US History 1 Review

  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    An Italian explorer sailing for Spain who believed that Asia (India) could be reached by sailing west from Europe. His first voyage was in 1492, wherein he discovered North America (Caribbean islands) and named it the West Indies. He will make four voyages to the new world without fully realizing what he had discovered.
  • Period: 1492 to

    US History 1 Review

  • Jamestown

    Jamestown
    First permanent English establishment financed by the the Virginia Company. About 105 colonists left Europe in three ships, the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery. They reached Chesapeake Bay on April 26.
  • Southern Colonies

    Southern Colonies
    The Southern Colonies stretched as far as Virginia to Florida. They had a lot of farming and agriculture and because of that they relied very heavily on slaves from Africa.
  • Middle Passage

    Middle Passage
    The forced voyage of Africans that took goods from Europe to Africa, and Africans to the Americas to work as slaves on plantations. The slaves on said voyage went through a lot of terrible conditions and abuse to the point where the males would be shackled together to prevent mutiny.
  • Plymouth

    Plymouth
    Around 100 men and women sailed to present day Massachusetts aboard the Mayflower. They anchored at Plymouth Rock forming the first colonial settlement in New England, but that winter over half of them died. The other half were able to make peach treaties with the Native Americans and made a really good economy.
  • New England Colonies

    New England Colonies
    The first English settlers were a small group of Puritans, later called Pilgrims, and in 1620 established the Plymouth colony. 10 years later a bigger, more liberal group of Puritans came and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The people who thought it was too pious formed Connecticut while the people who thought it was too restrictive formed Rhode Island.
  • Middle Colonies

    Middle Colonies
    King Charles II gave the territory between Virginia and New England to his brother, the Duke of York, later naming the territory there New York. Many of the people already there stayed making it very diverse and in 1680 the king gave William Penn 45,000 square miles of land west of the Delaware River. Because Penn was a Quaker and there was a lot of religious promise, many people from Europe went there.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    Massachusetts Bay Colony
    One of the original English settlements of about 1000 Puritan refugees. They received a charter from King Charles I to empower them to trade and colonize in New England. The company was joint proprietors with ownership of the government so the crown wanted to create a commercial company.
  • Great Awakening

    Great Awakening
    Religious revival in the American Colonies under the leadership of Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield to revitalize religion. Many things contributed to its revival like the absence of pastoral supervision in the south and the Dutch Reformed in the middle colonies.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    Also called the seven years war, where the French's expansion to the Ohio river messed with the British colonies. In 1763 the Treaty of Paris was signed and the British gained some of Canada and Florida, allowing them to give Louisiana to Spain.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The British Parliamentary tried to gain more revenue by taxing legal papers, newspapers, dice, cards, and many more. This lead to people just outwardly refusing and destroying anything that related to the stamps. In 1765 the Sons of Liberty formed and revolted, which ultimately led to the act being repealed 1766.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Boston troops and the Colonial Americans fighting. There was rumors that the troops were going to take down the Liberty Tree, which angered the many men, leading to a mob outside of the British troops barracks. One of the troop members shot into the crowd which led other soldiers to shoot and they killed 5 colonists.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    Because of the taxation of tea the colonists refused to buy or sell tea, due to this giving the East India Company a monopoly over tea in the American Colonies. This led to the residents of Boston to sneak into the harbor and dump 342 chests of tea into the ocean.
  • Battles of Lexington/Concord

    Battles of Lexington/Concord
    Marked the beginning of the American Revolution, Thomas Gage was ordered to stop the colonist from rebelling. Due to Paul Revere's warning, many people already knew and by the time they got to Lexington the colonists were already ready for them. The British troops moved to Concord and there 400 American patriots forced them to withdraw. There were 273 British loses and 95 American.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    Lasted between 1775-1783. The 13 colonies won political independence from Britain. France and Spain joined the British colonies while the Netherlands helped aid the United States.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The document that declared the separation of the 13 colonies from Great Britain.
  • Valley Forge

    Valley Forge
    Encampment grounds for the Army led by Washington, located west of the Schuylkill river and 22 miles northwest of Philadelphia. That winter was very harsh and many of the men were dying due to a multitude of reasons. But they recovered and in the spring they became very strong and efficient.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    Last major battle apart of the American Revolution that cemented Washington's reputation as a great leader. The British general Lord Charles Cornwallis surrendered to Washington's army and the french allies. It also was also the start of the nation's new independence.
  • Article of Confederation

    Article of Confederation
    The first U.S. Constitution that bridged the Continental Congress and the federal government. It gave Congress the power to do many things like, regulate foreign affairs, war, and the postal services; as well as appoint military officers, determine the value of coin, and issue bills of credit but it didn't give them the power to enforce any of this.
  • Abolitionists

    Abolitionists
    The movement that stopped slavery in all the states north of Maryland. Well known abolitionists are Fredrick Douglas and William Lloyd Garrison.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    There was a demand for a much stronger central government. This led to the convention meeting in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia where 39 out of the 74 deputies signed the Constitution. They decided that each state would get equal representation in congress.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The economy changing from being more farming based to factory based. They were figuring out how to mass produce items and had a more efficient way of devising the labor needed to make a product.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The first 10 amendments in the Constitution, based on Britain's Magna Carta. It was a collection of rules that reinforces individual, state, and federal rights and guarantees.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Land mass purchased from France west of the Mississippi river that doubled the size of the United States. It strengthened the country materially and strategically and led to a lot of western expansion.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    Military expedition to explore the land gained in the Louisiana Purchase. In January Jefferson had wanted to sent a dozen soldiers to explore the Mississippi river in order to expand the fur trade, make contact with the Indians, and locate the Northwest Passage. In May when the Louisiana Purchase happened he sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis to lead the expedition.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The United States and Great Britain fighting due to the British violating US maritime rights.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Missouri wanted to be a slave state but then that would mean that there wouldn't be equal representation of the north states and the south states so they made Maine a free state. They added an amendment that said the Missouri could be a slave state without restrictions and everything north of the 36-30 latitude line would be free states; while everything below the latitude line would be slave states.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    John Quincy Adams had become a representative even after Andrew Jackson had gained more electoral and popular votes. The other two candidates, Crawford and Clay had received 41 and 37 electoral votes, so no one got the majority. Later though, Jackson had become president.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Andrew had passed the act in 1830, moving the Indians west where they were promised land due to the rapid settlement of the colonists wanting to expand. Some went peacefully and some did not. Eventually force was used to move them, the Cherokee were reluctant to leave and many died on the trek to the new territory, becoming known as the Trail of Tears.
  • Battle of the Alamo

    Battle of the Alamo
    Texas' war against Mexico for its independence. A fort in San Antonio was being taken over by the Texans, later the Mexicans took over the fort and killed most of the 200 men there, while the Mexicans lost around 600-1,600 men.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    United States and Mexico fighting because of the United States annexation over Texas, They fought over if it ended at the Rio Grande, which was the US claim, or the Nueces River, which was Mexico's claim.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    Gold had been discovered at Sutter's Mill and when word got out all the people looking to become rich moved west to California in search to find their fortune, but many did not.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    Escape routes and safe houses for slaves to escape from slavery in the south to hopefully be free in the north. One of the most famous escaped slaved being Harriet Tubman, who later helped other slaves escape and be free.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    An effort to make California a slave free state while trying to keep the south happy and keep them from leaving the Union.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    A novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about slavery in the south. It was very popular with the north and abolitionists. The north mainly got confirmations about how they felt with slavery already and the south hated her.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    A small civil war fought between slave free states and slave states. A vote took place to see if it would be a free state of a slave state but it was very rigged because people from both sides came into Kansas territory to vote in their favor.
  • Dred-Scott Decision

    Dred-Scott Decision
    Supreme Court case in which Dred Scott, a former slave, had been told that he could never be a US citizen due to him being African American and a former slave.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debate

    Lincoln-Douglas Debate
    A series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas during the Illinois senator campaign. It was mainly centered around slavery
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    First battle of the civil war. South Carolina had seceded from the Union, withdrawing to Fort Sumter which they believed was their territory. Lincoln had a hefty dilemma, if he attacked the Fort they would seem aggressive so he decided to resupply the Fort. If they attacked, the South would be the aggressive party. They ultimately ended up surrendering the Fort.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    The 11 southern states that left the Union, fighting with said Union during the civil war.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The colonist's belief that it was their duty to go head west and expand.
  • American Civil War

    American Civil War
    The North had begun to industrialize with factories and new modes of transportation, while the South continued with focusing on agriculture. Because of this the South invested most of their money into slaves. With added conflict and vast differences the North and South ended up separating, fighting against each other for 4 years,
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    A document that freed the slaves in the Confederate states.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    Stated as the turning point in the civil war due to the fact that this was the first war that the North won, then continuing on to win the war.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Lincoln's speech at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. Edward Everett beforehand had given a two hour speech, while Lincoln had given a two minute speech.
  • Appomattox

    Appomattox
    Final battle of the civil war. Lee surrendered to Grant at he Appomattox courthouse, ending the civil war.