Week 1 - The Middle AgesJan Van Eyck, Lucca Madonna, 1436.
Jan Van Eyck was a Netherlandish painter who invented the use of oil painting during the Early Renaissance era. The linework of the Lucca Madonna painting is done lightly, the colors in the painting are vivid, but Van Eyck uses strictly warm colors for this painting. The use of red pulls your gaze to the center of the painting. The Virgin Mary became a role model of what women during the Middle Ages should aspire to be; motherly and spiritual.
Week 1 - The Middle AgesDomenico Ghirlandaio, Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni, 1488
Domenico Ghirlandaio was born in Florence, Italy in 1449. Ghirlandaio worked in fresco strictly and never once used oil in his paintings. The portrait depicts Giovanna Tornabuoni from a side profile, various details in the painting that points to her wealthy status and spirituality. The colors of her clothing are vibrant, all other colors are dull and flat. Shows how women should be submissive to their husbands and the Church.
Week 2 - The RenaissanceArtemisia Gentileschi, Susanna and the Elders, 1610, Oil on canvas.
Artemisia Gentileschi was the eldest daughter of the famous painter Orazio Gentileschi. Showing signs of artistic talents, Gentileschi's father would further help her hone her skills. At the age of 17, Gentileschi would experience abuse from her mentor Agostino Tassi. This would inspire Gentileschi to paint women being abused or women taking their revenge. This art piece speaks to the abuse women face in that era, even today.
Week 3 - The 17th CenturyThe Muses Urania and Calliope
Simon Vouet-Became a successful artist at the young age of fourteen.
Uses juxtaposed colors such as blue, yellow, and orange. Bright and vivid colors. Textures almost life-like.
Religious paintings were becoming less popular, with more emphasis on philosophy and science. The muses are all women who rule the domains of the art and sciences, it was uncommon for women to prevail in these subject matters.
Muses are detailed delicately and playfully.
Week 2 - The RenaissanceElisabetta Sirani, Portia Wounding Her Thigh, 1664, Oil on canvas
Elisabetta Sirani was the eldest daughter of the famous painter Giovanni Andrea Sirani. She studied under her father and eventually become well-known herself. Sirani opened an art studio of her own and taught many other upcoming women artists. Portia Wounding Her Thigh represents the obstacles women must face in order to be taken seriously by men; the color red signifies this fact.
Week 3 - The 17th CenturyThe Sacrifice of Iphigenia
Charles de La Fosse-Studied under painter Charles Le Burn, studied art by other Italian artists, became a member of the Royal Academy.
The baroque art style, dramatic, full of life, full of theatrics, heavy shading, warm colors, use of depth and dimension.
Women were seen as objects to be used by men for their own benefits. Iphigenia being used as a "sacrificial lamb."
Was drawn to the flow and dramatic movements of the painting.
Week 4 - The 18th CenturyThe Interesting Student
Marguerite Gerard and Jean-Honore Fragonard: Born in 1761 in France, At eight years old she moved in with her sister and brother-in-law Jean-Honore Fragonard. Became the apprentice to Fragonard, excelled in genre painting.
Characteristic of the Rococo style, white and pastel pink dress, relaxed and playful atmosphere, dark background, natural outlines, warm colors.
Gerard challenged the social norms for women of her time and excelled in a male-dominated career.
Week 4 - The 18th CenturyThe Interior of an Atelier of a Woman Painter
Marie-Victoire Lemoine: Born in 1754 in Paris, France. She studied under historical painter Francois Guillaume Menageot.
Uses a mix of warm and cool colors, uses light and shadows for depth and dimensions, soft/delicate linework to convey a natural feeling, soft texture, lighting give detailing to fabrics, showcases her talent in still-life painting.
Lemoine was challenging the fact that it was unheard of for women to paint historical pieces.
Week 5 - The 19th CenturyIn the Studio
Marie Bashkirtseff: Born into a noble family in 1859, moved to France when she was young. Joined a Parisian art school in her late teens and created many art pieces, some of which were accepted in the Salon. Died young from tuberculosis.
Depicts a group of women artist in an art studio with a young boy as their model. Colors are not too bright, but not dark either, light linework, non-smooth texture, natural feeling.
Bashkirtseff left many diary entries depicting her life.
Week 5 - The 19th CenturyA Mother
Elizabeth Nourse: Born in 1859, Nourse joined the Cincinnati School of Design in her younger years. Moved to Paris to pursue her passion for art. Won many awards and recognition for her art pieces.
Photo-realistic, light/delicate linework, a mix of warm and cool colors, heavy shading to bring attention to mother and baby, close and intimate spacing.
Nourse would depict poor, humble working people from the rural areas in Europe. First women to become so heavily honored.
Week 6 - The 20th Century (Europe)Les Odalisques
Jacqueline Marval: Born in 1866 in Quaix-en-Chartreuse, France as Marie Josephine Vallet. Pursued an artistic career after the death of her child. Befriended many other artists of the time. Became well-known for Les Odalisques.
Simple in detail, a mix of warm and cool colors; colors are dull. Non-smooth texture, can see brushstrokes. faces are angular, sensual, and delicate. Emphasis on the color red.
Marval was bold and courageous for depicting herself in Les Odalisques.
Week 7 - The 20th Century (America)Lady With a Bowl of Violets
Lilla Cabot Perry: Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Perry showed interest in poetry and art at a young age. Pursued art professionally after marrying and having children. Became close friends with Impressionist painter Claude Monet. Introduced Impressionism in America and Japan.
Visible brush strokes that indicate light and shadows. Mix of warm and cool colors. Soft outlines, realistic looking.
Perry was a pioneer of the Impressionist movement.
Week 6 - The 20th Century (Europe)Le Bal élégant, La Danse à la campagne
Marie Laurencin: Born in 1883 to a single mother, Laurencin was drawn to art at a young age. Developed her feminist ideal due to her poor relationship with her father. Joined the École de Sèvres and would be known as "Our Lady of Cubism."
Both elements of Cubism and Impressionism, soft pastel colors with dark bold outlines, little use of light and shading, appears flat and two-dimensional
Inspired other artists to explore the concept of femininity.
Week 7 - The 20th Century (America)Baby Lying on His Mother's Lap, reaching to hold a scarf
Mary Cassatt: Born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, Cassatt became interested in art after one of the many trips her family took to Europe. Cassatt would continue to study art and eventually move to Paris. While Cassatt struggled with finding success, she eventually found it in 1871.
Use of unmixed primary colors to represent light and shadows, rough texture, a mix of light and heavy line work.
Enjoyed depicting a mother's love.