World War I (Eric Winkler)

By EricW
  • Franz Ferdinand assassinated

    Franz Ferdinand assassinated
    Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in the town of Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary. He was killed by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist who wanted to free the Slavic peoples living in Austria-Hungary. Franz Ferdinand's death destroyed the balance of power in Europe and was the main reason World War I began.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

    Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
    After the archduke's death, Austria-Hungary left Serbia steep demands. Serbia did not fulfill all of the demands and Austria-Hungary broke off relations with Serbia. Austria-Hungary then declared war on Serbia to make them pay for Franz Ferdinand's assassination. This started World War I.
  • Russia mobilizes their armed forces

    Russia mobilizes their armed forces
    Russia starts to mobilize their forces in response to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. Russia was Serbia's ally and they wanted to protect Serbia from Austria-Hungary.
  • Germany declares war on Russia

    Germany declares war on Russia
    Germany warned Russia that the continued mobilization of troops against Austria-Hungary would result in war with Germany. Russia refused to comply with German demands. Germany declared war on Russia in response to the refusal.
  • Germany declares war on France

    Germany declares war on France
    Since France was allied with Russia, Germany declared war on France. Hours later, France made its own declaration of war against Germany. France wanted to reclaim the land it lost to Germany in an earlier war and Germany wanted to conquer France.
  • Germany invades Belgium

    Germany invades Belgium
    Germany invaded Belgium so they could catch the French off guard and take northern France and Paris. Belgium was neutral, so the French didn't expect Germany to invade Belgium. Luckily, Belgian soldiers held out for 3 weeks, giving French soldiers time to mobilize and get in positions to defend France.
  • Great Britain declares war on Germany

    Great Britain declares war on Germany
    Great Britain decided that if Germany violates Belgium's neutrality, they would enter the war. When Germany invaded Belgium, Great Britain told Germany that if they didn't stop, Great Britain would enter the war. Germany didn't reply, so Great Britain declared war on them.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

    Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia
    Russia was mobilizing troops on the border between Austria-Hungary and Russia. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia because Germany, their ally, was at war with Russia as well. They also took the mobilizing of troops as an act of war.
  • France and Great Britian declare war on Austria-Hungary.

    France and Great Britian declare war on Austria-Hungary.
    Since Austria-Hungary was an ally of Germany, France and Great Britain delcared war on them.
  • Japan joins the Allied Powers

    Japan joins the Allied Powers
    Japan was a rival of Germany and jumped at the chance to go to war with them. Japan began taking German colonies that were in the Pacific Ocean. Japan helped the Allies by securing trading routes in the Pacific Ocean and by taking pressure off of Russian troops in Asia. Japan also joined the war to help itself, as it sought to increase its influence in China.
  • The Battle of the Marne begins

    The Battle of the Marne begins
    The Battle of the Marne began when the French and British armies attacked the advancing German armies so they could stop the Germans from reaching Paris. 2,556,000 soldiers fought in the battle.
  • The Battle of the Marne ends

    The Battle of the Marne ends
    The Allies won the battle and stopped the advance of the Germans. There were 483,000 casualties in the battle. The Allied victory set up a stalement in the Western Front for the next 3 years, with both sides setting up trenches and settling down for trench warfare. The Allied victory also showed both sides that this would not be a quick, easy war; it would be a long bloody one.
  • The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers

    The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers
    The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers because Germany was winning battles early in the war, and the Ottoman Empire wanted to join the winning side. They also wanted to defeat their enemy Russia, who wanted the Ottoman Empire's Dardanelles Strait.
  • Germany sets up a war zone around the British Isles

    Germany sets up a war zone around the British Isles
    Germany set up a war zone around Great Britain, which meant that they would sink any ship, whether neutral or Allied, bound for British ports. Germany hoped this would scare off countries that send products to Britain. However, the U.S. protested the war zone by Germany. This made some Germans nervous, as they did not want the U.S entering the war on the side of the Allies.
  • The British passenger ship Lusitania sinks

    The British passenger ship Lusitania sinks
    The Lusitania was torpedoed by a German U-boat. 1,201 people drowned in the attack, including 128 Americans. The general American population was infuriated at the attack. Woodrow Wilson sent a letter to Germany telling them to stop the attacks. The German government immediately apologized and curbed their submarine policy back a bit, so the Americans would not get involved in the war.
  • Italy joins the Allies and declares war on Austria-Hungary

    Italy joins the Allies and declares war on Austria-Hungary
    When WWI started, Italy decided to stay neutral despite its alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Italy decided to join the Allies when they promised Italy land in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Italy fought Austria-Hungary on the border between the two countries for the rest of the war.
  • The first tank is produced

    The first tank is produced
    The British tank called "Little Willie" was made in England. It wasn't successful right away, as "Little Willie" was heavy, slow, and couldn't cross trenches. However, the British realized the potential and kept making improvements to the tank. The improved tanks helped the British in battles later in WWI.
  • The Battle of Verdun begins

    The Battle of Verdun begins
    The Germans decided to attack the city of Verdun because they could attack the city from 3 sides. They also hoped that a major victory over the French at Verdun would make the British withdraw from the war. After the Germans attacked and gained some ground, the battle quickly became a stalement. Every time a side gained some ground, the other side would take it right back.
  • The Sussex is torpedoed

    The Sussex is torpedoed
    The French passenger ship Sussex was torpedoed by the Germans, killing 50 people and injuring several Americans. After the attack, Woodrow Wilson demanded that the Germans stop their policy on submarine warfare.
  • The Sussex Pledge is put into effect

    The Sussex Pledge is put into effect
    Fearing that the Americans would enter the war, Germany agreed to stop sinking unarmed ships on sight. If the Germans came across a merchant ship, they would board it and search it. If they found war materials, they would evacuate everyone on the ship and then sink it. This policy was known as the Sussex Pledge.
  • The National Defense Act of 1916 is passed

    The National Defense Act of 1916 is passed
    Woodrow Wilson signed the National Defense Act, which increased the size of the National Guard. The National Guard was the reserve army for the regular US Army. It also increased the training for the members in the National Guard, bringing them up to the level of training that cadets in the US Army recieved.
  • The Battle of the Somme begins

    The Battle of the Somme begins
    The French and British decided to attack the area around the Somme River. It was a major offensive for the British, whose artillery pounded the German trenches. After the artillery shells ended, the 100,000 British soldiers went up, expecting the way to be cleared. Unfortunately, the soldiers instead faced a wall of machine gun fire. July 1st was the worst day for the British military in WWI, with the British sustaining 60,000 casualties in one day. Both sides settled in for a bloody battle.
  • The Battle of the Somme ends

    The Battle of the Somme ends
    The British halted their attacks after 4 months of fighting. They only advanced 6 miles in German territory, but this was the longest advance since the Battle of the Marne. However, this battle was very controversial in Britain due to the massive loss of British lives. The Battle of the Somme was the first time the tank was used in battle. It was also one of the bloodiest battles in WWI, with 1,073,907 casualties.
  • The Battle of Verdun ends

    The Battle of Verdun ends
    The German forces at Verdun were getting weaker because of troops at Verdun being moved elsewhere to combat other attacks. The French took advantage of this and took back the territory they lost. The French took 11,000 Germans prisoner before the Germans called off all attacks and retreated. Overall, no ground was gained in one of the longest and bloodiest battles in WWI, where there were 714,231 casualties in the 10 months of battle.
  • Germany breaks the Sussex Pledge and begins unrestricted submarine warfare again.

    Germany breaks the Sussex Pledge and begins unrestricted submarine warfare again.
    The German Navy convinced the German government that starting up unrestricted submarine warfare again would result in a German victory later in the year. Germany announced that it would again sink any ship approaching British ports. The German Navy realized that this policy would probably bring the US into the war, but the Germans thought they will have won by then.
  • Newspaper in the US publish the Zimmermann Telegram

    Newspaper in the US publish the Zimmermann Telegram
    The Zimmermann Telegram was a message between German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann and Mexico. The message said that if Mexico became an ally of Germany against the US, Germany would give Mexico land in the US and large amounts of money. It was intercepted by the British and published on the front page of American newspapers. Americans were outraged and clamored for war against Germany.
  • Revolution begins in Russia

    Revolution begins in Russia
    Russians were fed up with Czar Nicholas II and his corrupt government. They were fed up with the poor economy, not having much food, and with Russia's catastrophic involvement in the war. Russia had more causalties than any other country and they were ill-equipped to go up against Germany. 90,000 Russians went on strike, forming mobs in the streets and fighting with police. The mobs were fighting to overthrow the czar.
  • Czar Nicholas II is overthrown

    Czar Nicholas II is overthrown
    Czar Nicholas II steps down from the throne, ending the period of czarist rule in Russia. The people in Russia set up a temporary democratic government in place of the czar.
  • Germany sinks 4 American ships

    Germany sinks 4 American ships
    Germany sank 4 American ships, the City of Memphis, the Illinois, the Algonquin, and Vigilancia. 36 Americans died. This act was a main reason why America decided to enter the war.
  • Woodrow Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany

    Woodrow Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany
    President Wilson decided that the America could not sit on the sidelines anymore and let Germany sink US ships without opposition. He stood before Congress and asked for a declaration of war.
  • The US declares war on Germany and enters WWI

    The US declares war on Germany and enters WWI
    The Senate voted to enter the war by a vote of 82-6. The House of Representatives voted to enter the war by a vote 373-50. The United States was no longer neutral. It was at war.
  • US Congress passes the Selective Service Act

    US Congress passes the Selective Service Act
    The Selective Service Act established a military draft in America. It required all men 21-30 years in age to register for the military. 24 million men were registered by the end of the war. Only about 3 million were drafted to serve in the Armed Forces.
  • The first US troops arrive in France

    The first US troops arrive in France
    14,000 American troops landed in France, much to the relief of the Allies. The American troops in France helped push back the Germans and turned the tide in the war in the favor of the Allies.
  • Vladimir Lenin overthrows the democratic Russian government and sets up a Communist state

    Vladimir Lenin overthrows the democratic Russian government and sets up a Communist state
    Vladimir Lenin and the socialist group the Bolsheviks led an uprising against the prime minister and overthrew him. Lenin established a Communist state and wanted an armistice with the Central Powers.
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed

    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed
    The Treaty of Breat-Litovsk was signed, giving large amounts of Russian land to the Central Powers. In return, Russia recieved peace and withdrew from World War I.
  • Germany begins a major offensive on the Western Front

    Germany begins a major offensive on the Western Front
    Fortified by troops from the Eastern Front, the Germans launched a major offensive in France. The Allies were caught by surprise. The Germans pushed the Allies across the Somme River and to within 40 miles of Paris. It started to look like Germany had the upper hand and was going to win the war.
  • The Battle of Belleau Wood begins

    The Battle of Belleau Wood begins
    The Battle of Belleau Wood was the first major battle that the Americans were involved in. The Americans helped stop the German offensive in France and were the main participants in the battle. The Americans went into Belleau Wood and set up heavy artillery shelling and bayonet lines. The US Marine Corps were a major part of this battle.
  • The Battle of Belleau Wood ends

    The Battle of Belleau Wood ends
    The Americans fought through machine gun fire, artillery fire, and poison gas. The Marines were the ones who attacked the main force of Germans and expelled them from the woods, but they did so at a heavy price. The Americans suffered 10,000 casualties.
  • The Battle of Argonne Forest begins

    The Battle of Argonne Forest begins
    The Battle of Argonne Forest was one of the last major offensives by the Allies. 37 French and American divisions participated in the offensive. The French and American troops, supported by tanks, airplanes, and artillery, began steadily moving into German territory. The Germans put up a tough defense, but the French and American armies kept moving and pushing back the Germans into their own territory.
  • Germany appeals for an armistice

    Germany appeals for an armistice
    Facing certain defeat, Germany appealed to Woodrow Wilson for an armistice. Wilson agreed to the armistice under certain conditions. Germany had to accept Wilson's Fourteen Points and promise not to renew hostilites. All German troops had to leave Belgium and France. The negotiations had to be with civilian leaders, not the military. German leaders had to decide whether to accept this deal or not.
  • German kaiser Wilhelm II is overthrown

    German kaiser Wilhelm II is overthrown
    Wilhelm II, the kaiser of Germany, was overthrown and replaced with a democratic republic. The new leaders of the German republic agreed to the terms of the armistice.
  • The Battle of Argonne Forest ends

    The Battle of Argonne Forest ends
    The French and American armies advanced through German territory, taking back northern France and eventually pushing the Germans back into their own country. The fighting against the Germans came to an abrupt stop when the news about the armistice came in and that the war was over. The casualties in the battle numbered 292,000.
  • Germany signs the armistice and WWI ends

    Germany signs the armistice and WWI ends
    Germany signed the armistice, ending all fighting in the Western Front at 11 AM. The Germans agreed to withdraw all forces west of the Rhine River, withdraw its fleet to the Baltic Sea, and surrender large amounts of war equipment. The Great War was over.