Persian citizens revolt against the shah and demand an effective parliament and constitution. The pervasive protests concerning the shah's mishandling of finances and the foreign domination of Persian chattels leads to the Constitutional Revolution. The shah signs the new constitution in December, which successfully limits royal power and establishes an elected parliament.
The constitution, which limits the absolutist powers of rulers, is introduced.
A Wave of Anger
The shah disperses the parliament and dismantles the newly implemented democratic-style government. This renunciation of government causes a wave of anger throughout Persian citizens.
World War I Profile
Beginning in 1914 and lasting until 1918, Persia declared itself to be a neutral area. However, it is still a scene of heavy fighting
In February of 1921, the military commander Reza Khan seizes power in Persia.
In 1923, Reza Khan becomes the Prime Minister of Persia
The Persian Parliament elects Reza Khan the sole ruler of Persia. He takes the title Reza Shah and enacts a series of reforms meant to modernize the country.These reforms also weaken the power of Islam.
A New Name
Reza Shah Pahlavi changes the country name from Persia to Iran
The Shah expresses his support for Germany in World War II.
Angered by the Shah’s support for Germany, Britain and the Soviet Union forced Reza Shah Pahlavi to abdicate the throne and his son is declared the new ruler.
Public Service Announcement
Ayatollah Khomeini publishes a book in which he attacks the shah as well as Western culture and influence in Iran.
Another Change of Leadership
Iranians elect Mohammad Mossadeq as the new Prime Minister. Mossadeq pledges to seize foreign oil facilities in Iran
A White Revolution
Beginning January 1963, Mossadeq institutes a series of reforms called the White Revolution to improve the life of Iranian citzens as well as modernize the country. He also attacks the power of clerics.
You Are Now Leaving the country
In response to his criticisms, the Shah kicks Khomeini oout of the country. Khomeini seeks refuge in Iraq.
Riots Break Out
The Shah's policies alienate the clergy and his authoritarian rule leads to riots, strikes and mass demonstrations. Martial law is imposed.
As the political situation deteriorates, the Shah and his family are forced into exile.
A Republic is Established
The Islamic Republic of Iran is proclaimed following a referendum.
Islamic militants take 52 Americans hostage inside the US embassy in Tehran. They demand the extradition of the Shah, in the US at the time for medical treatment, to face trial in Iran.
From December 2-3 of 1979, it is reported that 99% of Iranians voted in favor of a constitution based on Islamic law.
A War Starts
Iraq invades Iran. This signals the start of the Iran-Iraq war which lasts for eight years.
The American hostages are released ending 444 days in captivity.
Khomeini issues his eight points which outlines the limits the Iranian government has on Iranian citizens.
An End to War
The Iran-Iraq war ends.
A Religious Edict
Ayatollah Khomeini issues fatwa, a religious edict that orders Muslims to kill the British author, Salman Rushdie, for his novel, 'The Satanic Verses', considered blasphemous to Islam.
A Major Earthquake
A major earthquake strikes Iran, killing approximately 40,000 people.
US imposes oil and trade sanctions over Iran's alleged sponsorship of "terrorism", seeking to acquire nuclear arms and hostility to the Middle East process. Iran denies the charges.
Pro-democracy students at Tehran University demonstrate following the closure of the reformist newspaper 'Salam'. Clashes with security forces lead to six days of rioting and the arrest of more than 1,000 students.
Axis of Evil
President George W. Bush declares Iran to be an "axis of evil".
Iran clashes with the United States over the development of nuclear technology.
Iran says it has begun operations at two uranium mines and a uranium ore-processing plant, furthering its capacity to produce nuclear material. This comes a few days after talks with the West in Kazakhstan fail to make progress.
The Iran-Contra Affair
After the US and Soviet Union halted arms supplies, the US attempted to win the release of hostages in Lebanon by offering secret arms deals, this would later become known as the Iran-Contra affair.
In the Future
While there are speculations of the circumstances of the future relationship between Iran and the U.S., no individual really knows what will happen between the two countries. We can only hope that relations remain peaceful and future conflict is prevented.