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The Development of Canada

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    Timeline of the Development of Canada

  • 1670

    The Hudson's Bay Company, Canada's oldest business enterprise, is founded by the British, primarily as a fur trading enterprise (it still exists today as a major Canadian department store chain).
  • 1759

    The gradual conquest of New France by the British culminates in a victory at the Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City, depriving France of her North American empire.
  • 1763

    New France is renamed "Quebec" and formally delivered to England by the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris ends French rule in Canada.
  • 1791

    Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) are formed.
  • 1812

    Beginning of the War of 1812 between Canada (Britain) & the US. The Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814.
  • 1841

    Upper and Lower Canada are united through the Act of Union.
  • 1818

    The 49th parallel becomes accepted as the border between the US and Canada from Lake of the Woods in Ontario to the Rocky Mountains.
  • 1856

    Ottawa becomes the capital of Canada.
  • 1867

    The Dominion of Canada is created under the British North America Act (BNA Act) passed by the British government. Sir John A. Macdonald becomes the first Prime Minister of the Dominion that included Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Within the next six years Manitoba, British Columbia and Prince Edward Island were admitted into the Dominion.
  • 1885

    Louis Riel and the Métis (descendants of marriages between native people and Europeans) clash with the Northwest Mounted Police at Duck Lake and are defeated. Riel is hanged in Regina, Saskatchewan, on November 16, 1885.
  • 1897

    The Klondike Gold Rush begins along the Klondike river near Dawson City, Yukon. It is not clear who made the actual discovery, with some accounts saying that it was Kate Carmack, while others credit Skookum Jim. In 1898, the population in the Klondike may have reached 40,000, which threatened to cause a famine.
  • 1904

    In 1904-5 Alberta and Saskatchewan enter Confederation, leaving only Newfoundland on its own.
  • 1916

    Women are granted the right to vote and hold public office, thanks to Nellie McClung & others.
  • 1949

    Newfoundland enters Confederation as the last province to join.
  • 1956

    During the Suez Crisis, Canadian diplomat Lester B. Pearson proposes a force sponsored by the UN that could supervise cease-fire. The UN General Assembly accepts his proposal and peacekeeping was born. Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957, and went on to become Prime Minister of Canada in 1963.
  • 1965

    The National Flag of Canada, known as the Maple Leaf, makes its first appearance. February 15 is National Flag of Canada Day.
  • 1967

    Canada turns 100 years old and celebrates with the 1967 Worlds Fair (known as Expo 67) festivities in Montreal.
  • 1969

    The Official languages Act is adopted by the Government of Canada making English and French "official" languages, having preferred status in law over all other languages.
  • 1980

    O Canada" is proclaimed Canada's national anthem, 100 years after it was first sung on June 24, 1880.
  • 1993

    Kim Campbell becomes the first female and 19th Prime Minister, but her Conservative party's defeat in an election means she only held office from June 25, 1993 to November 4, 1993 (132 days).
  • 1994

    Canada, the United States and Mexico launch the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
  • 1995

    A referendum on Quebec independence takes place and the "no" side (against independence) wins by a very narrow margin.
  • 2003

    Vancouver wins the bidding process to host the 2010 Winter Olympics. Canada was home to the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary.
  • 2009

    Canada wins its fifth straight gold medal at the world junior hockey championship, defeating Sweden 5 - 1. .
    Here is a link to recap the victory