US Foreign Relations (No Armed Conflict) Timeline

By tkkcck
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    US Foreign Relations (No Armed Conflict)

    A detailed description of American Foreign Relations that do not involve armed conflict.
  • Treaty of Paris 783

    Treaty of Paris 783
    The Treaty of Paris 1783 ended the Revolution and Britain officially recognized US independence up to the Mississippi River.
  • Britain's Continued Resistance

    Britain's Continued Resistance
    Britain refused to repeal the Navigation Act and closed trade to the US. Britain also continued to hold military posts on US soil.
  • Spain and Britain

    Spain and Britain
    Spain and Britain prevent the US from controlling half of its territory. They also encouraged Native Americans to be belligerents.
  • Spain

    Spain closes the Mississippi River to American commerce.
  • France

    France demands the US to pay back its war debts.
  • Barbary War

    Barbary War
    North African pirates including the famous Dey of Algiers, (attacked U.S. ships in the are) enslaved Yankee sailors. However, the US was still too weak to stop it.
  • Washington's Neutrality Proclamation

    Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
    George Washington declares American neutrality in the conflict between France and Britain. Also urged Americans to be impartial to both Anglo and Franco camps in the US.
  • Treaty of London (Jay's Treaty)

    Treaty of London (Jay's Treaty)
    Britain leaves western forts and compensates US ship owners. US gives Britain most favored nation trading status. Native Americans, American citizens, and Canadians able to trade and travel between America and Canada.
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    Pinckney's Treaty
    Treaty of Friendship, Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and the United States. Established friendship between US and Spain, determined boundary between US and Spanish colonies of East and West Florida at the 31st parallel and the Mississippi River and joint surveyance of the border.
  • XYZ Affair/Quasi War

    XYZ Affair/Quasi War
    3 agents of French government demand silver, $12 million, and a formal apology from President John Adams (for comments made about France).
    The French, angry at the Anglo-Ameican Jay treaty, seize hundreds of American ships, Americans seize French ships, Franco-American Alliance broken, but no official declaration of war
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    When Spain ceded Louisiana Territory to France, Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans and any land to the east for no more than $10 million. Napoleon Bonaparte had a change of heart, and the US bought the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
  • Tripoli

    1801: Tripoli unhsppy with money receivedfor protection against Barbary Pirates, informally declares war on US. Jefferson expands navy by sending many small gunboats ("mosqito fleet") to guard American coasts
    1805: Peace Treaty: US pays $60,000 ransom for release of US prisoners and US merchant ships.
  • Non Importation Act

    Non Importation Act
    Forbade importation of certain British goods in an effort to convince Britain to stop the imressment of US sailors and to respect American independence and neutrality.
  • Embargo Act

    Embargo Act
    Forbade all exports from United States, unless an exception was made by the President (Jefferson). Ended up hurting the US as mush as Britain and France, and was repealed in 1808
  • Non-Intercourse Act

    Non-Intercourse Act
    Lifted the restrictions of the Embargo Act, except for those on French and British imports and exports with the intent of damagng the French and British economies. Very ineffective because of difficulty to enforce, and contributed to War of 1812. Macon's Bill No. 2 (May 1, 1810) lifted all embargoes to motivate France and Britain to stop seizing American ships
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    Peace treaty between US and UK ending the War of 1812 and restoring the relationship between the two countries. Signed in Ghent, Belgium, took 2 weeks to reach US, so fighting continued immediately after Treaty was signed
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty

    Rush-Bagot Treaty
    Between US and Britain. Demilitarization of Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. US and Britain could each have one military vessel on Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain
  • Treaty of 1818

    Treaty of 1818
    Established boundary at 49th parallel and joint occupation of Oregon Territory
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Speech President Monroe made declaring the end of colonization in America and warning the European countries against intervention, and the United States would not intervene in European affairs
  • the Webster-Ashburton Treaty

    the Webster-Ashburton Treaty
    This gave Britain their desired Halifax-Quebec route for a road while America got a bit more land north of Maine as well as the unknowingly golden Mesabi Range in Minnesota which proved to be the importance of this treaty.
  • 49th Parallel Treaty

    49th Parallel Treaty
    American and British border in Oregon was the 49th parallel, this gave America more land for Britain realized there were more Americans living there.
  • America Declares War on Mexico

    America Declares War on Mexico
    After the skirmish near the Rio Grande on the border claiming 14 American Lives, America declared war on Mexico.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty ended the war and gave 525,000 square miles encompassing states Arizona, Nevada, California, utah, New Mexico, and Colorado to the US for an exchange of 15 million dollars.
  • Clayton Bulwer Treaty

    Clayton Bulwer Treaty
    Treaty between United Kingdom and United States promising not to build a canal in the Americas without each other's consent.
  • The Ostend Manifesto

    The Ostend Manifesto
    This stated that the U.S. was to offer $120 million to Spain for Cuba, and if it refused and Spain’s ownership of Cuba continued to endanger the U.S., then America would be justified in seizing the island. Unfortunately the North didn't want this to happen and they couldn't agree to anything. This just added to the Slave issues and disagreement.
  • The Gadsden Purchase

    The Gadsden Purchase
    The sale of a current day southern portion of Arizona to the US from Mexico for 10 million dollars. This was important, because it gave more lee-way for the South to hold the pivotal transcontinental-railroad.
  • British Mail Steamer At Trent

    British Mail Steamer At Trent
    This was when a Union warship stopped a British ship on route to Europe that held two confederate personnel. The union made them get off and return, while Britain threatened war, but Lincoln resolved it. It just showed further Europe's want of a split US.
  • The Purchase of Alaska

    The Purchase of Alaska
    Secretary of State William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia to the United States for $7.2 million, but most of the public jeered his act as “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Ice-box.” A year later oil was found in Alaska, proving how important this purchase was.
  • Page Act

    Page Act
    The Page Act stated that any immigration of Asian countries must be voluntary. Immigrants who had made any contracts for work, women who intended to become prostitutes, and criminals were banned from entering America.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in response to the large number of Chinese immigrants who competed with (and frequently defeated) working class Americans for low-wage jobs.
  • The Immigration Act

    The Immigration Act
    Congress passed the immigration Act as an attempt to limit the number of immigrants entering America. The Act imposed a 50 cent tax on aliens, required examinations of immigrants, and prohibition of convicts, paupers, and lunatics.
  • Big Sister Policy

    Big Sister Policy
    An extension to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by James G. Blaine (Secretary of State). Tried to open Latin American markets for US trade.
  • Alien Contract Labor Law

    Alien Contract Labor Law
    The Alien Contract Labor Law banned the importation of foreign workers under contract by large corporations.
  • McKinley Tariff Bill

    McKinley Tariff Bill
    The McKinley Tariff raised the tariff on dutiable goods to about 48%. Because the tariff was so high, foreign trade was restricted. Tariffs continued to stay high in the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894 (41%) and the Dingley Tariff Bill of 1897 (47%).
  • Venezuela Boundary Dispute

    Venezuela Boundary Dispute
    When gold was discovered in Venezuela, the British sought after it, but the US denied their access according to the Monroe Doctrine. The British denied the validity of the Doctrine and almost went to war. The British could not afford another dispute and backed down thus strengthening the Monroe Doctrine.
  • Teller Amendement

    Teller Amendement
    US control over Cuba: "... hereby disclaims any disposition of intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island except for pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the island to its people."
  • Philippine Commission

    Philippine Commission
    McKinley forms the Phillippine Commission
  • Open Door Policy

    Open Door Policy
    By Secretary of State John Hay: urged European nations to keep fair competition (in China)
  • Boxer Rebellion

    Boxers revolted in Beijing, China and took foreigners hostage. US received $18 million for damages
  • Foraker Act

    Foraker Act
    Gave Puerto Ricans limited form of popular government
  • Building of Panama Canal

    Building of Panama Canal
    The Panama Canal began construction
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Roosevelt Corollary
    stated that in future cases of debt problems, the U.S. would take over and handle any intervention in Latin America on behalf of Europe. Basically, he wanted to be in control of the Caribean and Latin America.
  • Russo-Japanese incident

    Russo-Japanese incident
    In this Theodore Roosevelt settled a dispute between Russia and Japan over a small area call Sakhalin. In the end they setttled Japan would get half, but received no indemnity for its losses. Both sides felt they didn't get anything they wanted, so the US lost two allies.
  • Theodore Roosevelt Leaves US

    Theodore Roosevelt Leaves US
    T.R. became the first American president to leave America for foreign soil, in this case Panama.
  • The Great White Fleet

    The Great White Fleet
    T.R. looked to impress the Japanese with his battleship fleet, so he sent them on a tour around the world receiving praise from New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan.
  • The Root-Takahire Agreement and The Gentleman's Agreement

    In the Root-Takahire agreement, the US and Japan pledged to honors their territorial possessions in the Pacific and honor the Open-Door Policy in China. In the Gentleman's Agreement, T.R. promised to not segregate Japanese school children in San Fransisco and Japan promised to not send more laborers after the 1906 Earthquake.
  • Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912

    Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912
    This act allowed American shippers to no longer pay tolls for the using the canal.
  • The Dollar Diplomacy

    The Dollar Diplomacy
    called for Wall Street bankers toput their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S... Also in areas of Latin America and the Caribean to have some economic control of these areas.
  • Panama Canal is finished

    Panama Canal is finished
    Panama Canal is finally finished and opened at a cost of $400 million
  • Submarine Warfare

    Submarine Warfare
    The Germans announcedits use of submarine warfare around the British Isles, warning the U.S. that it would try not to attack neutral ships, but that mistakes would probably occur. Wilson warned Germany it would be held to strict accountability for any ships sunk.
  • Luisitania

    The Germans sank a British passenger ship, holding ammunition, but also held 128 Americans who were killed. America called for war, but Wilson just sent strongly worded notes to Germany.
  • Arabic

    Another passenger ship sunk by the Germans killing two Americans, but Germany finally agreed to not sink anymore ships without warning.
  • Jones Act

    Jones Act
    This granted full territorial status to the Phillipines and promised they would gain independence once a stable government is established.
  • Sussex and Sussex Pledge

    Sussex and Sussex Pledge
    The Germans yet again sunk another passenger ship after agreeing to not sink anymore without warning. This led to the Sussex Pledge which Germany promised to not sink anymore passenger or merchant ships without warning if America gets Britain to break the blockade. America was unable to do this.
  • Wilson Buys Virgin Islands

    Wilson Buys Virgin Islands
    Wilson Buys the virgin islands from Denmark.
  • Citizenship for Puerto Ricans

    Citizenship for Puerto Ricans
    Granted American citizenship for Puerto Ricans
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Wilson's Fourteen Points
    A set of idealistic goals for peace including: no more secret treaties, freedom of seas, removal of economic barriers among nations, the creation of a League of nations, and independence for oppressed minority groups.
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warface

    Unrestricted Submarine Warface
    Wilson made one final attempt to create peace between Germany and the US on the seas, but Germany responded by announcing the use of unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    Written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman, it secretly proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico, and if the Central Powers won, Mexico could recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona from the U.S.
  • US Declares War

    US Declares War
    Declares war on Germany
  • War is Over

    War is Over
    The Germans laid down their arms, overthrew their Kaiser, and hoped to get off easily with the Fourteen points.
  • Paris Conference

    Paris Conference
    The Paris Conerence included theUnited States, France, Great Britain, and Italy, known as "The Big Four." The Big Four met in Paris to discuss terms of the treaty which would officially end World War I.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer (“Fighting Quaker”) using a series of raids to round up and arrest about 6,000 suspected Communists. The Red Scare lasted till 2010, free speech and other freedoms were cut as any Communist suspects or people were rounded up. Sacco and Vanzetti.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    TheTreaty of Versailles wasa treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers of World War I. It required Germany to accept responsibility for starting the war, restricted the size of the German army, returned Alsace and Lorraine to France, broke the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires (granting many nations self-determination), and established a League of Nations.The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles due to apprehensions about the League of Nations.
  • Emergency Quota Act of 1921/Immigration Act opf 1924

    Emergency Quota Act of 1921/Immigration Act opf 1924
    Only 3% of the nationality that lived in the US in 1910 may immigrate each year, this was then cut down to 2% of the population in 1890 to limit the Southeastern europeans and new immigrants. Also in the 1924 law, it cut any Japanese from entering the US.
  • Technical End of War with Axis Powers

    Technical End of War with Axis Powers
    In July of 1921, the US technically ended the war with the Axis powers, becuase they had never ratified the Versailles Treaty.
  • Knox-Porter Resolution

    Knox-Porter Resolution
    The Knox-Porter Resolution ended all United States involvement in World War I. Since America never signed the Treaty of Versailles,
  • Washington Disarmanent Conference

    Washington Disarmanent Conference
    Resulted in a plan that kept a 5:5:3 ratio of ships that could be held by the U.S., Britain, and Japan (in that order). Showed how the US was leaning towards isolationism and peace.
  • Power Treaties

    Power Treaties
    The Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922 embodied Hughes’s ideas on ship ratios, but only after Japanese received compensation. A Four-Power Treaty, which bound Britain, Japan, France, and the U.S. to preserve the status quo in the Pacific, replaced the 20-year-old Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The Nine-Power Treaty of 1922 kept the open door open in China. These jsut showed how America was desperately attempting to avoid any more foreign conflict
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    Gave the countries a way to pay back from WWI devts. Essentially, the payments were a huge circle from the U.S. to Germany to Britain/France and back to the U.S. All told, the Americans never really gained any money or got repaid in genuine. Once agains how America was trying to get out of foreign entanglement quick so it could sink into isolationism.
  • Kellog-Briand Pact

    Kellog-Briand Pact
    Said that all nations that signed would no longer use war as offensive means, showing that the US wanted no more conflict and peace everywhere.
  • Good Neighbor Policy

    Good Neighbor Policy
    This was the policy of Franklin Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover who wanted to pursure good relations with Latin America instead of previously dominating with money investments and military occupation.
  • Japan Militarists Attack China

    Japan Militarists Attack China
    They invaded Manchuria and shut the Open Door, then later went onto bomb Shanghai under continued lack of action by the US and League of Nations. Allowed all to see that America's isolationsim was well entrenched.
  • Good Neighbor Policy

    Good Neighbor Policy
    It was FDR's foreign policy in Latin America. The goal was non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It was a great success.
  • London Conference

    London Conference
    66 nations met in London to discuss the possible solutions to the Great Depression. FDR was going to send Cordell Hull but withdrew further proving that America was still trying to be isolationist.
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements

    Reciprocal Trade Agreements
    FDR called for low tariff policies while supporting relief and reform for American trade especially in Latin America. Secretary of State Hull enacted this agreement.
  • Tydings-McDuffie Act

    Tydings-McDuffie Act
    States that the Philippines would regain their independence from the US in 12 years (1946)
  • Neutrality Acts

    Neutrality Acts
    From 1935-1937 the US tried to block intervening in the war in Europe with these acts. They restricted trade and transportation in general.
  • Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Civil War
    While Francisco Franco was overthrowing the Spanish government the US did not do much and set an embargo on both the loyalists and the rebels.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    Appeasement to Hitler--the Allies agreed to let Hitler have the Sudetenland. Six months later Hitler would take over Czechoslovakia.
  • Embargo

    The US issues an embargo on Japan which is one of the reasons of further rise in tension. Japan had the choice of leaving China or attacking the US but chose the latter.
  • Lend Lease Act

    Lend Lease Act
    The US supplied the Allied power with a vast amount of war material between 1941 and 1945.
  • Atlantic Conference

    Atlantic Conference
    Made the Atlantic Charter which called for self determination, no territorial changes, and a new League of Nations. (dubbed the new Fourteen Points)
  • Casablanca Conference

    Casablanca Conference
    President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at a hotel in Casablanca, Morocco to discuss European strategy during WWII. French leaders Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle also attended. At this meeting, the Allies decided to seek unconditional surrender from the Axis. They also decided to invade Sicily and Italy as a second front to help the Soviet Union, and recgnized Giraud and de Gaulle as joint leaders of Free France.
  • Cairo Conference

    Cairo Conference
    Meeting of President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek of China. Cairo Declaration (signed November 27, 1943) stated the Allies' plans to continue fighing in Asia until Japan's unconditional surrender. Also stated that all lands seized by Japan since 1914 would be taken, all land stolen from Chinese by Japan would be restored to China, and Korea would become independent.
  • Tehran Conference

    Tehran Conference
    Big Three (Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill) met for first time at Tehran, Iran. Operation Overlord (D-Day) planned for beginning of May 1944. The Big Three agreed to support Iranian government, Soviet Union agreed to support Turkey if it entered the war. Granted Soviet Union part of Poland, and allowed Soviet Union to set up governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other European countries. Soviet Union agreed to fight Japan after Germany was defeated.
  • IMF

    The IMF (International Monetary Fund) was created by the Western Allies to encourage world trade by regulating the currency exchange rates.
  • UN Organizations

    UN Organizations
    The UN formed organizations like UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural organization), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) and WHO (World Health Organization).
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Stalin meet. Agree on priority of Germany's unconditional surrender, Gemany to be split into 4 zones after war (US, Britain, France, Soviet Union), Nazi war crime trials, free elections in Poland (never granted), Stalin's committment to membership to United Nations, Soviet Union to enter war 90 days after Germany's defeat
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    The UN opened opened and the member nations drafted a charter similar to that of the League of nations. They also formed a Security Council headed by five permanent powers-China, USSR, Britain, France, US.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    Stalin, Winston Churchill/Clement Attlee, President Truman. Discussed German punishment, division of Germany and Austria and both capitals, Nazi war criminal prosecutions, restoration of German annexations, Provisional government formed by Big Three in Poland. America revealed to Soviet Union its nuclear capabilities.
  • Nuremburg Trial

    Nuremburg Trial
    These trials tried the criminals from the Holocast during World War II. 22 officials were severely punished.
  • Containment

    Truman adopted the "containment policy" made by Soviet specialist George F. Kennan. It means that communism will be kept from spreading to other nations.
  • Havana Conference

    Havana Conference
    The U.S. warned Germany that it could not take over orphan colonies in the Americas.
  • Philippines Independence

    Philippines Independence
    Philippines gained indepedence from the U.S.
  • MacArthur

    General Douglas MacArthur was sent to Japan to try the top Japanese war criminals. He also dictated a constitution that democratized Japan.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    US will aide any country fighting against Communism. $400 million were given to Greece and Turkey. The plan was successful.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Provided aid to 16 European nations for fast recovery to promote US influence. The plan sent over $12.5 billion over the course of 4 years with the $2 billion that the US was already giving to the European nations as part of the UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administraiton).
  • National Security Act

    National Security Act
    -Department of Defense
    -Secretary of Defense
    -National Security Council (NSC): advised the president on security matters
    -Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): coordinated the government's spying.
  • USSR & Germany

    USSR & Germany
    The USSR stops all air and railway access to Berlin (East Germany).
  • NATO

    NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
    -US, Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg.
    One attack on any NATO country is an attack on all NATO countries.
  • Israel

    The UN created the new Jewish nation of Israel that was originally Palestinian. The US officially recognizes it as well.
  • Revolution in China

    Revolution in China
    Communists led by Mao Zedong defeated the nationalists headed by Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang fled to what is now Taiwan (ROC).
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    In reaction to the Soviets, the Allies organized an airlift to provide for the people in Berlin. Ultimately, the Soviets stopped the blockade as a result.
  • Soviets' Nuclear Bomb

    Soviets' Nuclear Bomb
    Truman announced that the Soviets had exploded their first atomic bomb. The arms race of the Cold War has officially begun.
  • Korean War Begins

    Korean War Begins
    North Korea invades South Korea and pushes forces down to Busan. Truman using NSC-68 quadrupules military spending.
  • Incheon

    General MacArthur makes an amphibious attack on Incheon driving the North Koreans back to the 38th parallel. MacArthur is replaced after calling out on Truman for not enlarging the War out of necessity.
  • Rosenberg Trials

    Rosenberg Trials
    Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted and tried of giving nuclear information to the Soviets.
  • Building of the Berlin Wall

    Building of the Berlin Wall
    Soviets start building the Berlin Wall to separate East and West Germany.
  • Korean War Stops

    Korean War Stops
    An armistace is signed by the North and South Korea agreeing on the 38th parallel, where it began.
  • Coup of Iranian Minister

    Coup of Iranian Minister
    CIA helps coup of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, and installs Shah Mohommad Reza Pahlavi, an anti-communist in power.
  • Geneva Conference

    Geneva Conference
    US, USSR, UK, France, and China meet to discuss Korea and Vietnam. Geneva Accords grant Indochina (Vietnam) independence from France, northern and southern zones created, free elections to be held July 1956.
  • Coup in Guatemala

    Coup in Guatemala
    Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman overthrown with help of CIA. Anti-communist Carlos Castillo Armas placed in power.

    Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Block communist gains in Southeast Asia. Australia, Thailand, Philippines, New Zealand, France, UK, US
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    In response to NATO, the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact of the same idea.
  • Geneva Summit

    Geneva Summit
    US, USSR, Britain, France meet in Geneva, Switzerland. Goal= reduce tensions and increase friendships/communication among Big Four. Discussed trade, international security, disarmament.
  • Vietnam War Begins

    Vietnam War Begins
    Vietnam War begins with Ngo Dinh Diem rejecting Geneva Accords conditions and becoming president of the Republic of Vietnam.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine
    America would support any country with money and/or military aid that was fighting communism
  • Lebanon Crisis

    Lebanon Crisis
    US troops sent to Lebanon during Lebanese Civil War to prevent communism. First time Eisenhower Doctrine is applied.
  • Cuban Communism

    Cuban Communism
    Dr. Fidel Castro organizes revolution against pro-US, anti-communist dictator Fulgencio Batista. Cuba falls to communism. US cuts off sugar imports, Cuba confiscates US property. Talks of invoking Monroe Doctrine were quieted when Khrushchev declared its support for Cuba and threatened missile attacks if US tried to intervene.
  • Berlin Crisis

    Berlin Crisis
    USSR Premier Nikita Khrushchev gives France, Britain, US an ultimatum to withdraw from Berlin in six months to make it a demilitarized city. France, Britain, US plan on remaining in Berlin. Khrushchev meets with other Big Four powers in May, negotiations fail but lead to more meetings.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    US spy plane shot down in Soviet air. US denies the plane's purpose, claiming it was a weather plane. US eventually admits real purpose, further increasing tensions with USSR
  • Paris Summit

    Paris Summit
    Big Four meets again. Talks fail and Nikita Khrushchev walks ot when Eisenhower refuses to apologize for U-2 incident.
  • Bay of Pigs

    Bay of Pigs
    US invasion of Cuba to oppose communist threat. Cuban exiles were sent to Cuba to start a revolt but that never happened and air force aid never arrived. Ended in disgrace and failure.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    This brought the US and the Soviets on the brink of a nuclear war. Eventually the Soviets backed off the naval blockade. The Soviets agreed to remove their missiles; US vowed not to invade Cuba and remove missiles in Turkey.
  • South Vietnamese Coup

    South Vietnamese Coup
    CIA organizes coup against South Vietnamese dictator, Ngo Dinh Diem. Many parties fight for power, increasing chaos in Vetnam War.
  • US occupies Dominican Republic

    US occupies Dominican Republic
    US military is sent to fight communism in the Dominican Republic.