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History revision (Foreign Policy)

  • Washington Naval Conference

    Held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922, the 5 major poowers (GB, France, USA, Italy and Japan) agreed specific rations for the navies ( GB and the USA the most)
  • The Dawes Plan

    The Dawes Plan of 1924 was formulated to take Weimar Germany out of hyperinflation and to return Weimar’s economy to some form of stability. The Dawes Plan got its name as the man who headed the committee was an American called Charles Dawes. (Exact date unknown)
  • Kellog-Briand Pact

    USA and 60 other nations denouncing war as a "means of settling international grievances", effectively outlawing it.
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria

    When Manchuria was invaded by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan, America gave financial aid to China and labelled Japan as an agressor. However, America did not support trade sanctions
  • Montevideo Inter America Conference

    USA, Uruguay and other Latin American states agreed no one had the right to intervene in internal/externam affairs. Trade increased.
  • First Neutrality Act 1935

    The 1935 act, signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war
  • Neutrality Act of 1936

    February 1937. Renewed the provisions of the 1935 act for another 14 months. Banned loans or credits to countries at war.
    (Specific date unknown)
  • Japanese invasion of North East China

    USA gave financial aid to China and Roosevelt did not introduce trade sanctions and only discouraged sislk trade with Japan.
  • USS Panay incident

    Japanese bombed the USS Panay and 3 other tankers belonging to the US on the Yangtze river. 2 were killed. 30 were wounded. $2M paid in compensation
  • Munich Conference

    The Munich Agreement was an agreement between France, Italy, Nazi Germany and Britain. After Germany invaded the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, the British and French prime ministers tried to get Hitler to agree not to use his military in future in return for the land he had taken. Hitler agreed to sign a promise. At first people thought the agreement was a success, but Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939, which led to the start of the Second World War.
  • Cash and Carry

    It replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1939. The Cash and Carry Act of 1939 was actually an amendment to the 1937 Neutrality Act promoted by then-U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt to sell arms to the Allied powers. However, the countries would have to pick it up.
  • Economic sanctions on Japan

    July 1940, certain US exports to Japan were forbidden
    Agreements with Japan were cancelled
    America prohibited trade of oil with Japan
    (Specific date unknown)
  • Destroyers for Bases deal

    USA gave 50 aging destroyers to the UK in return for strategic naval bases in the Carribean and Newfoundland ( Canada)
  • Land Lease Act

    America lended resources to UK to help with war effort
  • Atlantic Charter

    UK and USA agree not to seek territorial gains from war.
  • Pearl Harbour bombed

    Japanese bombed US naval base because of trade sanctions.
    2345 soldiers killed
    188 aircraft destroyed
  • War in the Pacific

    (Specific date unknown)
    During the battle from 4-8 May, 1942, both sides suffered heavy casualties but the Japanese lost 2 aircraft carriers to USA's one.
    4 June, 1942, Japanese attacked Midway.
    April - June, US troops invaded Okinawa.
  • Berlin timeline

    1943 - 1945 (Date unknown) Large parts of Berlin were destroyed in air raids in the battle for the city. 1945 - The victorious powers divided the city into 4 zones 1948 - Soviet Union imposes economic blockade on west Berlin 1948 - 49 Berlin airlift 1949 - Germany divided into East and West 1961 - Berlin Wall built around west Berlin. 1989 - Berlin Wall demolished. 1990 - Germany is unified and Berlin becomes the capital
  • D-DAY

    US landed 15,500 airborne troops
    Almost 7000 naval vessels assembled in the channel
    156,000 had landed by the end of the first day.
    2499 American D DAY fatalities.
    By the end of July, 1M Allied troops had landed.
    On 8 May 1945, Germany surrendered.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Second peace conference of 1945
    20M Russians had died in WW2 and Stalin wanted compensation Truman refused.
    It was agreed to:
    Divide Germany and Berlin as previously agreed.
    Demilitirise Germany
    Re-establishy democracy in Germany.
    Reparations for Germany, mainly in the Soviet union.
    Ban the Nazis
  • Atomic Bomb

    6 August - Hiroshima - 80,000 inititally, 53,000 from radiation
    9 August - Nagasaki - 40,000 initially, 8000 from radiation
  • The Iron Curtain speech by Churchill

    Churchill made a speech about the division of Europe.
    "From Stettin in the Baltic to trieste in the Atlantic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent of Europe."
  • Truman Doctrine of Containment speech.

    In 1947, Britain, who had been giving financial aid to Greece and Turkey since 1945 admitted they couldnt anymore. USA gave financial aid to them in fear of losing them to communism.
  • Marshall Plan

    USA giving aid to countries in Europe to prevent them from becoming Cmmunist. In return, these countries would buy US goods.
  • Geneva agreement

    (Date unknown)
    Vietnam divided temporarily along the 12th parallel
    Led by Ho Chi Minh (communist + north)
    Led by Ngo Dinh Dien (non communist - south)
    USA prevented elections in July 1956 realising the communists would win.
  • Castro comes to power

    The Pro American dictator, Batista is removed.
  • Vietcong terror campaign

    (Date unknown)
    Ho Chi Minh ordered for the Vietcong to invade the south with a terror attack.
  • U2 Spy plane incident

    US spy plane shot down over USSR and US pilot (Gary Powers) was put on trial in Moscow.
  • Bay of Pigs

    CIA organised attempt to overthrow Castro
    1400 Cuban exiles landed, but it was a faliure.
  • Chemical weapon use in Vietnam war

    (Date unknown)
    During the Vietnam War, between 1962 and 1971, the United States military sprayed nearly 20,000,000 US gallons (75,700,000 l) of chemical herbicides and defoliants in Vietnam Napalm was also used and sticks to the skin and burns at 800 degrees celcius.
  • Soviet Missile Base found on Cuba

    US spy planes found a Soviet missile base on Cuba. At the same time, US had missiles in Berlin/Turkey
  • Krushchev sends letter to JKF

    Krushchev sends letter to JKF insisting that his ships will break through the blockade.
  • Soviet Vessels reach blockade

    The ships turn back
  • Krushchev sends second letter

    Krushchev agrees to remove missiles if US missiles are removed from Turkey and the blockade is lifted
  • Kennedy agrees in Public to first and to the second in private

  • Krushchev agrees to remove missiles from Cuba

  • Overthrow of Diem

    The corrupt and unpopular ruler was overthrown and replaced by a series of weak and shortlived governments.
    Vietcong gain popularity in the South
  • Gulf of Tonkin incident

    President Johnson wanted more direct military involvement in Vietnam but needed an excuse
    On 2 August 1964, the US destroyer Maddox was fired upon by North Vietnamese patrol boats in the Gulf of Tonkin.
    16,000 advisors (soldiers)
  • Johnson increases troops in Vietnam from 16,000 to 539,000

    (Date not specific) between 1964 and 69, the number of troops is increased from 16000 to 539,000
    By 1969, 30,000 were dead and 100,00 wounded.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
  • Ping Pong diplomacy

    In 1971, China stunned the world when they invited the England, United States of America, Canadian and Columbian table tennis teams to visit them for a series of friendly table tennis matches.
  • Lifted trade embargo

    President Nixon ends blockade against People's Republic of China
  • Nixon first president to visit China

  • SALT 1

    USA and Russia agreed there would be no further production of strategic ballistic missiles.
    Both powers also agreed that nuclear weapons on submarines on submarines would be introduced when existing ICBMs become obsolete
  • Apollo - Soyuz mission

    Joint soace mission in which an American and Russian spacecraft docked high above the earth to show space relations
  • Helsinki agreements

    During July and August 1, 1975. Thirty-five States, including the USA, Canada, and most European states made declarations about 3 distinct issues. Security, Human rights and Co-operation
  • SALT 2

    Limit of 2400 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles for each side.
    A 1320 limit on multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle systems for each side.
    A ban on the construction of new land based ICBM launchers
    The agreement would last until 1985
  • US embassy in tehran, Iran taken over by militant students

    66 hostages
    Iran wanted their Shah to come back and face trial
    1995: Clinton imposes oil and trade sanctions for alleged sponsorship of terrorism
  • Reagan calls USSR "an evil empire"

  • Fall of Berlin Wall

  • Re-unification of Germany

    (Specifi date unknown)
  • Operation Desert Storm

    2000 aircraft air assault on Iraq