10 important events concerning Special Education

  • CEC advocacy group

    The Council for Exceptional Children is an organization that is considered the first advocacy group for children with disabilities. The group came around in 1922 out of New York City at Columbia University. CEC is one of the largest special education advocacy groups. The main objective of CEC is to ensure that children with special needs receives FAPE.
  • NARC

    The National Association for Retarted Citizens was created in 1950. NARC was formed by twenty-three individual advocacy groups that believed in one thing, so they joined forces to be more influential. During the passing of IDEA, there were over 200,000 members. NARC helps with litigation and seeing that critical precedents through judicial process is met.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    This landmark court case overturned the Plessy v. Fergusen case saying that "Separate is NOT equal". This court case brought to attention not only black v. white in the schools, but also special needs students v. normal students. With this case, many advocacy groups were formed to help inform the nation of the problem with the US special education programs.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilition Act

    This act allows protection from discrimination against special needs and disabilities. This law is considered the first law put into place giving protection to students with special needs. This law includes FAPE and LRE. A student is eligible when they have a mental or physical disability that deters their learning ability.
  • PL 94-142

    The PL 94-142- The Education for All Handicapped Children Act was placed into law. Special education advocacy groups rejoiced this day because that's when President Ford signed this into law. This is the most important piece of legislation signed because it secured a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment.
  • Board of Ed. of HHCD v. Rowley

    This landmark case designed the Rowley Two-Part test in determining whether or not FAPE is being met according to the student's IEP. The two part test consists of the questions " has the school complied with the procedures of IDEA" and "is the IEP, developed through the procedures of the Act, reasonably calculated to enable the child to receive educational benefit." If the two questions are answered correct, then FAPE and IDEA has been met.
  • ADA

    The Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law on July 26, 1990 by President George W. Bush. This act guarentees that people with special needs have the same rights as others in all places. This included school and work. This act also ruled that people with special needs would not be discriminated against in the school, workforce, or everyday society such as public transportation.
  • IDEA

    The individuals with disabilities education act was signed into law almost thirty years after PL 94-142 by President George W. Bush. The concept of IDEA was first brought to the senate table by Iowa's own Tom Harkin in 1989. This law included 6 pillars: FAPE, LRE, IEP, evaluation, parent/student participation, and procedural safeguards for all participants. This law also included 4 sections, A-D.
  • NCLB

    No Child Left Behind was signed into law by President George W. Bush in 2002. This law calls for all students to be proficient in math and reading by the year 2014. This law has been seen both negatively and positively. Some states are even partitioning to opt out of NCLB. Schools are supposed to report their scores for the AYP, some have been proven to have cheated, while others are honest on whether or not their school district is proficient or not.
  • IDEA Reauthorized

    IDEA 2004 was signed into law by President George W. Bush. This reauthorization of IDEA made many changes to the original IDEA. The changes included the IEP, due process, and student discipline.