Cold Home at War-During the depression, tens of thousands joined the communist party.
-after world war two America knew had distrust in Stalin and withdrew from communism.
-a number of communist parties were caught and put on trial.
-Americans both involved and not involved were caught up in the communist issues arising.
38th Parallelthe lattitude line running across Korea at approximately the midpoint of the peninsula.
-Soviet Union surrendered Japanese troops north of the line and the US did the same in the south.
-two zones: Soviet-occupied zone and an American occupied zone.
-South Korea = pro-American government
-North Korea = communist.
- By 1948 and 1949 both forces withdrew.
The Potsdam Conference-In Berlin
-Truman (US representative) and Clement Attlee (British representative) debated with Stalin in place of FDR and Churchill.
-Debated the future of Germany and Poland.
-Truman encouraged for Polish elections
-The atomic bomb was tested and thought to intimidate Stalin.
-Soviet Spies had already informed Stalin of the bomb.
Two Different ViewsUS View
-Fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to Asian and European nations.
-Hoped the postwar world woud become economically strong and politically open.
-Determined to protect itself as a result of a large loss of people.
-Wanted to spread communism throughout the world.
-Did not take part in the World Bank and the Internantional Monetary Fund.
-Supported or installed totalitarianism Communist governments.
The Iron Curtain-Speech by Stalin that predicted communism over capitalism.
-Called on communists to spread their system.
-Created the Cominform, an agency intended to coordinate the activities of Communist parties around the world.
Churchill's Response (Iron Curtain)-Called on Americans to keep Stalin from reaching anymore nations beyond the iron curtain.
- Iron Curtain speeches by Stalin and Churchill set the tone for the Cold War.
The Cold War Beginningthe competition that developed between the U.S. and the Soviet Union for power and influence in the world.
-50 years long (ends in 1991).
-Characterized by political and economic conflict and military tensions.
-U.S. military forces fought wherever Soviet-suported uprisings and invasions occurred.
NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization: Canada, US, Belguim, Britain, Denmark, France. Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal.
"An armed attack against one or more of them... shall be considered an attack against them all."
-America became officially involved in foreign affairs.
-Established to defend Europe from communist attacks from the Soviet Union.
Loyalty ProgramIn this program all new employees hired by the federal government were to be investigated.
-Administrations inforced by Truman tried to rid of any element of communism that grew in America.
-Spies found, increasing American anxiety.
-FBI researched files of all old and new employees who seemed to take in suspicious actions.
-Rid of only a few hundred government employees from their job,
The Truman Doctrine-The U.S. is taking a leadership role in the world.
-Created the doctrine to guide America in the Cold War.
-Took the place of Britain in aided Greece and Turkey (over $400 million).
-U.S. military bases developed in both countries.
-Truman Doctrine lead America for the next four decades.
The Marshall Plancalled for the nations in Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war.
-U.S. supported the plan with financial aid.
-Plan created by Secretary of State George C. Marshall.
-Reflected that Americans' aid to European economic recovery woud lead to strong democracies and open new markets for goods.
-Soviet Union was invited into the plan, but denied.
-The soviet thought it was an American way into European affairs.
-1948 Congress approved the plan.
Marshall Plan cont.17 nations in Europe joined the plan:
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and West Germany.
-U.S. loaned $13 billion in grants in loans to Western Europe.
HUACHouse UnAmerican Activities Committee- created to investigate disloyalty on the eve of world war two.
-Took action in communist infiltration of government agencies, and the Hollywood movie industry.
-Charged Hollywood movies if they had anything to do with communism.
"Who's next?... Is it you, who will have to look around nervously before you can say what's on your mind?... This reaches into every American city and town."
Hollywood Ten-Hollywood writers, directors, actors, and producers were called to tesitfy by the HUAC.
-Permission to make statements was denied by the HUAC.
-As a result their consitutional rights were revoked, and the Hollywood Ten wered send to jail for contempt of Congress and stayed in jail anywhere from 6 months to a year.
-HUAC mainly attacked film industries.
Spies in America-two cases of communist spies found.
-HUAC investigated Alger Hiss, a high-ranking State Department official.
-Accused by Chambers who was once a communist.
-By 1950, Hiss was declared a spy and served in prison for four years.
-Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were communist who passed atomic secrets to the soviet during world war two.
-The married couple was executed in 1953.
Berlin Airlift13,000 tons of goods (food, fuel and other supplies) arrived in West Berlin daily.
-America, Britain, and France VS Stalin
-West Berlin was communist
-hundreds of thousands fled from the communist Berlin to East Berlin.
-Stalin blockaded the food and supply route to West Berlin due to the threat he found in a new currency being created.
-for 15 months 20,000 flights delivered supplies.
The Soviet Atomic Threat-An explosion in the USSR was noted.
-in 1950 Truman gave approval for a thermonuclear/hydrogen bomb. (stronger than the atomic bomb)
-Truman wanted to maintain American's nuclear superiority.
-1952, the hydrogen bomb was tested, making the US the leading nuclear power.
-Federal Civil Defense Administration made
- posters and information on how to survive a nuclear attack.
- instructions to build protective buildings.
-when China asked for help, Truman said that the communist take over was had accomplished so much that it could probably not be prevented.
-Aid was still given to Jiang.
-America's focus became on saving Western Europe from communism.
-China officially became communist in 1949.
-"loss of China" saw to be a bad record on the Truman administration.
Chinese Civil War1927-1949
-Jiang sent troops to attack the communist, which lead to a civil war.
-Leader of the communist: Mao Zedong.
-Communist supporters were gained by giving land back to peasants and offering them schooling and health care in southeastern China.
-In March, Mao built up his forces.
-Nationalists ost support because of their harsh treatment of the population, high taxes, and corruption.
-Mao's promises lead to communism in China in 1949.
UN Police Action-US blockaded communist china's admission to the United Nations (UN).
- Us saw Northern Korea as an agressor and got permission to help defend southern Korea.
- The American Seventeenth Fleet was sent to protect Taiwan.
- Truman ordered air and naval support also.
- Congress was not asked about war, but Truman was praised by republicans and democrats for his actions.
-The United Nations Command was created.
- 16 member nations contributed troops or arms.
-America made up about 80% of the troops.
The Korean War-North Korean troops stepped into south Korean territory.
- America felt that this action was established by the Soviet Union.
- Communism was on the merge of spreading again.
-Truman took action with the American military.
"If this [invasion of South Korea] was allowed to go unchallenged, it would mean a third world war, just as similiar incidents brought on the second world war." - Truman
McCarthyism-McCarthy is a part of the Senate.
-Accused people of being communists.
-Looked for public support.
-McCarthy took his crusade to the floor of the Senate and engaged in tactics which became McCarthyism.
-He became chairman of an investigation subcommittee.
-Being accused by him could cause job loss and bad reputations.
-By 1954 he began to lose support and eventually lost credibility.
-America was damaged by the era's suppression of free speech and open, honest debate.
McCarran-Walter Actreaffirmed the quota system for each country that had been established in 1924. Discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia and from Southern and Central Europe.
"One of the most un-American acts I have ever witnessed in my public career."
-Congress passed it over the President's veto.
-Senator McCarran felt that disloyal Americans were immigrants from Communist dominated areas of the world.
Cold War (1950s)-Dwight D. Eisenhower became president.
-Planned to roll back communism where it had already taken hold.
-Kept America out of affairs of the Soviet Union's satellites.
-Eisenhower felt that any other action would lead to war with the Soveit Union.
-American remained contained during foreign policies.
Cold War in Southeast Asia (1950s)-Eisenhower signed a campign to bing the Korean War to an end.
-Stalin died in March.
-US Provided military aid to support France who tried to regain control of Vietnam.
-Vietnam was divided into a north and south. communist and non-communist.
-America aided Southern Vietnam.
Nuclear Arsenals Grow-The Soviet Union tested its own hydrogen bomb.
-Eisenhower increased war development due to the deterrence policy started by Truman.
-Deterrence policy: policy of making the military power for the US and its allies so strong that no enemy would dare attack for fear of retaliation.
1954-1958 America madeand tested 19 hydrogen bombs.
-All 19 were more powerful than the atomic bomb
- A hydrogen bomb tested in March 1954 was over 750 time sstronger than the original atomic bombs.
Cold War in Latin America (1950s)-American had control over several Latin islands.
-The CIA overthrew the government in Guatemala based on the thought that they were racial.
-Resulted in restoring the property of an American corporation, The United Fruit Company.
-Soviet felt that America was escalating the Cold War.
Cold War in the Middle East(1950s)-Suez crisis of 1956.
-Eygpt's ruler Gamal Abdel Nasser sought Soviet support. US and Britain cut off their aid to Eygpt.
-Nasser seized British owned- Suez Canal
-Waterway allowed Middle East oil to reach Europe via the Mediterranean.
- British and French forces attacked Eygpt.
-Eisenhower Doctrine came into action: the US would use force "to sfeguard the independence of any country or group of countries in the Middle East requesting aid against [Communist-inspired] aggression."
Policy of BrinkmanshipPolicy of Brinkmanship: "The ability to get the verge without getting into the wr is the necessary art. If you cannot mster it, you inevitably get into war. If you try to run away from it, if you are scared to go to the brink, you are lost."
-Secretary of State John Dulles made it clear that the US was prepared to risk war to protect its national interests.
Cold War in the Skies-Airplanes were relied on to carry the hydrogen bombs.
-Soviets made intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs.
-America also tried to make ICBMs. US lagged behind in missile development.
-Sputnik launched by the Soviet Union was later learned to be able to carry hydrgoen bombs.
-U-2 incident cause Americans to become willing to expand resources to surpass the Soviet Union.
-Eisenhower stated that employing millions and having a finanical stake in war-making could become a threat to peace.
Effects of the Korean War-Caused a large amount of frustration in the US.
-34,000 died, 103,000 wounded.
-Communism didn't spread over the 38th parallel.
-African Americans served in the American military.
-Increase in military spending.
-a powerful military-industrial complex was made that employed 3.5 million Americans by 1960.
-Helped shape the future US policy in Asia.
-In 1951, the war poisoned relation with Communist China.