Tehran

  • First Russo-Persian War

    First Russo-Persian War
    The war lasted from 1804 to 1813.
  • War eventually lost to Russia, with loss of territory

    War eventually lost to Russia, with loss of territory
    From 1813 to 1826.
  • Constitutional Revolution. Dabashi calls this event the beginning of modern Iran, when the absolute monarchy becomes a constitutional monarchy (71).

     Constitutional Revolution.  Dabashi calls this event the beginning of modern Iran, when the absolute monarchy becomes a constitutional monarchy (71).
    from 1906 to 1911.
  • Establishment of Tehran University

    Establishment of Tehran University
    Establishment of Tehran University, modern and secular.
    Dabashi says of the university: “Tehran University would of course also function as the secular counterpart of religious seminaries in Qom and Mashhad – thus there were now two, diametrically opposed, educational systems, one almost exclusively under the control of the Pahlavi government, while the others thrived under a more or less autonomous clerical establishment” (121).
  • Veiling of women in public is banned by the Shah.

    Veiling of women in public is banned by the Shah.
  • Second Pahlavi monarch

    Second Pahlavi monarch
    Second Pahlavi monarch, age 22, occupies the throne after his father is exiled to South Africa. Dabashi says of this transition: “The flirtation of Reza Shah with the Axis powers resulted in the Allied occupation of Iran soon after the war began, and he was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Muhammad Reza Shah, who was installed and supported in power by the Allied forces” (123).
  • Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran; they promise Iran national sovereignty (Dabashi 124).

    Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran; they promise Iran national sovereignty (Dabashi 124).
  • Iranian Prime Minister Mosaddeq nationalizes the Iranian oil industry, which foments a power struggle with the Shah. Dabashi notes that this is a time when anticolonial movements are active in the region, Jawaharlal Nehru in India, Nasser in Egypt (127).

    Iranian Prime Minister Mosaddeq nationalizes the Iranian oil industry, which foments a power struggle with the Shah.  Dabashi notes that this is a time when anticolonial movements are active in the region, Jawaharlal Nehru in India, Nasser in Egypt (127).
    Iranian Prime Minister Mosaddeq nationalizes the Iranian oil industry, which foments a power struggle with the Shah. Dabashi notes that this is a time when anticolonial movements are active in the region, Jawaharlal Nehru in India, Nasser in Egypt (127).
  • The US CIA engineers a coup (led by Kermit Roosevelt) that removes Prime Minister Mosaddeq, and brings the Shah back to power. Dabashi notes that Iran served as a crucial logistical base for the American military during the US involvement in the Vietnam W

    The US CIA engineers a coup (led by Kermit Roosevelt) that removes Prime Minister Mosaddeq, and brings the Shah back to power. Dabashi notes that Iran served as a crucial logistical base for the American military during the US involvement in the Vietnam W
    The US CIA engineers a coup (led by Kermit Roosevelt) that removes Prime Minister Mosaddeq, and brings the Shah back to power.
    Dabashi notes that Iran served as a crucial logistical base for the American military during the US involvement in the Vietnam War (1956-1975) (123).
  • The Shah establishes SAVAK, the secret police that act against political dissenters

    The Shah establishes SAVAK, the secret police that act against political dissenters
    The Shah establishes SAVAK, the secret police that act against political dissenters
  • The White Revolution, initiated by the Shah and supported by President Kennedy, implements further secularization

    The White Revolution, initiated by the Shah and supported by President Kennedy, implements further secularization
    The White Revolution, initiated by the Shah and supported by President Kennedy, implements further secularization
  • Ayatollah Khomeini, now Shi’ite leader, challenges the Shah, only to be arrested and exiled to Iraq.

    Ayatollah Khomeini, now Shi’ite leader, challenges the Shah, only to be arrested and exiled to Iraq.
    Ayatollah Khomeini, now Shi’ite leader, challenges the Shah, only to be arrested and exiled to Iraq.
  • The Shah celebrates 2500 years of Persian monarchy

    The Shah celebrates 2500 years of Persian monarchy
    The Shah celebrates 2500 years of Persian monarchy
  • Siahkal uprising, armed struggle against the Shah by socialists.

    Siahkal uprising, armed struggle against the Shah by socialists.
    Siahkal uprising, armed struggle against the Shah by socialists.
  • Iran doesn’t participate in the Arab oil embargo, which means tremendous profits for the Shah.

    Iran doesn’t participate in the Arab oil embargo, which means tremendous profits for the Shah.
    Iran doesn’t participate in the Arab oil embargo, which means tremendous profits for the Shah.
  • President Jimmy Carter on a visit to Iran proclaims Iran “an island of stability in an otherwise troubled Middle East” (Dabashi 157)

    President Jimmy Carter on a visit to Iran proclaims Iran “an island of stability in an otherwise troubled Middle East” (Dabashi 157)
    President Jimmy Carter on a visit to Iran proclaims Iran “an island of stability in an otherwise troubled Middle East” (Dabashi 157)
  • Increasing large public demonstrations against the Shah signify opposition of urban guerrilla movements and the clerics. On “Black Friday” in September the Shah’s army opens fire on protesters, killing and wounding many. In October Khomeini flies to Fra

    Increasing large public demonstrations against the Shah signify opposition of urban guerrilla movements and the clerics.  On “Black Friday” in September the Shah’s army opens fire on protesters, killing and wounding many.  In October Khomeini flies to Fra
    Increasing large public demonstrations against the Shah signify opposition of urban guerrilla movements and the clerics. On “Black Friday” in September the Shah’s army opens fire on protesters, killing and wounding many. In October Khomeini flies to France to direct the revolution from there. The Shah appoints a series on prime ministers in an effort to regain control of the country as demonstrations become increasingly violent.
  • a million Iranians celebrate in Tehran, calling for the formation of an Islamic republic and the return of Khomeini.

    a million Iranians celebrate in Tehran, calling for the formation of an Islamic republic and the return of Khomeini.
    a million Iranians celebrate in Tehran, calling for the formation of an Islamic republic and the return of Khomeini.
  • : Rule of the Pahlavi Royal Family (Reza Shah and son Muhammad Reza Shah)

    : Rule of the Pahlavi Royal Family (Reza Shah and son Muhammad Reza Shah)
    The rule of the first Pahlavi monarch comes about as a result of a military coup in 1921 supported by the British. Reza Shah crowned himself on April 25, 1926. Reza Shah was determined to modernize Iran, looking to imitate Ataturk’s modernization of Turkey (1895-1914, Young Turk Movement).
  • The Shah leaves the country on January 16 for Egypt, Morocco, the Bahamas, Mexico, and then the US, where he undergoes treatment for cancer. He eventually settles in Egypt, where he dies on July 27, 1980.

     The Shah leaves the country on January 16 for Egypt, Morocco, the Bahamas, Mexico, and then the US, where he undergoes treatment for cancer.  He eventually settles in Egypt, where he dies on July 27, 1980.
    The Shah leaves the country on January 16 for Egypt, Morocco, the Bahamas, Mexico, and then the US, where he undergoes treatment for cancer. He eventually settles in Egypt, where he dies on July 27, 1980.
  • Khomeini returns in triumph to Iran and appoints Mehdi Bazargan prime minister for a provisional government while the Islamic constitution is drafted

    Khomeini returns in triumph to Iran and appoints Mehdi Bazargan prime minister for a provisional government while the Islamic constitution is drafted
    Khomeini returns in triumph to Iran and appoints Mehdi Bazargan prime minister for a provisional government while the Islamic constitution is drafted
  • Militant students seize the American embassy in Tehran and hold 52 American diplomats hostage there for 444 days. A US attempt to rescue the hostages on April 24, 1980, results in humiliating catastrophe when the American helicopters and planes crash in

    Militant students seize the American embassy in Tehran and hold 52 American diplomats hostage there for 444 days.  A US attempt to rescue the hostages on April 24, 1980, results in humiliating catastrophe when the American helicopters and planes crash in
    Militant students seize the American embassy in Tehran and hold 52 American diplomats hostage there for 444 days. A US attempt to rescue the hostages on April 24, 1980, results in humiliating catastrophe when the American helicopters and planes crash in the desert with heavy casualties. The hostages will finally be released on Reagan’s inauguration, January 20, 1981.
  • , the first Iranian president, Abu al-Hassan Bani-Sadr, is inaugurated. He’ll be dismissed and exiled by Khomeini in June 1981.

    , the first Iranian president, Abu al-Hassan Bani-Sadr, is inaugurated. He’ll be dismissed and exiled by Khomeini in June 1981.
    , the first Iranian president, Abu al-Hassan Bani-Sadr, is inaugurated. He’ll be dismissed and exiled by Khomeini in June 1981.
  • In September, Saddam Hussein invades Iran, with the support of the US, Europe, and the Soviet Union. This is the beginning of the eight-year Iran-Iraq War.Consider the other upheaval in the region

    In September, Saddam Hussein invades Iran, with the support of the US, Europe, and the Soviet Union.  This is the beginning of the eight-year Iran-Iraq War.Consider the other upheaval in the region
    1980 In September, Saddam Hussein invades Iran, with the support of the US, Europe, and the Soviet Union. This is the beginning of the eight-year Iran-Iraq War.
    Consider the other upheaval in the region:
    The Russians invade Afghanistan
    Military coup in Pakistan
    Assassination of Saudi King Faysal
    Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel followed by assassination of Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat.
    Israel invades and occupies Lebanon.
    During the war, the US sold arms to both Iraq and
  • Dabashi writes of Khomeini’s rule

    Dabashi writes of Khomeini’s rule
    “The shah’s tyranny seemed pathetic in comparison to the violence Khomeini inflicted on the nation. He ordered the swift and brutal execution of anyone who even seemed to challenge his vision of an Islamic republic. Old army officers and aging former politicians were arrested and summarily executed, as were young revolutionaries, juvenile activists, Kurdish rebels, women protesting the imposition of a medieval code of conduct on them, leaders of religious minorities, poets, journalists – anyon
  • Dabashi also says of the revolution:

    Dabashi also says of the revolution:
    “This was a national liberation movement that arose from a multiplicity of economic, social, and ideological sources and aspirations. One particularly powerful and merciless Islamist faction ultimately managed (shrewdly and brutally) to outmaneuver all other factions, hijack the revolution, and call it ‘Islamic’” (146).
    “It is imperative to keep in mind that when the Iranian Revolution began its momentous course it was not an Islamic revolution; it mutated into a radical Islamic movement throu
  • Iran accepts a UN-sponsored peace treaty that ends the war with Iraq.

    Iran accepts a UN-sponsored peace treaty that ends the war with Iraq.
    Iran accepts a UN-sponsored peace treaty that ends the war with Iraq.
  • Khomeini dies and is succeeded by Ali Khamenei. Rafsanjani becomes president, serving until 1997.

    Khomeini dies and is succeeded by Ali Khamenei. Rafsanjani becomes president, serving until 1997.
    Khomeini dies and is succeeded by Ali Khamenei. Rafsanjani becomes president, serving until 1997.
  • Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait, First Gulf War (1990-1991), repulsed by American forces.

    Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait, First Gulf War (1990-1991), repulsed by American forces.
    Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait, First Gulf War (1990-1991), repulsed by American forces.
  • Mohammed Khatami elected president, serving until 2004

    Mohammed Khatami elected president, serving until 2004
    Mohammed Khatami elected president, serving until 2004
  • President Bush designates Iran, along with Syria and North Korea, as the Axis of Evil.

    President Bush designates Iran, along with Syria and North Korea, as the Axis of Evil.
    President Bush designates Iran, along with Syria and North Korea, as the Axis of Evil.
  • the US invades Iraq

    the US invades Iraq
    the US invades Iraq
  • Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becomes president of Iran. Dabashi calls him a populist candidate, supported by the poor and also by the militant Islamists (221).

    Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becomes president of Iran.  Dabashi calls him a populist candidate, supported by the poor and also by the militant Islamists (221).
    Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becomes president of Iran. Dabashi calls him a populist candidate, supported by the poor and also by the militant Islamists (221).