World War I

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany comes to power

    Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany comes to power
    • He was born 27 January 1859 in Berlin, Prussia. *Wilhelm becomes the ruler of Germany at the age of 29, after the death of his father
    • He was married to Victoria, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom *launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to World War I.
    • He died 4 June 1941 (aged 82) Doorn, Netherlands
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  • Reign of KIng George V

    Reign of KIng George V
    • KIng George and Queen Mary's coronation took place in june of 1911 where his son David was also delcared Prince of Whales. He became king in the middle of a Constitutional crisis over the governments attempts to curb the powerof the House of Lords.
    • He recieved much respect when he made visits to the front line, hospitals, factories, and dockyards during World War I
  • Woodrow Wilson elected President

    Woodrow Wilson elected President
    • Was born in 1856 and became the 28th President in 1912.
    • Vice president was Thomas Marshall
    • He focused on anti-trust measures and reorganizing the federal banking systems.
    • Declared strict neutrality
    • Served 8 years
    • Although Wilson wanted to stay out of war completely he ended up increasing the size of armed forces.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    *Killed by Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip while on a formal visit to Sarajevo.
    * He was killed while traveling in his car.
    * An attempt at assassinating Ferdinand occured earlier that day
    * heir to the throne of Austria- Hungry
  • Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia

    Austria- Hungary declares war on Serbia
    *Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, effectively beginning the First World War.
    * After assuring that Germany was an ally, Austria-Hungary declared that they be allowed to set up an investigation against Serbia on behalf of the killing of Ferdinand.
    *they also demanded all anti- austrian propaganda be supressed.
    * Serbia agreed to all but one
    * Austria's government goes chaotic and has a break in relations with the other countries.
    *World World I begins
  • Germany declares war on Russia

    Germany declares war on Russia
    • Ally of Austria-Hungary. *Declares war on Russia and demands the neutrality of Russia's ally France; France refuses and mobilises.
    • Germany and Ottoman Empire form a secret alliance treaty.
  • Germany Declares War on France

    Germany Declares War on France
    • German troops came into Belgium directed uder the SchleiffenPlan which was made up in 1905. *Sir Edward Grey set an ultimatum to Germany declaring te witdrawal from the neutral Belium
  • United Kingdom declares war on Germany

    United Kingdom declares war on Germany
    *An ultimatum to the German Government that the neutrality of Belgium must be respected.This however was rejected by the Kaiser's Government
    *German Chancellor replies that the treaty is just a scrap of paper.
    *The United Kingdom declares war on Germany
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

    Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia
    *had the largest army in the world at that time.
  • Serbia declares war on Germany

    Serbia declares war on Germany
  • Austria- Hungary declares war on Russia

    Austria- Hungary declares war on Russia
    • Austria- Hungary was with the Central Powers
    • Russian Empire was with the Allies
    • Austria- Hungary declared war or Russia to prevent Russia from replacing Turkey as the dominant power in the region.
  • Serbia Declares war on Germany

    Serbia Declares war on Germany
    *On July 23, Austria-Hungary demanded Serbia comply with its 1909 declaration to the Great Powers.
    *It stated that they must maintain good neighborly relations with Austria-Hungary and issued t*he July Ultimatum.
    *Serbia responded by preparing its army.
    * They then responded to the Austro-Hungarian letter accepting point number 10, but reworded it which provided itself with an out, rejecting, or having to respond to the other nine demands.
    * The ambassador was mad and war began
  • Woodrow Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality

    Woodrow Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality
    • He used the slogan " He kept us out of war" for his re election
    • when WWI began Wilson immediately decided it best not to be involved
    • Woodrow stated that he was going to focus on WWI and the pece treaty negotiations in Paris.
    • Did what he felt would better the U.S. and that was to stay Neutral.
    • His declaration of Neutrality was tested by the German government in early 1917. *in April 1917 Wilson asked congress to declare war.
  • Japan declares war on Germany

    Japan declares war on Germany
    Through her alliance with Great Britain that was signed in 1902, Japan declare war on Germany.
    * Japan government got a formal request from British government asking them to help destroy German raiders on August 7,1914.
    *Japan sent Germany an ultimatum seven days later and it was left unanswered.
    * Japan declares war on Germany
  • First Battle of Marne

    First Battle of Marne
    • Also was known as Miracle of the Marne
    • Resulted in a victory for the Allies *fought from September 5-12 of 1914.
    • Battle was along the Marne River
    • The battle ended a month long German offense that opened the war and reached part of Paris.
  • Ottoman Empire enters the war

    Ottoman Empire enters the war
    *joined the Central Powers to form the Triple Alliance ,signing of the turco-german Alliance.
    *joined when the bombing of the Russian black sea ports occured.
    *Two reason Ottoman empire joined Central power were because of German pressure and the opportunism of the Turkish minister of the war. The second reason is Germany had several early early victories in the war.
  • United Kingdom begins the naval blockade of Germany

    United Kingdom begins the naval blockade of Germany
    • was a naval operation made by the Allies *the purpose of it was to prevent the Central Powers from recieving the maritime supply of raw materials and food supplies.
    • It was located Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean *this was used from 1914-1919
    • it was considered one of the major events that lead up to the Allied victory.
  • Battle of Ypres

    Battle of Ypres
    • used mainly to divert attention of the Allied force from the Eastern Front.
    • also used to test chlorine gas *Second Battle of Ypres had the only major attack that was launched by German forces
    • by the end of the war the town was in complete rubble and destroyed.
  • Germans First use Chlorine Gas

    Germans First use Chlorine Gas
    The German Army had 168 tons of chlorina gas in 5,730 cylinders north of Ypres.
    * in a slight breeze the gas was released forming a green-grey cloud of chemicals in the air.
    * Though the chlorine gas didnt work out as well as it was expected, it was the beginning to many more chemicals and bombs to be created.
    The Allies fought that the gas was a ciolation of the international law
    Germany argued that the Hague treaty only banned chemical shells and not gas projectors
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    • Sailing had become dangerous during WWI due to both sides trying to prevent the other side from recieving any war materials. German U-boats were all through British waters
    • anyone sailing was advised to keep a quick spped, but sailor William Thomas Turner didnt because it was a foggy day.
    • right near the coast of Southern Ireland the German U-Boat U20 spotted Lusitania. The U-Boay fired and it only took about 18 minutes until the ship sunk. The Germans claim they only fired one torpedo.
  • Italy enters the war

    Italy enters the war
    *persuaded into war because of the secret 1915 Treaty of London which was to in the end gain them land
    * sided with the Allies
    *The same day Italy joined the Italian prime minister Antonio Salandra issued the declaration to support the Allies.
  • Introduction of the Tank

    Introduction of  the Tank
    • began as a solution to the stalemate which trench warfare had brought to the western front. *The British Army tested the first Tank on 9/8/1915 taking the lead in tank developement.
    • Not far behind France fielded their first tank in 1917. The Germans were slower on developing tanks and focused more on anti tank weapons.
  • Bulgaria enters the war

    Bulgaria enters the war
    • secretly courted with both sides but then alligned with the central powers.
    • They want to win back control of Macedonia which it had lost after the Second Balkan War
  • First Zeppelin raid on Great Britain

    First Zeppelin raid on Great Britain
    • German airships operated by the Navy and Army as two completely seperate divisions. *Were used in reconnaissiance missions for the Navy. *Bombing missions mostly London. *Proved to have only psychological value *were not a major military success
    • nine Zepplins raid Liverpool which until this was consideredbeyond range of raids.
    • Wanted to show Britain that nowhere was safe for them
  • Battle of Verdun

    Battle of Verdun
    • was one of the longest and bloodiest battles in history.
    • Took place from Febuary 21 1916- December 18, 1916. *was between French and German forces
    • German's wanted to wear down the French army.
    • battle occured in Verdun-ser-Meuse in northeastern France. over 250,00 died nd more than a million people were wounded from this battle.
    • Even though the French shoot less artillery rounds, they still manage to win the battles.
  • Use of Daylight Saving Time

    Use of Daylight Saving Time
    • was adapted to save fuel for the war in Germany during WWI
    • was more convienant for workers so it wasnt as dark outside. *Other countries immediately adopted this 1916 action a few of them include France, Italy, Denmark, and many more.
    • We still use daylight saving time today.
  • Sussex Pledge

    Sussex Pledge
    • was a promise made by Germany to the U,S in 1916.Germany torpedoed without warning on a ship and 50 people were killed. Although no Americans were killed, Wilson let Germany know that if the ontinued unrestricted submarine warfare that the U.S. would break diplomatic relations. Germany was afraid and promised change in Germany's naval warfare policy. Sussex Pledge stated 1.Passanger ships would not be targeted. 2.Merchant ships would not be sunk until presence of a weapon was established
  • Battle of Somme

    Battle of Somme
    • July 1-18 1916 took place Somme Rive north-central Somme in France
    • was intended to create chaos and problems in the German line which could be exploited with a decisive blow.
    • The plan of Somme evolved out of strategic decisions from the Allies. *German Army withdraw 40 miles from Hidenburg Line *Strategis moves were in favor of the Allies
  • Romania enters the war

    Romania enters the war
    • Signed a secret treaty with the Allies
    • Romania enters the war in an attempt to gain Translyvania.
    • The thought they should have this land because mostt of the population was Romanian.
    • When Romania is the only one left surrounded by Central powers, they sign an armistance *November 10, 1918Romania re enters the war because the Centtral powers were collapsing.
  • Election of 1916

    Election of 1916
    • Woodrow Wilson the Democratic canidate running for his second term against Republican canidate Evan Hughes.
    • Wilsons vice president was Thomas R. Marshall
    • Wilson had 49.2% of votes and wins just barely.
    • His slogan " He kept us out of war." gets him lots of voters and publicity.
  • Zimmerman Telegraph

    Zimmerman Telegraph
    • was a diplomatic proposal from the German Empire for Mexico saying to make war against the U,S,
    • The letter was recieved as a coded telegram made by a foreign secretary by the name of Arthur Zimmerman of the German Empire.It was sent to an embassador in Washington D.C. who then forwarded it to a German embassador in Mexico.This Telegram was basically used to ensure that U.S. sided with them.
  • Russian Revelotion

    Russian Revelotion
    • collective term for the series of events that occured in Russia. *Destroyede the tsarist autocracy and was how the Soviet Union happened.
    • Some results of the Russian Revolutin were abdication of Nicholas II,the end of the Russian Empire, Bolshevik is in power then, and the Russian Civil War begins.
  • The U.S. declares war on Germany

    The U.S. declares war on Germany
    • After Germany announced a new submarine offensive, wilson decided it was time to break off any relations with Germany. Wilson has a session with congress asking that the U.S. declare war on Germany to "make the world safe for democracy." April 4 congress granted the request of Wilson. In January 1917 Germany renewed its unrestricted submarine warfare so it could attack ships of neutral countries, Its main target was the U.S.
  • Selective Service Act

    Selective Service Act
    • Also known as Selective Draft Act was passed by Congress,
    • Passed to enable men to go to WWI at a younger age.
    • Authorized the government to raise the national army numbering in the hundreds of thousands with which to fight modern war.
    • The Act was then cancled in November of 1918
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    • was created during WWI so supplies needed for the war could be purchased easily.
    • provided labors with material for the production of equiptment needed for war and also has set levels of production
    • slved problems related to labors and board of production
    • this agency was created under more than one hundred commitees. The motto was " either you work or you die."
  • Lever Food and Fuel Control Act

    Lever Food and Fuel Control Act
    *law that among other things created the United States Food Administration and the Federal Fuel Administration.
    * gave the U.S. complete control over the federal governments coal industry including the production, pricing, sale, shipment, and distribution phases.
    * it however prevented the government from having as much control over the prices of oil and gas.
  • War Trade Board

    War Trade Board
    • was responsible for licensing exports and imports,conserving commodities and shipping facilities ,and rationing supplies to the Neutrals.
    • for American and Allied use. *In June of 1919 it was Abolished and all of its jobs were transfered to the Department of State
  • Battle of Cambrai

    Battle of Cambrai
    *took place from November 20- December 8 of 1917
    * Battle was in Cambrai , France
    *It was a British campaign for WWI and a key supply point for the Germans.
    * Both sides accompish offensive tactical success but there was no strategic result.
    * Battle is noted for the first large- scale use of tanks in a combined arms operation.
  • Wilsons Fourteen Points

    Wilsons Fourteen Points
    • WWI peace settlement given as an adress *was a speech given by Wilson to the joint session of Congress
    • ment to show that the war was served for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. *the dourteen points outlined territorial adjustments following the covenants of peace, openly arrived at, and a general association of nations.
  • War Labor Policies Board

    War Labor Policies Board
    *abolished March 1919
    * Formulated uniform policies for war labor administration. Promoted better housing conditions for war workers.
    * supported an eight-hour day for workers, equal pay for women, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively
  • Sedition Act

    Sedition Act
    • designed to protect America'sparticipation in WWI extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to help cover a broader range of offenses , notablity speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative manner. *
  • Battle of St. Mihiel

    Battle of St. Mihiel
    • battle was from September 12-19 of 1918
    • resulted in a Allied victory
    • marked the first use of the terms of "D" Day and "H'Hour.
    • THe attack was part of a plan in hopes that the U.S. would break through the German lines and captuer the fortified city of Metz. *U.S. and France versus the German Empire. Took place in Saint Mihiel, France
  • Meuse-Argonne Offensive

    Meuse-Argonne Offensive
    • Part of the final Allied offenses that spread throughout the western front
    • Resulted in an Allied victory
    • took place in Argonne Forest, France.
    • in only six weeks the AEF lost 26,277 killed and 95,786 wounded.
  • Dissolution of the Austria- Hungary Empire

    Dissolution of the Austria- Hungary Empire
    *Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent and had an equal status
    *The dual monarchy had existed for 51 years
    * Austria Hungary was one of the worlds best powers at the time
    * it dissolved on 31 October 1918 before a military defeat on the Italian front of the First World War.
  • Armistice

    *Allied push towards the German border began on October 17, 1918
    *alliance between the Central Powers began to collapse
    *Turkey signed an Armistice in late October and Austri- Hungary follows on November 3.
    *At 11 am, in the French town of Redonthes, the Armistice was signed bringing the war to an end
  • Lenin signs a truce with Germany

    Lenin signs a truce with Germany
    *was the armistice between Russia and Germany.
    * was an agreement ending the fighting in WWI
    * when Lenin signs a truce he agrees to the territorial losses.
  • German navy mutinied

    German navy mutinied
    • Caused by secret German Navy plans to launch a final suicide attack upon the British Royal Navy.
    • Occured at the end of WWI *the mutiny ended in revolution
    • it was initiated by sailors attached to the High Seas Fleet.
  • American forces join the war

    American forces join the war
  • Lenin signs a truce with Germany

    Lenin signs a truce with Germany
    • accepts territorial losses
    • created an armmistice between Germany and Russia
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    • was developed at the end of WWI
    • Their job was to ensure that war never broke out again.
    • looked at the League of Nations hoping that it would bring stability to the world. *The League of Nations was based in Geneva,Switzerland because they were a neutral counrty and did not fight in WWI.
    • Though Woodrow thought up of the leagues, he refused to have America join it. This wasnt good for them because America was one of the most powerful countries
  • Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

    Signing of the Treaty of Versailles
    • was one of the peace treaties at the end of WWI
    • It put the state of war between Germany and the Allied forces to an end. Became effective January 10, 1920
    • was signed in Versailles, France *Ratification by Germany and three Principal Allied Powers
  • Election of 1920

    Election of 1920
    • This election was dominated by the aftermath of WWI and many didnt want to vote for a democrat after the polices of the former democratic president Woodrow Wilson.
    • Nominees were Warren G. Harding for the Republican side versus James M. Cox for the Democrats.
    • Warren won holding 60.3% of the votes
  • Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire make peace with the Allies

    Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire make peace with the Allies