• 14th Amendment

    All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
  • 15th Amendment

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
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    Jim Crow Laws

    State and local laws that mandated against all racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern States of the former Confederacy.
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    Eleanor Roosevelt

    Longest serving First Lady of the United States (1933-1945)
    Wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Named "First Lady of the World" in tribute of her human rights achievements.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the U.S., upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "seperate but equal."
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    Thurgood Marshall

    Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1967-1991).
    Was the Courts 96th Justice and first African-American Justice.
    Was lawyer best known for his success in the Brown V. Board of Education.
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    Lyndon Baines Johnson

    36th President of the United States (37th Vice President).
    One of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the U.S. (Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President).
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

    An African-American civil rights organization in the United States.
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    Orval Faubus

    36th Gorvernon of Arkansas (1955-1967).
    Best known for his stand against the desegregation of Little Rock School District during Little Rock Crisis.
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    Rosa Parks

    African-American civil rights activist.
    Called "the first lady of civil rights" and "mother of the freedom movement"
    Refused to give up her seat on the bus in the colored section to a white passenger.
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    Hector Perez Garcia

    Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum.
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    George Wallace

    American politician and 45th Governor of Alabama.
    Served two nonconsecutive years and two consecutive years.
    Ran for U.S. President four times.
    Earned the title of "Most Influential Loser"
    Paralyzed after an assassination attempt and used a wheelchair the remainder of his life.
  • 19th Amendment

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
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    Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique)

    American writer, activist, and feminist.
    In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women.
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    Cesar Chavez

    American farm worker, labor reader, and civil rights activist.
    Co-founded the National Farm Workers Association.
    Became best known Latino American civil rights activist.
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    Martin Luther King Jr.

    American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African American Civil Rights Movement.
    Best known for role in advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience.
    Assassinated on April 4, 1968.
  • League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)

    Created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States.
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    Delores Huerta

    Labor leader and civil rights activist.
    Co-found National Farm Workers Association.
    Recieved many awards for community service and advocacy for workers.
  • Federal Housing Authority

    United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. It insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying.
  • Social Security

    Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program.
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    Barbara Jordan

    Barbara was an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, among numerous other honors. On her death she became the first African-American woman to be buried in the Texas State Cemetery.
  • Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)

    A U.S. civil rights organization that played a role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Mendez v. Westminister

    Federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools.
  • Delgado V. Bastrop ISD V. Kirby

    Made segregation of children of Mexican descent in Texas illegal.
  • Sweatt v. Painter

    U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "seperate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation.
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    Civil Rights Movement

    Worldwide political movement for equality before the law.
  • Hernandez v. Texas

    Landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican-Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    Court declared state laws establishing seperate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
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    Sonya Sotomayor

    An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of The United States.
    The courts 111th justice, first Hispanic justice, and third female justice.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    A political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    African American Civil Rights Organization.
    Had close association with Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Civil Rights Act 1957

    A voting rights bill that was the first civil right legislation enacted by Congress in the U.S. since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
  • Great Society

    A set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s
  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)

    Labor union created from the merging of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee and the National Farm Workers Association.
  • Militant Protests

    Aggressive and violent forms of protesting.
  • Non-Violent Protests

    A form of protest that does not include any acts of violence or agression.
  • March on Washington

    One of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans.
  • 24th Amendment

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.
  • Civil Rights Act 1964

    landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.
  • Voting Rights Act 1965

    landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
  • Upward Bound

    Federally funded educational program within the United States.
  • Head Start

    A program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
  • Medicare

    A national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease.
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

    Set up for the advancement of women.
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    Black Panthers

    African-American socialist organization active in the United States.
  • 25th Amendment

    In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
  • American Indian Movement (AIM)

    Native American activist organization that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and soveriegnty.
  • Tinker v. De Moines

    Decision by United State Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools.
  • La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)

    American political party centered on Chicano nationalism.
  • 26th Amendment

    The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
  • Title IX

    No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
  • Edgewood ISD v. Kirby

    Case concerning public school finance.
    Citing discrimination against students in poor school districts.
  • Affirmative Action

    Policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business".