Post wwii

Post WWII Timeline

  • G.I. Bill

    G.I. Bill
    The G.I. Bill was created to help veterans of World War II. It established hospitals, made low-interest mortgages available and covered tuition and expenses for veterans attending college.It also provided a one-year unemployment compensation and loans so returning veterans could start businesses. From 1944 to 1949, nearly 9 million veterans received close to $4 billion from the bill’s unemployment compensation program.
  • Iron Curtain

    Iron Curtain
    The Iron Curtain was Winston Churchill's term for the boundary that divided Europe in the west and the Soviet Union and its Communist one-party states in the east. The division began at the end of WWII in 1946 and lasted until the fall of the USSR in 1989, a division that lasted nearly 45 years. Geographically, the borderline ran from arctic Russia in the north, through eastern Europe down to Bulgaria ending at Black Sea.
  • 2nd Red Scare

    2nd Red Scare
    The second Red Scare refers to the fear of communism that influenced American politics, culture, and society from the late 1940s through the 1950s, during the opening phases of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Popularly known as “McCarthyism” after Senator Joseph McCarthy made himself famous in 1950 by claiming that large numbers of Communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department. This made Americans terrified and caused the famous Rosenberg Trial in which Julius was found to be a spy.
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    The Cold War

  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    Announced by U.S. Pres. Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, declaring immediate economic and military aid to the governments of Greece, under pressure from Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean area. As the U.S. and the Soviet Union struggled to reach a balance of power during the Cold War that followed WWII, Great Britain announced that it could no longer afford to aid Mediterranean countries, which the West feared were in danger of falling under Soviet influence.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Secretary of State George Marshall and implemented from 1948 to 1951, to aid in the economic recovery of Europe after World War II by offering certain European countries substantial funds. Offered all European nations, including the Soviet Union, generous funding to rebuild their economies as long as the money was spent on goods made in the United States. Those who supported it hoped to promote democracy in Europe and oppose the spread of communism. Also used as a way to boost American economy.
  • Fair Deal

    Fair Deal
    A "Fair Deal" is what President Harry Truman called his plan. He announced it in a speech on January 5, 1949. His Fair Deal recommended that all Americans have health insurance, that the minimum wage be increased, and that, by law, all Americans be guaranteed equal rights. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    The Russians closed all highways, railroads and canals from western Germany into western Berlin. They believed this would make it impossible for the people who lived there to get food or any other supplies and would eventually drive Britain, France and the U.S. out of the city for good. Instead of retreating from West Berlin, the U.S. and its allies supplied of the city from the air. This lasted for more than a year and carried more than 2.3 million tons of cargo into West Berlin.
  • Beat Generation

    Beat Generation
    A group of American writers who came to prominence in New York in the years immediately after WWII. Experiment with drugs, rejection of american materialism, eastern form of spirituality, sexual expression, as well as the cultural phenomena that they wrote about. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s.
  • Rock & Roll

    Rock & Roll
    A form of American popular music that evolved from African American rhythm and blues; the American musical form characterized by heavy rhythms and simple melodies which has spread worldwide having significant impacts on social dancing, clothing fashions, and expressions of protest. Rock & Roll was taken by white people and ultimately received more credit from it.
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  • Korean War

    Korean War
    In their hurried effort to disarm the Japanese army and repatriate the Japanese population in Korea (estimated at 700,000), the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in August 1945 to divide the country for administrative purposes at the 38th parallel (latitude 38° N). The Soviets began a short-lived reign of terror in northern Korea that quickly politicized the division by driving thousands of refugees south.
  • Ike Turner

    Ike Turner
    Ike Turner was a black musician who made the first Rock & Roll song called “Rocket 88”. After this song, many white artists ripped the songs from many other black artists and received more credit for them. He was nonetheless considered the most successful song writer but beat his wife.
  • Earl Warren Supreme

    Earl Warren Supreme
    The landmark case of his tenure was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), in which the Court unanimously determined the segregation of schools to be unconstitutional. The Warren Court also sought electoral reforms, equality in criminal justice and the defense of human rights before its chief justice retired in 1969.
  • Polio Vaccine

    Polio Vaccine
    Virus which enters through mouth and causes paralysis, meningitis, and even death among mainly children. Today polio has been eliminated from the US but is still common in some developing areas due to the polio vaccine. The Polio Vaccine, which was created by Jonas Salk, (IPV) schedule for children is at month 2,4, 6-18 and years 4-6.
  • Jonas Salk

    Jonas Salk
    Jonas Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed one of the first successful polio vaccines which is still being used today. Sightly similar to today, his vaccine took 3 shots and a booster to take into effect. Helped people in the United States (polio basically eradicated), Western Hemisphere, and in developing countries for those who had access.
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    Civil Rights Movement

  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Supreme Court decision that overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision led by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court ruled that "separate but equal" schools for blacks were inherently unequal and thus unconstitutional. The Board of Education's defense was that schools were not harmful to black children. The court felt compelled to rule in favour of Board of Education as Plessy vs Ferguson's precedent had not been overturned yet. The decision energized the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Television

    WWII slowed TV’s introduction to the consumer market
    By 1955, 75% of American homes had a TV (black & white)
    Television made its way into american homes which served the purpose of relaxing and spending time together as a family. Shows such as "I Love Lucy" and "Father Knows Best" portrayed ideals of the 1950s of obedience and hard work.
  • Elvis Presley

    Elvis Presley
    Listened to Memphis radio and began producing his own rock-and-roll songs. Teenagers found him as the first rock-n-roll hero and eventually became known as the king of rock-n-roll. Like many early white rock musicians, Elvis Presley drew heavily from black traditions in rhythm and blues. He created his own sexually suggestive dance style. Those moves offended millions of older Americans.
  • Little Rock 9

    Little Rock 9
    In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with white students. The governor, Orval Faubus, ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent them from entering the school. Mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
  • Space Race

    Space Race
    Space exploration served as another dramatic arena for Cold War competition. On October 4, 1957, a Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile launched Sputnik (Russian for “traveler”), the world's first artificial satellite and the first man-made object to be placed into the Earth's orbit.
  • Counter Culture

    Counter Culture
    Secedes the Beat Generation, people referred to as "Hippies" reject middle class values, renounced material possession & used drugs (LSD + Heroin), and also explored their inner selves. Some lived in separate communities, rejected cars, suburban homes & average jobs their parents had. Rock music was a catalyst in spreading the counterculture idea of free love and peace. Festivals such as Woodstock highlighted the strong connection between the two.
  • Hippies

    People that were a part of the counterculture. Opposed the Vietnam War, in favor of sexual liberation & embraced non-christian faith. Ideas revolved around free love and peace. Bob Dylan, the Beatles, others transform their music to match counterculture ideals. Festivals such as Woodstock (New York State) brought them together to highlight their ideals.
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  • Sit-Ins

    In Greensboro, North Carolina, four negro students sat down at a white lunch counter. They were refused service but remained there until the shop closed. A group of 30 students did the same thing. This continued daily, and some whites joined in. Crowds of hostile students began to abuse the protesters but they didn’t react. By April there were 50 000 participants throughout the South, and followed a non-violent policy. It took six months until the AA were served at the greensboro lunch counter.
  • New Frontier

    New Frontier
    The term New Frontier was used by liberal Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention to inspire America to support him. Wanted to raise the minimum wage, relieve overcrowded schools, believed in cutting taxes for business from 90%. Kennedy challenged the U.S. to land a man on the moon while the Soviets were still ahead in space technology.
  • Politics (Nixon & Kennedy)

    Politics (Nixon & Kennedy)
    The Nixon-Kennedy TV debates may have tipped the scales during the presidential campaign of 1960. Demonstrated the importance of image in a television age. People voted for Kennedy because of how calm and charming he seemed to be on television, due to the makeup, which was the opposite for Nixon.
  • Peace Corps

    Peace Corps
    On March 1, 1961, President John F. Kennedy issues Executive Order #10924, establishing the Peace Corps as a new agency within the Department of State. The Peace Corps captured the imagination of the U.S. public, and during the week after its creation thousands of letters poured into Washington from young Americans hoping to volunteer.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    Civil Right supporters travelled on buses throughout the South and at the stops making use of toilets and restaurants reserved for whites. Although a law was passed in 1960 declaring AA had the same rights in terminals as on buses, direct action was needed to put it into practice. In Alabama, the bus was set on fire. In Birmingham a bus was met by an angry mob after being refused police protection and riders were beaten. Over 1000 students participated.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    “Si Se Puede” Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers. He helped to improve conditions for migrant farm workers and unionize them. Cesar Chavez uses strikes & marches for better working & living conditions for Mexican workers in California. Convinces 17 million Americans not to buy non-union picked grapes to help workers. Boycott worked & worker’s conditions & wages increased.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    Leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff in October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. In a TV address on October 22, 1962, President John Kennedy (1917-63) notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba.
  • Feminism

    Many white women (women in general) split from Civil Rights
    and focused more towards Feminism. Helen Gurley's “Sex and the Single Girl” encouraged women to explore their sexuality. Women started to wait to get married when looks started going away.
    Betty Friedman's “The Feminine Mystique" believed women could do everything men could. The Movement focused on equal treatment, opportunity & pay, and tries changing the mentality instead of legislating female equality.
  • Birmingham March

    Birmingham March
    Birmingham was strictly segregated, and blacks were restricted to low income. Violence against blacks and black supporters was common. They knew they would have to prepare carefully this time. the aim was to activate the black community and force desegregation. The SCLC would harass the business community with boycotts and sit-ins and mass marches. They hoped to fill up the jails and force whites to negotiate.The protest methods would be non-violent.
  • Assassination of JFK

    Assassination of JFK
    A week after President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November, 1963, a commission led by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded that alleged gunman Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone in assassinating the president. Jack Ruby killed Oswald two days later because he claimed he had rage from the assassination.
  • Barry Goldwater

    Barry Goldwater
    In 1964, LBJ was opposed by this Republican Arizona senator who attacked the federal income tax, the Social Security
    system, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society. He believed that the civil rights act would lead to the creation of more police force in order to enforce the laws. He believed that the act would lead to a dangerous expansion of government involvement = destruction of free society.
  • Daisy Girl Ad

    Daisy Girl Ad
    A controversial political advertisement aired on television during the 1964 United States presidential election by incumbent president Lyndon B. Johnson's campaign. Though only aired once , it is considered a factor in Johnson's landslide victory over Barry Goldwater and an important turning point in political and advertising history. Goldwater's campaign suggested nuclear weapons in situations when others would find that acceptable, something which Johnson sought to capitalize on.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    One of the great legislators of the 20th century, Lyndon B. Johnson who was a crude person. More legislation pushed through than any president except FDR. The Great Society promised education, good standard of living and beautification. This went further than the New Deal, with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 getting passed. Overall reduced poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the United States.
  • Watts Riots

    Watts Riots
    The Watts Riots was in Los Angeles, California which was a Ghetto area with high unemployment, poor schools, drug use. A black man arrested for drunk driving and residents rioted because it was all too routine on a daily basis. The six-day riot resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. National Guard called in to stop the violence. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
  • Black Panther Party

    Black Panther Party
    Organization was originally formed as part of the Black Power and Civil Rights movements to aggressively bring the reality of racism, discrimination and lack of opportunity for Blacks to a national agenda. Another original reason for the group's formation was to protect African American neighborhoods from racist police brutality. The Panthers were a group of activists who were against the non-violent idea of the civil rights movement.
  • Warren Burger Supreme Court

    Warren Burger Supreme Court
    The U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953-1969); an activist Court that expanded the rights of criminal defendants and racial and religious minorities.
    Court system who ruled unanimously that school segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment (Brown v. Board of Education).
  • Stonewall Riot

    Stonewall Riot
    In June 1969, police officers raided a gay nightclub in New York, and began arresting patrons for attending the place. Gay onlookers taunted the police and then attacked them. Someone started a fire in the club, almost trapping people inside. This marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement. New organizations also began to rise up.
  • Race to Moon

    Race to Moon
    The Apollo 11 mission was one of the most significant events in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the USSR launched Sputnik, the first satellite, and successfully sent a man into space, America rushed to develop the technology that the Soviets already had, prompting the creation of the Apollo program. Apollo 11 was a mission to complete the first manned lunar landing. The mission was considered a win for the United States.
  • Silent Majority’s involvement in politics

    Silent Majority’s involvement in politics
    Nixon Administration's term to describe generally content, middle-class Americans who supported both the Vietnam War and America's institutions. The concept attempted to make a subtle distinction between believers in "traditional" values and the vocal minority of civil rights agitators, student protesters, counter-culturalists, and other disruption of the social idea.
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  • Equal Rights Amendment

    Equal Rights Amendment
    A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
  • Watergate

    A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    A 25-year-old single woman (aka Norma McCorvey) who challenged the criminal abortion laws in Texas that forbade abortion as unconstitutional except in cases where the mother's life was in danger. Texas attorney general Henry Wade defended the anti-abortion law. Court justices ruled that governments lacked the power to ban abortions, due to the decision protected by the 14th Amendment, with a ruling of 7-2.
  • Heritage Foundation

    Heritage Foundation
    Conservative ideas; The Heritage Foundation, a public policy that promotes the principles that made America great: free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. A non-profit lobbying group.
  • Endangered Species Act

    Endangered Species Act
    Its mission is to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend may be conserved, and to provide a program for the conservation and recovery of such endangered and threatened species. Its scope expanded to include invertebrates and plants and non-federal lands. The causes of extinction are urban/agricultural development
    habitat loss/degradation, over-utilization of species, and disease
  • The Moral Majority

    The Moral Majority
    Development of Protestant fundamentalism, they became energized about politics and social actions. Goals include: Lobbied for prayer and teaching creationism in public schools, Against legal abortion and Homosexuality, and Censorship of media outlets that promote what it sees as an anti-family agenda. There was no heavy involvement from the republican party; did not represent the majority as the name suggested.
  • Gerald Ford's Presidency

    Gerald Ford's Presidency
    Before Presidency, Gerald Ford was a lawyer who joined the navy and fought in WWII, and was Nixon’s vice president. On September 8, 1974, one month after President Richard Nixon resigned the presidency amid the Watergate scandal, his successor, President Gerald R. Ford, announced his decision to grant Nixon a full pardon for any crimes he may have committed while in office. Also during his term, the Vietnam War ended and troops came home, and he survived two assassination attempts.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis

    Iran Hostage Crisis
    U.S. supported Shah of Iran : major oil supplier, brutal dictator and anti-communist. Khomeini leads Islamic revolution. He mistrusted the U.S., U.S. gave amnesty to the Shah. 52 Americans taken hostage from American embassy in Tehran and a special forces team was sent to rescue them. Helicopters crashed in Iranian desert. Iraq invades Iran, Khomeini negotiates an end to it. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
  • Sam Walton's Just-In-TimeInventory

    Sam Walton's Just-In-TimeInventory
    Sam Walton created a chain of stores offering large variety of products at low prices. The Just-In-Time Inventory was when the last one of a product leaves the shelf in a store, there will be a new one to replace it just in time. NOT before. Cuts out inventory and storage costs because computers tracked inventory and there was no need for large in-house stock.
  • Discount Retailing

    Discount Retailing
    Began in the 1960s, but did not become popular until the 1980s. selling large quantities of goods at low prices and trying to sell the goods quickly to turn over their entire inventory in a short period of time. Sam Walton and most successful discount retailer and one of first to use computer database to track sales. Six popular discount retail chain stores that were founded in the 1980s include: kmart, woolco, target, Walmart, home depot, best buy.
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  • Robert Johnson

    Robert Johnson
    African American businessman, Entrepreneur, founder of Black Entertainment Television (BET), and the first African American majority owner of a major professional sports team in the United States. (modern Times) became first African American billionaire.
  • Election of 1980

    Election of 1980
    Republicans nominated Ronald Reagan, against re-nominated Jimmy Carter, who nobody, not even his own Democrats liked. Reagan won easily and was very popular, Carter won only six states and the District of Columbia, putting the Republicans back in control for the first time in 25 years. Carter was defeated with dignity though, and was well meaning but had a lack of managerial skills. Ronald Reagan won over Jimmy Carter because of the Iranian hostage crisis and America's stagflation.
  • A.I.D.S Crisis

    A.I.D.S Crisis
    Democratic Party added protections for gays and lesbians to party platform. Added non-sex discrimination to their platform
    Gay rights movement changes because of AIDS. Epidemic starts affecting thousands of homosexuals in 1981, spreads to heterosexual community through blood transfusions diagnosed in US in 1981; didn't receive much attention as perceived as a gay mans disease; Falwell said men getting what they deserve; over 32,000 died in a 7 yr period.
  • Rap Music

    Rap Music
    Another new sound of the 1980s. Musical style originated in local clubs in New York City's South Bronx. Emphasizing heavy bass and very rhythmic sounds, rap artists did not usually sing but rather spoke over the music and rhythmic beats. The lyrics frequently focused on AA's experience in the inner city. Multimillion-dollar industry.
  • Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor
    is a retired Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006. She was the first woman to be appointed to the Court. Prior to O'Connor's appointment to the Court, she was an elected official and judge in Arizona serving as the first female Majority Leader in the United States as the Republican leader in the Arizona Senate.
  • Music Television (MTV)

    Music Television (MTV)
    Television broadcasting led to an expansion of cable TV services throughout the United States. On August 1, 1981, Warner Communications and the American Express Company launched MTV, the first 24-hour music video cable channel. By 1983, MTV had expanded from 2.5 million initial subscribers to 17 million, making it the fastest growing cable channel in history. During the first two years of MTV, the channel played a continuous flow of music videos.
  • Iran Contra Affair

    Iran Contra Affair
    Scandal uncovered after investigations in 1987 revealed that the US had been selling weapons to the anti-American government in Iran (to help secure the release of American hostages) & had been using the profits from these sales to secretly & illegally finance the Contras in Nicaragua (a rebel group fighting the leftist Sandinista regime; NSC member Oliver North had organized the operation from within the White House but there was no proof that Reagan was aware of North's actions.
  • Challenger Explosion

    Challenger Explosion
    Space shuttle technology was a jump forward because it was a reusable aircraft. The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds into flight, killing all aboard. The explosion was caused by a faulty seal in the fuel tank. The shuttle program was halted while investigators and officials drew up new safety regulations, but was resumed in 1988 with the flight of the Discovery. The shuttle launches like a rocket, orbits like a spacecraft and lands like a plane.
  • Oprah Winfrey

    Oprah Winfrey
    Supervising producer and host of the top-rated, award-winning The Oprah Winfrey Show, actress, producer, and philanthropist who has created her own network. established Harpo Productions 1988; one of TIME 100 Most Influential of 20th Century; 1996 "Oprah Book Club"; 2003 Forbes listed as first African American female billionaire.
  • Communism Collapses

    Communism Collapses
    Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989. On November 9, 1989, thousands of jubilant Germans brought down the most visible symbol of division at the heart of Europe—the Berlin Wall. By 1990, the former communist leaders were out of power, free elections were held, and Germany was whole again.
  • Climate Change findings come out

    Climate Change findings come out
    Scientists have and continue to warn great changes will occur without reductions in the burning of fossil fuels. Temperatures rose to 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit since 1800. Polar Ice caps are melting, beaches are eroding, water starting to encroach coastal cities. Shifting weather patterns could create a migration crisis. Many will call for reductions in fossil fuels. The controversy was that many challenged/challenge the science behind climate change.
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  • Persian Gulf War / 1st Iraq War

    Persian Gulf War / 1st Iraq War
    The U.S. fought against Iraq when they illegally invaded Kuwait. Iraq wanted to take over Kuwait's oil fields, and wanted access to the Persian Gulf (for oil transport). Iraq considered Kuwait to be part of their country. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein wanted control of the Muslim world. Iraq was defeated, and its army was reduced. Economic hardship was created for the Iraqi people due to trade sanctions imposed after the war.
  • Balkans Crisis

    Balkans Crisis
    Yugoslavia broke up after the fall of communism (1991). Civil War broke out between Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia (Christian and Muslim). Serbian forces murder thousands of Muslim Bosnians. NATO brings in troops. Croatians catholic, serbians eastern orthodox, Bosnian muslim. Kosovo & Albania want independence from Croatia & Serbia. Genocide continues. NATO begins bombing sites to stop genocide. U.S. shows its commitment to human rights. Peacekeepers were placed in Bosnia.
  • Election of 1992

    Election of 1992
    Democrats chose Bill Clinton (despite accusations of womanizing, drug use, and draft evasion) and Albert Gore Jr. as his running mate. Republicans chose Bush for another election and J. Danforth Quayle as his running mate. Third candidate Ross Perot added color to the election by getting 19.7 million votes in the election (no elecctoral votes though), but Clinton won, 370 to 168 in the Electoral College. Democrats also got control of both the House and the Senate.
  • Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policy

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policy
    The act prohibits any homosexual or bisexual person from disclosing his or her sexual orientation or from speaking about any homosexual relationships, including marriages or other familial attributes, while serving in the United States armed forces because it "would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability."
  • Technology

    Personal Computers became affordable for millions in the early to mid-1990s. Computer industry flourishes, becomes very lucrative. Internet starts on military bases in the 60s. 80s supercomputers allow communication on college campuses. People no longer needed to travel long distances for meetings. Could do it over the internet on camera. Cell phones start replacing landlines. Smart phones allowed people to be on the internet w/o a computer
  • Lewinsky Affair

    Lewinsky Affair
    A scandal in which Clinton was accused of having a sexual affair with a woman named Monica Lewinsky, and then lied about it when he testified under oath in another women's lawsuit accusing him of sexual harassment. He was suddenly caught in a legal and political trap. He was ultimately charged with eleven possible groundings for impeachment.
  • Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

    Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
    was signed into law President Clinton. The act defines marriage as an act as "only legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife. The law also allows states not to recognize same-sex marriages performed legally in other states. The law also prohibits same-sex couples who are legally married or are recognized as a couple as a result of a civil union from collecting any federal benefits.
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    Contemporary Era

  • Bush v. Gore (SCOTUS Case)

    Bush v. Gore (SCOTUS Case)
    Founder of the largest Hispanic advertising agency in the U.S. Popular campaign adviser, beginning with President Reagan's campaign. His successes in organizing campaigns for Hispanic candidates world lead him to serve as the Hispanic media consultant in six Republican campaigns. Most recently for George W. Bush in 2004.
  • 9/11 Attacks

    9/11 Attacks
    19 al-Qaeda hijackers boarded 4 planes. Had box cutters. 4 planes turn course. 2 hit the World Trade Center buildings one hit the Pentagon, and the other couldn’t find the White House. 4th plane passengers learn of the attacks, subdue the terrorists, and the terrorists nosedived the plane. 2,973 people died in the attacks. President Bush demands Afghanistan turn over al-Qaeda terrorists, Taliban refuse, Afghanistan is bombed. Ground campaign lasted 2 months. Bin Laden escaped until May 2011

    After September 11, congress passed a security legislation in order to make the country safer. The Patriot Act gives the authorities enhanced powers, such as looking up library records, to protect the country. Deterring and punishing terrorist acts
    Title 3 of the act affects the mortgage industry - it strengthens money laundering laws to prevent financing or terroristic activities
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, a re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). NCLB sets high standards and accountability for student achievement to make sure that all children are caught up to 21st century learning. No Child Left Behind spends more money on education than ever before. Schools with low income families are given Title I funds to use toward improvement.
  • 2nd Iraq War

    2nd Iraq War
    Saddam used chemical weapons in the war with Iran (1980s) against Kurds too (lived in Iraq). Supposedly tries to get nuclear & biological weapons. Bush Doctrine authorized use of force against any nation that harbored terrorists, prevent further attacks on the U.S. (The War on Terror). Bush claimed Saddam had links to terror, supposedly colluded with al-Qaeda. Americans thought Saddam was directly linked with 9/11.
  • Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Hurricane Katrina Disaster
    2005; hit LA, MS, AL; category 3 hurricane; sustained winds of 125 mph; flooding broke levees of New Orleans; killed +1800 people; costliest hurricane in American history. Blame for Hurricane Katrina disaster flowed freely; most of it was directed at Bush and Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) for their slowness to act.
  • The Great Recession

    The Great Recession
    Economy went bust in the middle of the campaign (Fall 2008). Falling home prices, poor lending habits by banks, risky investments lead to massive foreclosures. Government forced to bail out failing banks, brokerage houses & insurance companies. Worst economic collapse since the Great Depression.
    By 2009, output was 3.6% below potential and unemployment was up to 8.9%. By February 2010, 8.5 million jobs were lost.
  • Barack Obama

    Barack Obama
    Forty-forth president of the United States, and first African American elected to that office. A lawyer and community organizer in Chicago, Obama served in the Illinois State Senate before being elected to the U.S. senate in 2004. After a protracted primary election campaign against Senator Hillary Clinton, Obama sealed the Democratic Party's nomination and defeated Senator John McCain on November 4, 2008.
  • First Hispanic SCOTUS judge - Sonya Sotomayor

    First Hispanic SCOTUS judge - Sonya Sotomayor
    From Princeton Univserity and Yale law school,Republicans opposed President Obama's nomination of Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court because she supported affirmative action. She was the first Hispanic-American and the third woman in Supreme Court.
  • Affordable Care Act

    Affordable Care Act
    a law consisting of two pieces of legislation that are collectively referred to as "Healthcare Reform" or "Obamacare". The ACA increases benefits and lower costs for consumers, provides new funding for public health and prevention, bolster health care and public health workforce and infrastructure, and foster innovation and quality in our system.