The first modern digital computer was developed in 1942 by a man named Professor John Atanasoff. The instructions to make the computer operate were originally wired into the computer's hardware.
The Von Neumann Program (Strand 3- Hardware and Software)
Shortly after the development of the digital computer by John Atanasoff, scientists quickly realized that the structure of this computer was not flexible and devised the "stored program architecture". This program was the first program to divide hardware and software in a computer.
Plan Calculus (Strand 3- Software)
Konrad Zuse began working on Plankalkul, better known as Plan Calculus. This piece of software would be the first algorithmic programming language fro a computer.
The Mathematical Theory of Communication (Strand 1- People and Machines)
Software that showed engineers how to code data in order to check for accuracy after transmission was developed by Claude Shannon.
Technological Advances (Starnd 3- Software)
Mathematician Grace Hopper completed the A-0 Compiler which was considered to be the first compiler to allow the computer user (stakeholder) to use actual words instead of numbers.
Speedcoding (Strand 1- Standards)
John Backus invented the speedcoding for IBM's 701 computer which cut weeks off of the software programming time.
The Birth of Artificial Intelligence (Strand 1- Intellectual Property)
Herbert Simon and Allan Newell developed the Logic Theorists software which stated the rules of reasoning and proved symbolic logic theorums. This software was also the establishment of the field of artificial intelligence.
MATH-MATIC (Strand 3- Software)
This compiler was developed by Sperry Rand and was a branch off of the earlier A-0 compiler invented by Grace Hopper. This compiler was known as the A-2 compiler, or MATH-MATIC.
FORTRAN (Starnd 3- Software Strand 1-Standards)
A new language called FORTRAN (short for Formula Translator) is developed. This new software allows a computer to perform repeated tasks from one set of instructions by using loops.
FLOW-MATIC (Strand 1- Standards)
The development of the A-2 compiler eventually led to the development of the B-0 compiler which was the first English-language business data-processing compiler.
ERMA (Strand 1- People and Machines Strand 2- Business and Employment)
The Electronic Recording Method of Accounting is developed. This program revolutionized the banking industry by digitizing checking for the Bank of America.
Quicksort (Strand 1- People and Machines)
C. A. R. Hoare developed a program known as Quicksort which was an algorithm that used "pivots" that allowed for faster sorting. This program went on to become the most widely used sorting method in the world and is still incorporated into some software programs today.
The First Computer Game (Strand 2- Home and Leisure)
A group of MIT students including Slug Russell, Shag Graetz, and Alan Kotok were the developers of SpaceWars, which was considered to be the first interactive computer game.
Sketchpad (Strand 2- Home and Leisure; Business and Employment; Education and Training)
Ivan Sutherland invented designed and published a real-time, interactive computer drawing pad which allowed artists to draw and manipulate geometric figures on the screen.
LOGO (Strand 2- Education and Training)
Seymour Papert invented a learning software program for children known as LOGO. LOGO used a turtle which traced its actions with pen on paper.
One Bit at a Time (Strand 1- Standards)
The new standard for communication, known as the RS-232-C allowed computers and peripheral devices to transmit information serially, or one bit at a time.
Atari (Strand 2- Home and Leisure)
Nolan Bushnell introduces his new video game called Pong, and his new video game company called Atari. Many of the Atari games could be added as software programs to home computers.
Digital Fortress (Strand 1- Security; Surveillance; Privacy and Annonymity)
The United States government adopts IBM's standard for data encryption which was the key to unlocking coded messages and protecting the confidentiality within its agencies.
VisiCalc (Strand 2- Business and Employment; Strand 1- People and Machines)
Daniel Bricklin and Robert Frankston developed a software program which automated the recalculation of spreadsheets and was first used in the Apple II.
MS-DOS (Strand 3- Software)
The Microsoft Disk Operating System was the basic software for the newly released IBM PC. This software/PC relationship sparked a long-time relationship between Microsoft and IBM.
Lotus 1-2-3 (Strand 3- Software)
Mitch Kapor developed the Lotus 1-2-3 system which was software that was written directly into the video system of the IBM PC. Lotus 1-2-3 owes much of its success to the combination of spreadsheet capabilities with graphics and data retrieval capabilities.
IB Lifesaver (Strand 2- Business and Employment; Strand 1- People and Machines)
Microsoft announces a new software program called Windows Microsoft Word which allowed computer users (stakeholders) to create word documents on the computer.
SimCity (Strand 2- Home and Leisure)
Maxis released the virtual reality video game called SimCity whcih sparked the launch of a series of virtual reality simulators.
Microsoft Advances (Strand 1- Standards)
Microsoft launched its first successful operating system known as Windows 3.0. Users were very satisfied with the efforts put forth by Microsoft.
Pretty Good Privacy (Strand 1- Privacy and Annonymity; Security; Surveillance)
Pretty Good Privacy, or PGP, is introduced as an e-mail encryption program designed to allow people to protect themselves against intrusive governments around the world.
Today's Age (Strand 3- Software; Strand 1- People and Machines)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, computer users (stakeholder) have been able to access different kinds of software from various places such as computer stores and downloads from the internet.