The Depression 1930s 04

  • The Supreme Court of Canada rules that women are not persons

    The Supreme Court of Canada rules that women are not considered persons who can hold a position in office according to the British North America Act - reversed a year later by the Judical Committee of the Privy Council in Britain.
  • Penny Postage

    The penny postage rate will decrease to 2 cents per letter, this will cause post office to lose $2000 in revenue.
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  • 'I'm Alone' Sunk

    -Canadian rumrunner ship sunk
    -US Coastgaurd caught ship
    -Took prisoners to New Orleans
    -Tension created over prohibition between Canada and US
  • First Stock Market Crash

    • Dow Jones Industrial Average prices peaked at 381.17
    • The market then fell sharply for a month, losing 17% of its value on the intial leg down.
    • Prices then recovered more than half of the losses over the next week, but went back down immediately afterward.
  • Black Tuesday

    • Wall Street stock market crash
    • Most devastating stock market crash in the history of the USA if you take into consideration the full extent of harm it caused and duration of recovery
    • Began the 12-year depression, which affected all industrialized western countries (like Canada)
    • A then-record number of 12.9 million shares were traded on that day.
  • Second Stock Market Crash

    A second stock market crash hit Canada. After the original crash, stocks continued to fall until the market hit bottom on November 13th.
  • U.S. President Herbert Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act

    Previously, Canada had been the United States largest trading partner. However, after this act was implemented into American law, it raised the prices on importing goods from other countries (i.e. Canada) which made it far more difficult for Canada to continue it's large export trade, further causing much financial difficulty in that feild.
  • Conservative, R.B. Bennett Becomes Prime Minister

    In the 1930 Federal Election, R.B Bennett's conservatives won with a majority of 137 seats to the Liberals 91 seats. This win defeated Mackenzie King's Liberal Party. Much of Bennett's success is related to King's unwillingness to acknowledge the existence of the depression or provide much financial aid for the provinces.
  • Communist Plea for money to the unemployed

    • group of communists approached Prime Minister Richard Bennet and demanded the government to give payment to the unemployed
    • they also requested him to pay their fare home, but he provided tickets to the "Workers" "Paradise" instead
    • this shows how people were unsatisfied with the high rate of unemployment
    • it also tells that some people might have worked in the "Workers" "Paradise" in the Soviet Union because they couldn't get a job
  • The Pecora Investigation

    • An inquiry by the United States Senate Committee on Banking and Currency began
    • Set up to investigate the causes of the Wall Street Stock Market Crash in 1929
    • The investigation uncovered a wide range of abusive practices on the part of banks and bank affiliates, including conflicts of interest.
    • Is important because it showed people taking interest in what had happened, trying to understand it, hold people accountable, and make sure it didn't happen again.
  • Bennett Endorses Relief Camps Nationwide

    -PM Bennett endorsed a campaign for a nationwide camp to house the single, unemployed, homeless males in Canada
    -3 meals a day, paid 20 cents a day for maintenance work, given work clothing
    -planted trees, constructed buildings...etc
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a "bank holiday"

    -All United States banks are closed
    -All financial transactions are frozen
    -No bank transactions can be made with the US
  • Newfoundland loses democracy

    Newfoundland was compelled to choose between democracy and default because of their financial struggles due to the depression.Newfoundland would have never given up democracy or independence if the IMF(International Monetary Fund) had existed then.
  • Drop in Net Income for Canadian Farmers

    -By the end of 1933 the net income for farmers decreased to $11 millioin from $363 million
    -two thirds of farm population in Saskatchewan was destitute
  • Public Relief

    Public relief had been used by over 1,500,000 Canadians that year, because of the high unemployment rate of up to 25%.
  • Strong 2-day Dust Storm

    Strong dust storm lasted two days, removed massive amounts of the Great Plains topsoil. One of the worst dust storms of Dust Bowl. Caused major ecological and agricultural damage to land.
  • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission established. This was done in order to enforcing many laws regarding nation's security and stock exchanges.
  • Bank of Canada Founded

    In 1933, Prime Minister, Bennett, set up royal commission to study "organization and working of entire banking and monetary system to consider arguments for or against central banking institution". Led to 1934, bank founded as privately owned corporation.
  • Reconstruction Party of Canada

    Founded by Henry Herbert Stevens, who argued for drastic economic reform and government intervention in the economy.
  • Bank of Canada Open to Public

    Although the Bank of Canada was originally founded in 1934, it was a private bank and therefore was unable to help as many Canadian citizens as possible. In 1935, however, the bank was formally opened to the public.
  • The On-to-Ottawa Trek

    -numerous unemployed men from Saskatchewan lead a protest against the conditions in Federal releif camps
    -Conditions include heavy labour for only 20 cents a day
    -Regina Police constable and one protestor were killed
    -Nickname: "The Regina Riot"
  • Liberal, Willim Lyon Mackenzie King Becomes PM

    The Liberal Party leader, William Lyon Mackenzie King wins the election with a majority, defeating the Conservative Party's, R.B. Bennett. Bennett's government lost the election because they were seen as being an indecisive and ineffectual government when dealing with the immense financial debt.
  • Mackenzie King becomes Prime Minister

    -Prime Minister Mackenzie king is realected for the third time
    -He replaces R.B. Bennet
  • United Auto Workers (UAW) unhappy with working conditions

    UAW decided to have "sit in" strike, where workers went to factories and refused to work, until agreement with company is made. Stalled production in many companies, which caused strike to spread to many different auto plants.
  • Peek of Major Heat Wave

    Peek of major heat wave strikes North America and caused catastrophic human suffering, and enormous economic toll. Death toll over 5000, huge numbers of crops destroyed by heat and lack of moisture.
  • Social Credit backbenchers' revolt March - June

    Social Credit backbenchers' were aginst Premier WIlliam Aberhart from his Social Credit League. Aberhart failed to provide Albertans with CAD$25 monthly dividends through social creadit as he promised before his 1935 election.
  • Alberta - minimum wage

    Alberta had the second highest minimum wages in Canada. Effective October 1st. 1937. The new basic rate would be 33.3 cents per hour and $15 per week.
  • Nationa Housing Aact

    • this at was padded to increase the number of houses being constrructed in Canada, providing a lower rate of loan than the mortgage
    • this helped people with low-income were able to own houses, or simply rent houses at a lower price
    • Not only did this enable more people to build houses, it also created employment opportunities such as masons, architects etc.
  • Relief Workers' Strike in British Columbia

    -unemployed members of the Relief Project Worker's Union in Vancouver occupied the Hotel Georgia, the Vancouver Art Gallery, and the central post office
    -began a sit-down strike led by Communist-led unemployed protestors
    -ended on Bloody Sunday (battle with the police force)
  • Britain Declares War on Germany

    Britain declares war on Germany on September 3rd, 1939. Britain and Canada, being allies, pushed Canada in the position of helping in the war. This beginning of World War II pulled Canada right out of the depression. An extremely large amount of factory jobs opened to create materials needed in the war. Men left to go to war leaving their jobs open for others.
  • Federal Election

    -Liberals won majority
    -Mackenzie King is Prime Minister again
    -Platform based on relief programs
    -Builds confidence that stable economy will be sustained
  • War declared on Italy

    • as war elevates production rises -Canada declares war on Italy
  • Unemployment Insurance Introduced

    -Necessary to provide a source of income to unemployed people while in between jobs
    -Helped to stabilize economy
    -Product of the depression