be "separate but equal".
  • Vietnam Officially Divided

    Vietnam Officially Divided
    The Geneva Conference divides Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel with Ho Chi Minh's Communists in the North and Bao Dai's regime down in the South.
  • MLK moves to Mongomery (Civil Rights)_

    Martin Luther King Jr. moves to Montgomery Alabama to preach and help join the civil rights movement. This was important to the whole outcome of the civil rights movement because it put him in the center of the movement where he could make the biggest difference.
  • Warsaw Pact Created (Cold War)

    The Warsaw Pact was the Soviets retaliation to the creation of NATO. This pact stated that if a communist country was attacked, the rest would join. This is important because it puts the najor powers at a standstill on the war.
  • Geneva Conference (Cold War)

    America proposes open skies with the Soviets where planes are allowed to fly over one anothers' countries with no threat of being shot down. This is important because America has the technology to spy on the Soviets while the Soviets don't. It shows America's superiority in the sky and gives America the advantage,
  • The Republic of South Vietnam

    The Republic of South Vietnam
    The Republic of South Vietnam is proclaimed with Ngo Dinh Diem as its first president. In the United States, President Eisenhower pledges his support for the new government and offers military aid.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (Civil Rights)

    The famous Montgomery Bus Boycott is launched in Montgomery, Alabama. This movement was sparked by the arrest of Rosa Parks, who was incarcerated for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white man. This movement where all minorities boycotted the buses led to major losses in profits for the bus company and three days later the bus company changed their policy to integrate the buses.
  • MLK arrested (Civil Rights)

    Martin Luther King is arrested in Montgomery for driving 30mph in a 25mph. this was significant because if a white man was pulled over for doing 30 in a 25, (which is rare) he would've gotten off with a ticket. This event showed the racism and prejudice in the south.
  • MLK's house bombing (civil Rights)_

    Martin Luther King's house is bombed. When coming home to see the destruction King saw a mob of angry black people armed with weapons, but instead of being angry King warned them to put their weapons away and not react with violence in his famous quote "Those who live by the sword perish by the sword".
  • The French Leave Vietnam Altogether

    The French Leave Vietnam Altogether
    The last French soldier exits Vietnam after France receives its final loss to the Vietminh.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine is Created (Cold War)

    Eisenhower passes a doctrine stating he has the power to send in military troops to the Middle East to prevent the spread of Communism. This is pivotal because the power has finally fell upon the President to make such a decision. Also, the Soviets realize the trouble they are going to have to go through to get their goal of Communism spread.
  • Garfield High School (Civil Rights)

    Garfield High School in Seattle becomes the first school in Washington with less then 50% non white student body. This was a milestone for the civil rights movement because it showed that African Americans are gained support and are being accepted more and more.
  • Space Race Begins (Cold War)

    With the Soviet launch of Sputnik, the Soviets were the first to send anything into space, giving them the edge on the United States. This is important because the Soviets were able to re-shift power to their side and put the U.S. on their heels.
  • The Little Rock Nine (Civil Rights)

    President Dwight Eisenhower called 1000 paratroopers into Little Rock Arkansas to help protect the lives of the nine African American students who were being harassed and prevented from going into school. They were unable to move into the school because there were mobs of white people not wanting their schools to integrate. Without the involvement of the paratroopers and Eisenhower they would have never been able to get into school.
  • MLK spreads his influence (Civil Rights)

    Throughout the entire year Martin Luther King spread his influence by traveling over a total of 780,000 miles and made over 200 speeches. This was important because it spread his influence to the entire country and not just the south.
  • MLK assasination attempt (Civil Rights)

    During a book signing, Martin Luther King Jr. was stabbed by a deranged African American woman. While this failed to kill King, it succeeded in showing his toughness and dedication to his cause because as soon as he was out of the hospital he began to work hard as ever.
  • MLK visits India (Civil Rights)

    Martin Luther King visits India, the homeland of his idol Mohandas Gandhi. King visiting this place was very important because Gandhi was his lifelong model for how he went about his movements and protests. He went about them with passive resistance and peace, which was in the end successful.
  • Kennedy Elected President

    Kennedy Elected President
    John Fitzgerald Kennedy is elected as the 35th president of the United States. He declared, "...we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to insure the survival and the success of liberty." He would do anything to prevent Communism from spreading throughout Southeast Asia.
  • The sit-in movement (Civil Rights)

    The sit in movement begins at a Woolworth Lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. The beginning of this movement starts to spread across the nation and into the south. This movement was important because it helped many minorities get rights in restaurants.
  • U2 Incident (Cold War)

    An American plane is shot down flying over the U.S.S.R. after the United States tries to persuade the Soviets to keep air ways open for air travel. This allowed America to do spy work in planes until this incident when the plane was shot down. It showed the Soviets needed to advance their air technology and America needed to stop with their air threats, It is the ultimate result of the Geneva Conference and shows the Soviets ability to persuade America to change their ways.
  • Freedom rides begin (civil rights)

    The Freedom Rides begin to start throughout the nation. The first ride began in Washington D.C. and was scheduled to get to New Orleans on May 17th. This example of passive resistance was a way to challenge the segregation still on buses in the south.
  • Presidential Palace Bombed

    Presidential Palace Bombed
    The presidential palace in Saigon is bombed by two renegade South Vietnamese pilots flying American-made World War II era fighter planes. President Diem and his brother Nhu escape unharmed.
  • James Meredith (Civil Rights)

    James Meredith became the first African American student to enroll in the University of Mississippi. This was only after the governor of Mississippi tried to change the law to make it so someone with a federal crime can be rejected from a state school. Also during the day where he was supposed to enter school riots occurred and president Kennedy sent in the 70th Army Engineer Combat Battalion to cool down the situation. They were only partially successful because 2 people ended up dead and one h
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (Cold War)

    America is threatened with the Soviets dropping an atomic bomb on the United States. The nation goes into pani. This is important because it showed the power held in the atomic bombs and any nations weakness for them. Also, it almost started a nuclear war between the two super powers of the world, blowing up both America and U.S.S.R.
  • Buddhists Take A Stand

    Buddhists Take A Stand
    Buddhists riot in South Vietnam after they are denied the right to display religious flags during their celebration of Buddha's birthday. South Vietnamese police shoot at Buddhist demonstrators, resulting in the deaths of one woman and eight children. Kennedy feels pressure to completely abandon Diem's Regime.
  • MLK meets JFK (Civil Rights)

    Martin Luther King Jr. travels to the white house to meet with other civil rights leaders and the President of the United States John F. Kennedy to discus civil rights. This was important because it was a symbol to the nation that African Americans were gaining rights because the president of the United States was willing to meet with civil rights workers and discus rights.
  • The Assassination of JFK

    The Assassination of JFK
    President Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas. Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as 36th president of the United States. He is the 4th president to deal with Vietnam nd will oversee huge escalation of the war.
  • LBJ Takes Action

    LBJ Takes Action
    President Johnson declares he "will not lose Vietnam." By the end of the year there were 16,300 American military advisors in South Vietnam, receiving $500 million in U.S. aid in 1963 alone.
  • No More Minh

    No More Minh
    General Ho Chi Minh is ousted from power in a coup led by General Nguyen Khanh who becomes the new leader of South Vietnam.
  • Civil rights act of 1964 (Civil Rights)

    President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the civil rights act of 1964. This ended major forms of discrimination of races in the United States including segregation against voters and schools.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    In the Gulf of Tonkin, 3 North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the American destroyer U.S.S. Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin ten miles off the coast of North Vietnam. They fire three torpedoes and machine-guns, but only a single machine-gun round strikes the Maddox with no causalities. U.S. Navy fighters from the carrier Ticonderoga attack the patrol boats, sinking one and damaging the other two.
  • Johnson Retaliates

    Johnson Retaliates
    ALthough there are doubts on the validity of he second attack in the Gulf of Tonkin, American press embellishes it to the point where if Johnson did not retliate, it would look suspicious. He decides to bomb North Vietnam'sw oil facilities and naval targets without warning with 64 U.S. Navy fighter bombers.
  • MLK wins nobel peace prize ( Civil Rights)

    Martin Luther King wins the Nobel peace prize. He won this prize for all his work during the civil rights movement and how he refused to corrupt to using violent measures and continued with passive resistance.
  • Malcolm X assasinated (Civil Rights)

    : Malcolm X, a radical for the civil rights movement was murdered in cold blood. Three white men were convicted for his murder and this only increased King's rage and desire to see it out.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    This operation is launched as over 100 American fighter-bombers attack various targets in North Vietnam. This was scheduled to last 8 weeks, however, it ended up lasting 3 years.
  • MLK assasinated ( Civil Rights)

    Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Rae. He was killed by a gunshot to the head and neck at a motel in Memphis, Tennessee where he was leading a peaceful march with striking workers.
  • Armstrong Makes it to the Moon (Cold War)

    Neil Armstrong Meks it to the moon, he is the first person to walk on the moon. This is important becase it is Americas response to the Soviets success with Sputnik. It shows AMericas power outside of their military strength and how they keep evolving, challenging the Soviets to do better.
  • Vietnam War Ends (Cold War)

    Democratic South Vietnam falls to Communist North Vietnam. This is important because it is a major win by the Soviets to keep on trak with the U.S. for power and their spread of Communism.