Artificial intelligence 1203420977

History of A.I

  • Zonrad Zuse

    Konrad Zuse built the first working program-controlled computers.
  • artificial neural network

    Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts publish "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943), laying foundations for artificial neural networks.
  • cybernatics

    Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener and Julian Bigelow coin the term "cybernetics". Wiener's popular book by that name published in 1948.
  • Vannevar Bush

    Vannevar Bush published As We May Think (The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945) a prescient vision of the future in which computers assist humans in many activities.
  • Game theory

    Game theory which would prove invaluable in the progress of AI was introduced with the 1944 paper, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by mathematician John von Neumann and economist Oskar Morgenstern.
  • John von Neumann

    John von Neumann (quoted by E.T. Jaynes) in response to a comment at a lecture that it was impossible for a machine to think: "You insist that there is something a machine cannot do. If you will tell me precisely what it is that a machine cannot do, then I can always make a machine which will do just that!". Von Neumann was presumably alluding to the Church-Turing thesis which states that any effective procedure can be simulated by a (generalized) computer.
  • Turing Test

    Alan Turing proposes the Turing Test as a measure of machine intelligence.
  • Claudio Shannon

    Claude Shannon published a detailed analysis of chess playing as search.
  • Three Laws of Robotics

    Isaac Asimov published his Three Laws of Robotics.
  • First working AI propgrams

    The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester: a checkers-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.
  • Aurthur Samuel

    Arthur Samuel (IBM) wrote the first game-playing program[28], for checkers (draughts), to achieve sufficient skill to challenge a respectable amateur. His first checkers-playing program was written in 1952, and in 1955 he created a version that learned to play.
  • AI conference

    The first Dartmouth College summer AI conference is organized by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathan Rochester of IBM and Claude Shannon.
  • name of AI created

    The name artificial intelligence is used for the first time as the topic of the second Dartmouth Conference, organized by John McCarthy
  • Logic Theorist

    The first demonstration of the Logic Theorist (LT) written by Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and Herbert Simon (Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University). This is often called the first AI program, though Samuel's checkers program also has a strong claim.
  • General Problem Solver

    The General Problem Solver (GPS) demonstrated by Newell, Shaw and Simon.
  • Lisp

    John McCarthy (Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT) invented the Lisp programming language.
  • Herb and Nathan

    Herb Gelernter and Nathan Rochester (IBM) described a theorem prover in geometry that exploits a semantic model of the domain in the form of diagrams of "typical" cases.
  • Teddington Conference

    Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes was held in the UK and among the papers presented were John McCarthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.
  • founding of MIT AI Lab

    John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded the MIT AI Lab.
  • machine translation

    Margaret Masterman and colleagues at University of Cambridge design semantic nets for machine translation.
  • Math theory of AI

    Math theory of AI
    Ray Solomonoff lays the foundations of a mathematical theory of AI, introducing universal Bayesian methods for inductive inference and prediction.
  • writing of the SAINT

    James Slagle (PhD dissertation, MIT) wrote (in Lisp) the first symbolic integration program, SAINT, which solved calculus problems at the college freshman level.
  • Machine intelligence

    In Minds, Machines and Gödel, John Lucas denied the possibility of machine intelligence on logical or philosophical grounds. He referred to Kurt Gödel's result of 1931: sufficiently powerful formal systems are either inconsistent or allow for formulating true theorems unprovable by any theorem-proving AI deriving all provable theorems from the axioms. Since humans are able to "see" the truth of such theorems, machines were deemed inferior.
  • Origins of Automated Facial Recognition

  • The Beginning of Algorithmic Information Theory

  • 2001: A Space Odyssey

  • The Architecture Machine

  • Founding of AAAI

    The American Assiscation of for Artifical Intelligence