The Triple Alliance
- In Europe, countries formed alliances to reduce their vulnerability to attack.
- In April 20, 1882 a military alliance formed between Germany Austria–Hungary, and Italy called the Triple Alliance.
- Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any other great powers.
The Triple Entente
- In March 17, 1907, France, Britain, and Russia formed an Alliance called the Triple Entente.
- France joined to the Triple Entente because France feeling isolated and threatened by the power of the Triple Alliance block to the east.
- The Triple Entente hoped to reduce the threat of war by forming an alliance and surrounding Germany.
About BOTH Alliances Pt.1
- These alliances did not stop the huge build-up in armaments and armies. In Europe, Germany, in particular, was becoming militaristic, by rapidly expanding its army.
- So other European countries expanded their armies in a show of militarism in order to maintain the balance of power.
- On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist of the Black Hand.
About BOTH Alliances Pt.2
- Ferdinand was visiting the city of Sarajevo, Bosnia, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but claimed by neighboring Serbia as part of “Greater Serbia”, as the majority of Bosnia’s population was Serbian.
- This was “ the shot heard ‘round the world”. It became the spark that ignited an already tense situation and finally caused the World War One.
Background of WWI Pt. 1
- At the beginning of the 20th century, 3 empires dominated Eastern Europe: Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia Empire Ottoman Empire.
- Many nationalities inside these empire wanted to be independent nations with their own cultural identity, and able to have their own political future.
Background of WWI Pt. 2
- When the Balkan states of Bosnia-Herzegovina, had been annexed from Turkey and taken into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Many Serbians, because of the sense of nationalism were outraged at suddenly being part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- As well, the overseas territories about European imperialism was also increasing, Belgium, Italy, and Germany were colonizing areas in Africa; Germany also sough colonies in Asia and the Pacific.
- Britain and France continued to expand their empires.
Background of WWI Pt. 3
- By the late 1800s, many European countries claimed territories in Africa, a continent rich in gold, diamonds, and ivory, so this race for imperialism caused further tension among European countries.
Schlieffen Plan Pt. 1-In December 1905, the Schlieffen Plan was created by Alfred von Schlieffen (the Germany Army Chief of staff).
-It was a flawed plan,
-The plan was for Germany to defeat France quickly through Belgium and Luxembourg and then turn to the eastern front for a major offensive on Russia.
-Germany thought the France would be easily defeated in 6 weeks, and that Russia would take 6 weeks to mobilize for attack.
Schlieffen Plan Pt. 2-In reality, when the plan was executed on the 2nd August 1914, Germany was defeated by the first Battle of the Marne (while trying to capture Paris) – but failed to succeed the plan, and was forced to withdraw troops to defend eastern border due false assumptions. (Russia only mobilized in 10 days). -The Schlieffen Plan led to Britain declaring war on Germany on August 4th, 1914.
War Measures Act-The War Measures Act was enacted in 191 4 by the Governor in Council. -The act allowed Governor in Council to suspend civil liberties and by-pass parliament to make emergency measures that it felt were necessary for the war. -Ex. Immigrants who had come from what were now enemy countries, like Germany, had their movements controlled and anyone thought to be an enemy sympathizer could be arrested and kept in internment camps without trial.
Second Battle of Ypres Pt. 1-The Germany invasion on through Belgium brought the British Empire, including Canada into war. -In April 1915, the Canadian 1st Division took up position in the front lines northeast of the Belgian town of Ypres – but this was also the same location Germans had chosen for their next attempt to break the Allied lines. -Germany launched attack on April 22nd, 1915 – began assault by using chlorine gas (first lethal gas used in warfare).
Second Battle of Ypres Pt. 2-The gas hit the French lines worst, many suffocated and the gas created a gap 8,000 yards long in the Allied lines north of Ypres. -Germans launched a 2nd attack on April 24th,1915 directly at the Canadians -However, Canadians were able to fight off with limited protection using water-soaked cloth as gas mask. (since the gas was water soluble) -On April 29th,1915, after French failed an allied counter attack, Smith-Dorrien was replaced by General Herbert Plumer.
Second Battle of Ypres Pt. 3-French withdrew on May 1-3, 1915 but fighting renewed May 8th,1915 and then again from May 24-25th,1915. -This attack was beaten off, the Britsh and French stood their ground despite suffering heavy casualties in the initial gas attack. German attacks continued until 25 May, but without achieving any more success.
The Battle of the Somme Pt. 1-The plan of offense to drain the German forces of reserves was planned by Sir Douglas Haig (British Commander in Chief) in the late 1915 (French-British attack) -The British planned to attack at the low ridges near Somme River, France. -The attack itself began at 07:30 on July 1st, 1916 with detonation of mines which surprised the German forces. The surprise attack at first seemed successful, but it wasn’t able to destroy the German forces.
The Battle of the Somme Pt. 2-Although Haig persisted to advance, but German forces secured the front line on July 11th, 1916. -Haig was convinced - as were the Germans - that the enemy was on the point of exhaustion.
- Over the course of two months, the Allies could measure their gains in mere metres, and there had been massive loss of life.
- On 15 September, the British made another push on the German lines using tanks.
The Battle of the Somme Pt. 3-From the end of September – and with a short break in the weather – the Allies managed to take other areas -The battle ended on November 18th, 1916, the human cost for both sides was staggering. -It’s a battle of attrition. (stalemate) -This is one of Haig’s worst fights.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge-The Battle of Vimy Ridge began at dawn on East Monday, April 9th, 1917 at Vimy Ridge. -It’s the first time all 4 divisions of the Canadian Corps joined the battle with the German forced (commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Julian Byng) -The troops took months of preparation for the battle, with new tactics and weapons used. (ex. creeping barrage, indirect machine guns) -Battle ended on April 12th, 1917, Canada succeeded in reclaiming the vimy ridge that the British and French failed to.
The Battle of Passchendaele Pt. 1-The purpose of the battle was to gain control of the village of Passchendaele (now Passendale) near the town of Ypres in West Flanders (now part of Belgium). The battle started from July 31st, 1917 -The line of strategy was to create vulnerability in the German lines, continue to the Belgian coast and capture the German submarine bases on the coastline. -The initial barrage of Allied artillery warned the Germans -British, Australian and New Zealand forces fought for months with few advances.
Battle of Passchendaele Pt. 2-The Canadian Corps was ordered to attack the Anzac forces in October 26 -On October 30, the British divisions and the Canadians attack on the Passchendaele itself and it was won by November 6th.
Military Voters Act Pt.1
- With the Conscription Crisis of 1917 in full swing that many groups of people in Canada like French-speaking, farmers, and labors were opposed conscription.
- On August 29, 1917, Prime Minister Borden decided to pass two new pieces of legislation, the first one was the Military Voters Act that giving all Canadian soldiers the right to vote, and also benefitted the women who serving in the armed forces and nurses in the war the suffrage movement.
Military Voters Act Pt.2
- The Military Voters Act was created by Prime Minister Borden’s government to strengthening their population, and increase Borden’s chances of getting the coalition government elected.
Suffragists Pt. 1-Despite women's contributions to the war, it was still in many ways a 'man's world'. Many women felt it was only fair that they and men were given equal rights, since they were now doing men's jobs. -Several Canadian women organized themselves into suffragist movements, trying to gain for themselves the right to vote.
Suffragists Pt. 2-In 1916, women in Manitoba were given the right to vote. Just months later, Saskatchewan and Alberta also were allowed this right and the following year, Ontario and British Columbia also granted suffrage to women. -In the federal election of Sept. 20, 1917, the Wartimes Elections Act was passed, granted the right to vote to mothers, sisters, and wives of soldiers fighting in the war, as well as those who served as nursing sisters.
Suffragists Pt. 3-By the end of the war, all women over the age of 21 (except Aboriginals, Asians, and women of other racial minorities) were allowed to vote. -By 1920, with the Dominion Elections Act, women could also run for parliament. -Canadian suffragists during World War I helped Canada take the first steps towards the gender equality that exists today. (women were allowed to vote federally on May 24th 1918)
Halixfax Explosion Pt. 1
- During the World War One Halifax was and important strategic place filled with troops, families, armaments, and ships.
- One December 6, 1917, the Mort-Blanc, a French vessel sailed into Bedford Basin Loaded by carrying more than 2500t of dynamite, was accidentally hit by the Norwegian Vessel Imo which was sailing out of the Basin.
- The collision caused a powerful explosion that it devastated Halifax’s harbour and much of the city.
Halifax Explosion Pt. 2
- Between 2000 and 3000 people were killed in the explosion or fires, and more than 10000 were injured.
Conscription Crisis Pt. 1
- When war erupted in 1914, many English-Canadians volunteered to go to war and were determined to contribute to the British Empire's battle in Europe.
- However, French-Canadians felt the war not their responsibilities so they refused to participate the Britain (since PM Robert Borden had promised no conscription).
Conscription Crisis Pt. 2
- By 1917, after almost 3 years of fighting, the numbers of wounded were significant and to make it worse, voluntary enlistment by Canadians dropped drastically as jobs became plentiful at home.
- On May 18, 1917, PM Borden retreated from his earlier promise and introduced a conscription bill, the Military Services Act.
- Some English-Canadians opposed, but most of the argument came from the French-Canadians
Conscription Crisis Pt. 3
- Many argued upon the act, so to ensure itself to victory, the Gov’t of Canada had to call an Election over the issue of conscription and had the wives or relatives (women) of the soldiers to vote since all the men are out on the battlefield. (Military Voters Act & Wartime Elections Act)
- Jan. 1st, 1918, military service act was enforced. (however, only few are conscripted since the war ended soon afterwards).
Paris Peace Conference Pt. 1
- It took place in Paris on January 12, 1919 (after signing the Armistice) and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities to meet to discuss the terms of a peace agreement for the post-war world.
- These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany.
Paris Peace Conference Pt. 2
- Prime Minister Borden gained Canada’s own seat at the conference not as a colony of Britain, and also signed the Treaty of Versailles as an independent country.
- The meetings were held at various locations in and around Paris until 20th January, 1920.
Operation Michael Pt. 1-On March 14, 1918, General Erich Ludendorff, Chief of Staff of the German armies, was planning a surprise offensive to divide the French and British forces on the Western Front. -The German army launched an offensive on March 21 on a front south of Arras in St Quentin sector. -The Germans wanted to capture the strategically important area of Amiens, to weaken the Allied armies.
Operation Michael Pt. 2-In 5 days, they had recaptured all the land they had lost around the Somme in the previous 2 years.
- On March 25, Australian divisions were trying to stop the offensive.
- During the final months of the war, known as the “Hundred Days”, the allied forces broke through German lines and won important battles at Arras, Cambrai, and Valenciennes.
- As the central Power collapsed; German Kaiser abdicated and fled to Holland.
- At 11:00 am, November 11, 1918, the Armistice was signed in a railway car in France to bringing the war to an end.
Treaty of Versailles Pt. 1
- The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties after the end of World War I, and proposed by American President Woodrow Wilson. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers, and signed on 28 June 1919.
- It was the first time Canada was involved in the signing of an international treaty.
- The terms of the peace argument were very harsh for Germany that French and Belgian leaders wanted compensation from it for the damage their countries suffered during the war.
Treaty of Versailles Pt. 2
- Germany’s economy was in ruins and unable to meet the payments after the war, and also brought more poverty and resentment to Germany. It became part of the essential reason for starting the Second World War.
League of Nations Pt. 1
- It was the brainchild of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, and established by the Treaty of Versailles on January 10, 1920.
- It was made up of many nations throughout the world, and based on the principle of collective security-if one member state of the league came under attack, all members would act together to fight the aggressor.
- The Great powers of Europe signed reluctantly.
- It was an idealistic vision but not a practical solution to world problems.
Legue of Nations Pt. 2
- Although Americans proposed the idea, they refused to join, and this greatly undermined its effectiveness to resolve disputes in the years World War 1.