Post-WWII: 1946 - Today

  • Dr. Jonas Salk

    Dr. Jonas Salk
    Born on October 28, 1914, Dr. Jonas Salk was a medical scientist and virologist. He began studying viruses in 1941, when he entered the University of Michigan. Salk is renowned for his creation of the polio vaccine, which he started work on in 1948. After the polio vaccines began distribution, Salk campaigned for mandatory vaccinations and founded a medical and scientific research center. He died on June 23, 1995.
  • Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor
    A former associate justice of the Supreme Court, she is the first woman to have ever served as a Supreme Court Justice. A moderate Republican, he was put into office by President Reagan and ruled in the landmark Planned Parenthood v. Casey case.
  • Ike Turner

    Ike Turner
    Ike Turner was an African-American musician who is credited for pioneering much of the Rock 'n' Roll genre during the 1950s. Born on November 5, 1931, Turner's success began with his first recording, "Rocket 88," which is also what many historians believe to be one of the first of the Rock 'n' Roll genre.
  • Elvis Presley

    Elvis Presley
    Also known as "The King of Rock and Roll," Presley was born on January 8, 1935. He popularized rock and roll music starting in 1954, when his career began. Songs including Hound Dog and Heartbreak Hotel resonated with many young Americans of his generation, and he eventually became a national sensation. He died on August 16, 1977, due to many years of drug abuse.
  • G.I. Bill

    G.I. Bill
    Signed by FDR during WWII, it ensured that returning veterans would have access to educational benefits such as college opportunities, all paid for by the federal government. Following WWII, the bill was a major success, and was a major factor in reintegrating veterans and contributing to the good mood of the 1950s.
  • Robert Johnson

    Robert Johnson
    Robert Johnson is an African American businessman and also the first African American billionaire. He founded Black Entertainment Television, or BET, in 1980.
  • Truman Doctrine Introduced

    Truman Doctrine Introduced
    Truman's promise to all democratic nations that the United States would provide military, economical, and political aid to all nations under the threat of communism.
  • Period: to

    The Cold War

  • 2nd Red Scare

    2nd Red Scare
    The second period in American political history in which many Americans were fearful of possible communist infiltrators in the American government. It was enabled by Joseph McCarthy, who accused people of being spies without any substantial evidence, a practice which came to be known as McCarthyism. This event was the "witch-hunt" of the 1950s.
  • Berlin Airlift Begins

    Berlin Airlift Begins
    An event during the Cold War which saw heightened tensions as a result of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin closing the East German borders to the world, cutting off the Western-held West Berlin from supplies. Instead of escalating to war, Truman chose to airlift supplies to the West Berliners, realizing that the Soviets would not shoot down the American planes. Stalin eventually gave in to the pressure and on May 12, 1949 re-opened the borders.
  • Rock 'n' Roll

    Rock 'n' Roll
    Although there is no definitive date for the start of the Rock 'n' Roll genre, the first songs that the genre defines are generally agreed to have appeared in the late 1940s. R&R evolved from a combination of African American music genres, such as gospel, jazz, rhythm and blues, and country music. In the 1960s, it evolved into the more recently-known rock music.
  • Period: to

    The 1950s

  • Fair Deal

    Fair Deal
    President Truman's continuation of FDR's New Deal policies, the Fair Deal deal focused on improving education, universal health care, and economic opportunities for minorities. It had only some success, as Truman met significant resistance from conservative legislators.
  • The Beat Generation

    The Beat Generation
    A generation of young Americans existing after WWII that rejected material culture and other mainstream ideals at the time. They can be considered proto-hippies, and lasted significantly until the mid-1960s, when "hippie" culture started to rise.
  • TV Shows

    TV Shows
    With the rise of the Television as a mass consumer product, TV shows subsequently also experienced a boom in growth. Americans enjoyed a variety of programs, from news broadcasts to sitcoms such as I Love Lucy or Leave It to Beaver to talk shows like The Jack Paar Show.
  • Korean War Starts

    Korean War Starts
    A war between the democratic South Korea and its allies, and the communist North Korea and its allies. It ended with a Korean peninsula still divided into the communist North and the democratic South, separated by the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) on the 38th Parallel. This was the first "proxy war" between the United States and the Soviet Union, as they both backed opposing sides but never fought each other themselves. It ended on July 27,1953 with an armistice brokered by President Eisenhower.
  • Polio Vaccine

    Polio Vaccine
    On March 26, 1953, Dr. Jonas Salk announced that he had come up with a vaccination for polio, a disease that had been plaguing America for years. Polio is a disease that attacks the nervous system and can cause varying degrees of paralysis, and can even cause death. Salk's vaccine injected very small dosages of the polio disease into the human body so that it could create antibodies to learn to fight it. The vaccine testing was met with success and rolled out to Americans in 1955.
  • Television

    After WWII, America's booming economy gave way to increased consumer production and materialism. The television was one of these consumer products, and allowed people to watch the news, entertainment shows, and other programs such as the televangelist shows. The television market saw its rise to popularity during the 50s.
  • Period: to

    Civil Rights Era

  • The Earl Warren Supreme Court

    The Earl Warren Supreme Court
    The Earl Warren Court was named after Earl Warren, 14th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. It was significant for its numerous rulings that expanded civil rights and liberties, judicial power, and federal power. Thus, many of its rulings were in favor of the liberal opinion. Its most famous case was the landmark Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    A landmark Supreme Court case that ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
  • Sonya Sontomayor

    Sonya Sontomayor
    Sonya Sontomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court and the first female Hispanic to serve on the court. She was appointed by President Obama on August 8, 2009.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    In Montgomery, Alabama, local activist leader Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white person on a bus and was subsequently arrested. What followed was a mass boycott of the Montgomery bus system, which resulted in the desegregation of public buses.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus refused to admit nine students into Little Rock High School. Faubus, who was not a segregationist himself, nevertheless had to try and appeal to the Arkansas Democrats. After days of prolonged resistance, President Eisenhower sent in the 101st Airborne Division to enforce the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board, which Faubus resisted. Faubus eventually gave in to federal pressure and enforced the ruling.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    Enacted by President Eisenhower, it ensured voting rights for all Americans, and was the first Civil Rights Act of the era. Notable in its journey is the 24-hour filibuster performed by Strom Thurmond, a Democrat of the Southern Bloc.
  • Sputnik 1

    Sputnik 1
    Спутник-1 was the world's first artificial satellite launched into space. Launched by the Soviets and being nothing more than a small device which broadcast radio pulses, it nevertheless sparked the Space Race and the creation of NASA by the Americans.
  • Sit-Ins

    A practice by African American civil rights activists which involved taking the seats of front counters in segregated stores, which were normally reserved only for white people. This was done in an attempt to desegregate such stores and also bring attention to the poor treatment of African Americans in the South, as sit-in participants were often met with violence, all of which was broadcasted on TV.
  • Period: to

    The 1960s

  • Counterculture

    Counterculture is a way of living that is contrary to the current social norms and mainstream culture. In the 1960's, it was characterized by fierce anti-establishment ideals, rejection of material culture (much like the Beatniks of the 1950's), and protesting of the Vietnam War.
  • Hippies

    Hippies in the 1960s were mainly youth belonging to the counterculture at the time. They rejected all material possessions and created their own communities, and were known for their openness to sex and usage of drugs such as LSD and marijuana. They were eventually popularized by mainstream culture, which tried to appeal to them. This ended up turning hippies off to their own culture.
  • Feminism in the 1960s

    Feminism in the 1960s
    Known as second-wave feminism, it focused on a wide range of issues, such as abortion, sexuality, and economic inequalities.
  • New Frontier

    New Frontier
    A term used by President John F. Kennedy to mark a new era of Progressive ideals and goals. Kennedy's New Frontier saw America look to space, with NASA leading the Space Race and eventually carrying out Apollo 11. Much of legislation under the New Frontier followed many ideals of the New Deal, and served to improve America's economic, educational, and social goals.
  • The Peace Corps

    The Peace Corps
    A volunteer program run by the U.S. government allows American citizens to volunteer aid to foreign countries. Often working with other governments, public institutions, and non-profit organizations, it generally deals with developing countries or those in need of humanitarian aid. It was started by President Kennedy through an Executive Order on March 2, 1961. It was popular among many students after its introduction and since its founding has received around 220,000 members.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    A series of journeys by Civil Rights activists which saw them ride interstate buses into segregated South to show the nation that the South was not enforcing the recently-passed integration law that desegregated buses. Many of these Freedom Riders were often met with violence, and in some cases, buses were bombed.
  • Barrack Obama

    Barrack Obama
    Barrack Hussein Obama II is the first African American to have served as President of the United States, a historic milestone. He campaigned for "Change," and put forth his American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to pull the U.S. out of the Great Recession. He also is known for his healthcare bill, the Affordable Care Act, nicknamed Obamacare.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    A 13-day period of very heightened tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. In response to the Bay of Pigs failure and other American interference in Cuba, the Soviets sent to Cuba intercontinental ballistic missiles, ready to strike the Americans. It was diffused on October 29 after an agreement was made that the Soviets would pull out of Cuba in exchange for the Americans pulling out their missiles from Greece and Turkey.
  • Letter From Birmingham Jail

    Letter From Birmingham Jail
    MLK's letter from Birmingham Jail is an iconic letter that he wrote during his stay there following the Birmingham March. It preached continued nonviolent resistance and the importance in breaking unjust laws in order for justice to prevail. Its famous quote reads, "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere."
  • The "I Have A Dream" Speech

    The "I Have A Dream" Speech
    MLK's famous speech was delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. It called for an end to racism and beginning of social and economic equality; that future Americans "will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character."
  • JFK Assassination

    JFK Assassination
    President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald. Kennedy had been riding in a motorcade through Dallas, Texas and was shot while passing through Elm Street. An investigation launched by the Warren Commission found that Oswald was the sole perpetrator. This was and is still heavily debated by critics and skeptics, who believe that the Warren Commission did not provide substantial evidence and worked sloppily.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Sworn In

    Lyndon B. Johnson Sworn In
    Immediately following Kennedy's assassination, Vice President Johnson was sworn in aboard Air Force One at Love Field airport. Johnson was a strong legislator who was known for his face-to-face negotiation tactics, his Great Society legislative plans, and escalating the conflict in Vietnam to put U.S. troops on the ground there.
  • The Anti-War Movement

    The Anti-War Movement
    Opposition to the American war in Vietnam began in 1964, when President Johnson escalated the situation. Most of the protesters were students, mothers of soldiers, or hippies. It was characterized by civic unrest on many college campuses and peaceful, nonviolent demonstrations, as well as trends such as burning draft cards.
  • The Great Society

    The Great Society
    A series of domestic programs introduced by President Johnson in the 1960s, it aimed to eliminate poverty and racial injustice. Much like the Fair Deal and New Frontier of Truman and Kennedy respectively, the Great Society resembled FDR's New Deal in terms of its agendas. Many of its programs were actually taken from Kennedy's New Frontier and then enacted by Johnson.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Signed by President Johnson on July 2, 1964, it outlawed discrimination based on race, sex, color, religion, or ethnicity.
  • Vietnam War (U.S. Involvement)

    Vietnam War (U.S. Involvement)
    A war between the South Vietnamese and its democratic allies(U.S.), and the North Vietnamese and its communist allies (China & U.S.S.R.). The U.S. entered the conflict with the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, a fabricated event by the Johnson Administration in which American ships were fired upon by North Vietnamese boats. The U.S. withdrew from the country on March 29, 1973, under the belief that the N. Vietnamese would not attack the South anymore. South Vietnam fell 2 years later on April 30, 1975.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Signed by President Johnson in 1965, it enforced the rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, which dealt with discrimination of minorities in voting. The act itself reassured voting rights for minorities in the South. It was heavily influenced by the Selma March which occurred in the same year.
  • Period: to

    The 1970s

  • Apollo 11

    Apollo 11
    The world's first spaceflight that landed humans on the moon. Two American astronauts - Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin - were sent off on the lunar module, attached to a Saturn V rocket landed on the moon and planted the American flag. It was a major achievement in the Space Race for the Americans.
  • Environmental Protection Agency

    Environmental Protection Agency
    The Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, is an agency dedicated to the protection of the environment and human health. Started by President Nixon on December 2, 1970, it has since acted out its cause. Following the inauguration of President Trump, the EPA has been silenced and is under major reform.
  • Stagflation

    An economic situation in which inflation rates are high yet economic growth stagnates; "stagflation." This affected the United States in the 1970s, following President Nixon's wage and price control policies, and was made severe following the OPEC embargo in 1973.
  • Watergate

    A major political scandal that involved President Nixon and his involvement in a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at Watergate office complex. Following a failed cover-up attempt by the Nixon administration, Nixon resigned on August 8, 1974.
  • Watergate Hotel Break-In Attempt

    Watergate Hotel Break-In Attempt
    Nixon's "plumbers" attempt to break into the Watergate complex and are caught and arrested whilst planting surveillance systems in the complex.
  • Nixon Tapes

    Nixon Tapes
    Nixon recorded many tapes of himself speaking to act as a reference to go back to in case he could not remember a faithful account of a conversation or decision. In the Watergate scandal, the tapes were used to his disadvantage by revealing that he had agreed to the DNC break-in plan; nicknamed the "smoking gun tape."
  • OPEC

    OPEC, or the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is an international organization of 13 nations that control over 42% of the world's oil production. OPEC used this to their advantage in the Middle East when the Arab OPEC members issued an embargo on the United States and other countries due to their support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War.
  • Nixon's Resignation

    Nixon's Resignation
    Following the investigation launched against him and the reveal of the Nixon tapes, which meant that Nixon had lied under oath (he previously denied having been involved in Watergate), Nixon announced his resignation on August 8, 1974. Nixon faced certain impeachment and probable removal from office, and elected to leave on his own will before being suffered such an embarrassment.
  • Video Home System (VHS) Introduced

    Video Home System (VHS) Introduced
    VHS is a videocassette recording system developed in the early 1970s by the Japan Victor Company. It was introduced in VCR systems to Japan in 1976 and to the U.S. in 1977. VHS changed the lives of millions of Americans, allowing them to easily record and reproduce their TV programs.
  • Video Games Reach The Market

    Video Games Reach The Market
    Video games took off in the 1980s with the rise of consoles such as the Atari 2600 and Nintendo's Game & Watch series and famous games such as Space Invaders.
  • Camp David Accords

    Camp David Accords
    A peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, brokered by President Jimmy Carter at Camp David. It saw the withdrawal of Israel from the Sinai Peninsula and the end of Egyptian-Israeli hostilities (and subsequently would mark the beginning of the end of hostilities with most Arab neighbors).
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    The 1980s

  • Three-Mile Island

    Three-Mile Island
    A nuclear meltdown on March 28, 1979 that is known as the most significant nuclear power plant accident in U.S. history. The accident turned people off of nuclear power due to the heavy safety concerns and fear of nuclear fallout.
  • Black Entertainment Television (BET)

    Black Entertainment Television (BET)
    Started by Robert Johnson in 1979, BET features music and stories from and for the African-American community.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis

    Iran Hostage Crisis
    A standoff between the United States Carter Administration and the Iranian government. It was caused by the presence of the Shah of Iran in America, who had recently been overthrown and was there for cancer treatment. Iran demanded that the U.S. turn over the Shah, and when refused took over the U.S. embassy in Iran. It ended on January 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan's inauguration, to spite Carter.
  • Reaganomics

    An economic policy attributed to President Reagan in the 1980s, it dealt with supply-side economics and "trickle-down" theory. It involved reducing government spending, federal income tax, capital gains tax, and government regulation.
  • AIDS Begins

    AIDS Begins
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a type of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) that severely affected the Western hemisphere in the late 20th century. On June 5, 1981, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in its weekly newsletter an unusual amount of Pneumocystis pneumonia, a type of pneumonia. The epidemic was first majorly recorded (in the U.S.) in homosexual communities, but eventually spread to the entire nation through blood transfusions.
  • Music Television (MTV)

    Music Television (MTV)
    MTV is a television entertainment channel. In the 1980s, when it launched, it aired music videos guided by "video jockeys" (VJs). It resonated with many young adults and caused the proliferation of many song artists. Today, MTV has largely replaced its music broadcasting with reality, comedy, and drama shows.
  • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

    Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
    A proposed missile defense system that involved satellites in space that would shoot down ICBMs with lasers. Nicknamed "Star Wars," it was pursued by the U.S., but was eventually dropped. Reagan, however, gave the idea to the Soviets following his MAD doctrine. Part of the Soviets' downfall is attributed to this, as they went into economic despair focusing on its research.
  • Iran-Contra Affair

    Iran-Contra Affair
    A political scandal that concerned President Reagan's involvement in the selling of weapons to Iran, the current subject of an arms embargo. The purpose was to, as a result, be able to fund the Contras of Nicaragua in order to negotiate the release of U.S. hostages.
  • Challenger Explosion

    Challenger Explosion
    A minute and thirteen seconds into the Challenger's flight, the space shuttle exploded, killing all seven crew members. The explosion is blamed on the cold weather of the day, which caused a seal in a rocket booster to fail, as it was not designed for cold weather.
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    The 1990s

    Only 90's kids will remember.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    Following large protests by East Germans as well as a large number of East Germans passing through Hungarian and Austrian borders into West Germany, East German authorities discussed opening the borders. An official misheard this and announced that the borders would be opened immediately. Following, large numbers of East Germans crowded the gates, and the authorities eventually gave in to demands and opened the borders. This would mark the fall of the Soviet Union and communism in Europe.
  • The Internet

    The Internet
    The internet, which was started by the military in the 1960s for the purpose of exchanging data, was by the time of the 1990s growing into a global communication system. It allowed people to communicate across the country or even globally. Proliferated by the rise of consumer computers, it existed in millions of homes by the late 1990s.
  • Persian Gulf War

    Persian Gulf War
    In response to an invasion and annexation of Kuwait by traq, a US-led coalition landed in the invaded country on August 2, 1990 to push the Iraqis back. Saddam justified the invasion with historical claims that Kuwait belonged to Iraq due to Ottoman history. The coalition launched Operation Desert Storm January 17, 1991. It ended with the ousting of Iraq from Kuwait.
  • Rodney King Incident

    Rodney King Incident
    On March 1991, African American Rodney King was chased 78 miles in his car by Los Angeles police. He was eventually caught and beaten whilst the entire nation watched. What ensued was a 4-day riot in L.A. targeted at Asians whom were accused of not hiring people of color.
  • The Balkans Crisis

    The Balkans Crisis
    After the dissolution of Yugoslavia following the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, civil war broke out between the Croatians, Serbs, and Bosnians. Serbian forces murdered thousands of Muslim Bosnians, prompting a NATO intervention.
  • Collapse of the Soviet Union & Communism in Europe

    Collapse of the Soviet Union & Communism in Europe
    The Soviet Union was dissolved as a political entity on December 25, 1991. In the previous year, multiple Soviet nations started to secede from the union due to political, economic, and social strife that plagued it. All former Soviet states were reformed into independent, capitalist nations, including Russia. It marked the end of communism in Europe. The Russian state was succeeded by the Russian Federation, with Boris Yeltsin, former coup leader against Gorbachev, as the President.
  • World Trade Center Attack Of 1993

    World Trade Center Attack Of 1993
    A precursor to 9/11, terrorists exploded massive car bombs in the basement parking garage of the WTC, hoping to collapse the building. It left only a six-story hole in the ground, and the incident was quickly forgotten.
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    A North American trade bloc between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It removed trade barriers and tariffs between the three countries (setting up free trade), put in place rules for several industries (including agriculture and technology), and stopped the proliferation of Mexican knock-off products.
  • Online Gaming

    Online Gaming
    Online gaming took off in the mid-1990s, with the advent of Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games such as EverQuest and the rise of networking on gaming consoles. Today, much of online gaming exists on computers and gaming consoles.
  • Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

    Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
    A federal law that defines marriage between a man and a woman. Introduced by Bill Clinton, it states that state governments do not have to acknowledge the gay marriages of other states.
  • The Monica Lewinsky Affair

    The Monica Lewinsky Affair
    President Clinton had an affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Special prosecutor Kenneth Star heard of the affair from Linda Tripp, a friend of Monica's who was informed in confidence. Clinton initially denied the affair allegations, and testified that he did no wrong - lying under oath. He was unsuccessfully impeached afterward, making him the second to ever be impeached.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Times

    only today's kids will remember
  • Election of 2000

    Election of 2000
    A presidential battle between Democrat Al Gore (Clinton's VP) and Republican George W. Bush (H.W. Bush's son). One of the closest elections in American history, it ended with Al Gore challenging the election results due to inconsistencies in voting tallies in Florida. Gore had won the popular vote, but Bush the electoral. Eventually, the Supreme Court ruled that Gore could not overturn the election results.
  • 9/11

    On September 11, 2001, four American commercial flight planes were hijacked by al-Qaeda terrorists. Two hit the World Trade Centers, one hit the Pentagon, and the final one was subdued by passengers and crashed into a field. 2996 people total died. Following the attacks, President Bush demanded the turning over of al-Qaeda terrorists by Afghanistan, whom refused.

    The "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act" of 2001 was formed in a response to the 9/11 attacks. It authorized the U.S. government to conduct surveillance and search through the personal records of American citizens, in the search for potential threats. It is generally regarded as widely unpopular, as many people felt it infringed upon their privacy.
  • Second Iraq War

    Second Iraq War
    Saddam Hussein, authoritarian leader of Iraq, was accused of having chemical weapons (WMDs) and attempting to acquire nuclear and biological weapons. The U.S. doctrine (Bush) at the time authorized the use of force against any nation that harbored terrorists, to prevent further attacks on the U.S. Bush claimed that Saddam had links to terrorist groups, although no real evidence was found. The war ended with the ousting and execution of Hussein, and ensuing chaos in the region.
  • Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Hurricane Katrina Disaster
    One of the deadliest hurricanes in American history, it caused over $108 billion in damages and left over 1000 people dead and many more displaced. Bush was criticized for his poor handling - neglecting - of the disaster, adding to his unpopularity.
  • The Great Recession

    The Great Recession
    The second greatest financial crisis since the Great Depression, the Great Recession saw the collapse of the stock market due to poor banking practices in the United States, which led to a global economic downturn.
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
    The Recovery Act was a stimulus package signed into law by President Obama to pull the United States out of the Great Depression. It gave a total of $831 billion to the economy in an attempt to create and save jobs and provide relief to those heavily hit by the recession.
  • Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)

    A healthcare bill signed into law by President Obama on March 23, 2010. It ensures that all Americans have access to affordable health insurance, doing so by offering the people tax credits on federal health insurance plans. It has been the subject of hot debate in the United States, and Republicans have made it one of their main goals in the past 7 years to repeal it.