Fall of ConstantinopleIn 1453 the city of Constantinople in the Byzantine empire (Turkey) was laid siege to by the Ottoman empire, the battle lasted for 55 days. Some of the immediate effects after the fall of Constantinople were
- Blocked land route from Europe to Asia
- Trashed Black Sea trade
- Ottoman empire gained power in Europe, Islam gained popularity within conquered lands
First voyage of ColumbusChristopher Columbus was an Italian explorer under the sponsorship of Spain, searching for a faster route to India by sailing west instead of South around Africa. Columbus was the first to discover the New World, unknowingly arrived on the shores of San Salvador. Some of the immediate effects of this voyage were.
- Colonization of Mexico and Peru
- New foods were introduced to Spain, potato, tomato, avocado etc
- Treaty of Tordesillas, divided South America between Spain and Portugal
Columbus *most important*Columbus discovering a new continent is the most important event of the 1400's because it brought on a new age of exploration and trading because there were new goods and foods (potatoes, honey, tomatoes) in the Americas that Europe did not have before.
95 Theses by Martin LutherMartin Luther disagreed with the sale of indulgences which compelled him to write 95 theses, explaining that the goodness of a person is not measured by good works but rather faith in god.
-Translated the bible into German
- Gained followers
- People began to realize flaws in church
Luther *most important*Martin Luther's 95 theses is the most important event of the 1500's because he interpreted the bible in a new way and it brought a new form of religion, because of his work religious wars like the thirty years war was fought, documents like the peace of westphalia were made and many people began to interpret the bible in their own way like calvinists. Luther initiated the reformation, this makes his 95 theses the most important event of the century.
Fall of the Aztec EmpireSpanish noble Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec civilization in 1522. Much of their victory was due to smallpox a European disease that killed around 90% of the population as well as the advanced technology of Spain.
- The culture and religions of the Aztecs were destroyed
- Spain gained Mexico
- Leveled Aztec buildings and built new Spanish government buildings and churches on top
Sack of RomeCharles V gained power over Italy.
- Papacy began to fear Charles V
- End of Italian renaissance
- Pope allied with France
Act of SupremacyHenry VIII issued the Act of Supremacy after the pope would not allow him to get a divorce.
- Henry VIII became supreme head of church
- Church/Pope lost power in England
- Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon and married Anne Boleyn.
Copernicus' BookCopernicus was a renaissance era mathematician and astronomer who placed the sun in the center of the universe rather than the Earth.
- Created Heliocentric
- Began Scientific Revolution
- People began to think more secular
Start of Council of TrentThe Council of Trent was called together to solve the religious differences in Europe.
- Ensured Catholic was dominate religion
- Ideas of purgatory and Indulgences brought back
- Only the church was allowed to read bible
Peace of AugsburgThe Peace of Augsburg was a treaty meant to end the religious conflict in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.
- Ended religious conflict in Holy Roman Empire and Germany
- Lutheranism became legal
- Allowed rulers to choose between Lutheranism and Catholic "whose realm, his religion"
Edict of Nates
Start of thirty years warThe thirty years war was a result of years of religious uncertainty, the war mostly took place in Germany and is know to be the "last religious war".
- Defenestration of Prague, threw Ferdinand II representatives out a window
- Peace of Prague, protected Luther/Calvin territories in north-eastern Germany
- Initiated Peace of Westphalia
Civil War - EnglandThe Civil War in England was a result of the Anglicans and the Puritans debating the role of the parliament within the English Government.
- Creation of the "New Model Army"
- Cromwell became ruler of England
- Government became Puritan
Peace of WestphaliaThe Peace of Westphalia was a result of the Thirty Years War to try and end the religious conflict.
- Lutheranism and Calvinism became legal
- Politics and Religion were separated
- Confirmed Independence of all "Kingdoms" within Holy Roman Empire
Beheading of Charles IAfter the Civil war (1642) Charles II was beheaded by Cromwell.
- Cromwell dismissed Parliament
- England became Republic/Dictatorship
- English monarchy was removed
Ottoman siege of ViennaOttoman emperor Suleiman gathered an army with the aim of conquering Vienna in Austria.
- The Europeans counterattacked the Ottomans.
- Austria gained land from Ottoman empire.
- Ottoman empire no longer faced a threat to Europe.
Newton's BookNewton's book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica gave a new light to mathematics throughout Europe.
- Created Laws of Motion
- Discovered Gravity
- Ended Scientific Revolution
Newton's Book *Most important*Newton's Book was the most important event of the century because it changed the way people viewed the world, his theories of motion are still in use today. Because his ideas changed the world and became one of the most important books in history it is the most important event of the seventeenth century.
Lockes EssayIn 1690 John Locke published an essay titled An essay concerning Human Understanding.
- Idea of Blank Slate
- Begun the Enlightenment
- Ideas lead to Skepticism
Peace of UtrechtThe Peace of Utrecht was a series of peace treaties following the war of Spanish succession.
- Spain and France were weakened from the War of Spanish Succession and were left with huge debt.
- Ensured Philip V as ruler of Spain
- Austria gained land, Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples.
Rousseau's BookJohn Rousseau's book the social contract showed a new light to government.
- Developed free trade
- "Soil" was wealth
- "Laissez faire"
Adam Smith's bookIn 1776 Adam smith published a book called, "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"
- Seperation of government and economy (Laissez faire)
- Free trade in Britain
- Concept of Division of labor popularized
Steam engineThe steam engine was first invented in 1782 by James Watt.
- Better transportation (coal, textiles and other materials) easier to transport
- Efficient manufacturing could use steam instead of water, wind or horsepower
- Industrial growth from all over europe
Start of French RevolutionThe French Revolution was a result of France's political and social order. The first phase known as the Liberal phase was started by the tennis court oath when the third estate was locked out of the National Assembly.
- Established constitutional monarchy
- Abolished hereditary privileges
- Declaration of the rights of man and citizen
Start of the French Revolution *Most important*The French Revolution triggered a series of other revolutions throughout Europe against traditional Absolute monarchies. France also experienced the Reign of terror in which France underwent a dramatic transformation from a absolute monarchy form a government to a parliamentary-monarchy form of ruling.
Reign of TerrorThe reign of terror lead by the radicals and motivated by enlightenment ideas and foreign threat, was the bloodiest phase of the French revolution.
- 50,000 killed by guillotine
- attempt of de-christianization throughout france
- developed strong nationwide military consisting of over a million people
The DirectoryThe French directory was a five member committee that governed France when it replaced the Committee of public safety. Eventually taken over by Napoleon
- Beheaded Robespierre
- Wrote new Constitution
- Continued to fight foreign wars with Prussia and Austria
Napoleon's Coup d'etatNapoleon took part in a Coup d'etat and overthrew the french directory, taking control of France
- Ended French Revolution
- Wrote new Constitution, Code Napoleon
- Made himself Emperor of France
- Limited rights of women
Napoleon's invasion of RussiaDue to Napoleon controlling most of Europe, nations began to develop a sense of nationalism that would help them fight back against Napoleon.
- European countries began to have nationalism
- "Great Retreat" abandon Moscow, lost 45,000 troops
- Lead to Liberation war throughout Europe
Battle of WaterlooAfter Napoleon's defeat he raised another Army to attack allied forces in waterloo Belgium.
- Defeated by British + Prussian armies
- Exiled to Saint Helena
- End of reign of Napoleon, never returned to France
Congress of ViennaThe congress of Vienna came together to restore power to Europe following Napoleon's reign.
- Created balance of power within Europe
- Reduced France to old Boundaries
- Creation of German Confederation
Revolutions of 1830Many of the revolts of 1830 were caused by bad harvests, rapid changes from industrialization, increased population and many more.
- Belgium had the first nationalist Revolution
- Poland's revolution failed
- France went against Louis Philippe
Revolutions of 1848The Revolutions of 1848 were caused by many factors many political and some economic.
- Demand for rights, freedom of speech, press, right to vote
- Abolishment of workshops
- Balance of power destroyed by Germany
The Communist ManifestoWritten by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels the Communist Manifesto laid the groundwork for modern day communism.
- Ideas that Capitalism would be replaced with communism
- Upper and lower classes will always fight
- Made the oppressed conscious of their status
Revolutions of 1848 *Most important*The revolutions of 1848 was the most important event of the nineteenth century because it was when Europe experienced a break from traditional absolute monarchies, and a new surge of nationalism. It brought upon a new form a government to Europe making it the most important event of the 1800's
Britain's Great ExhibitionBritain's great exhibition hosted by Queen Victoria and her family. The exhibition featured indoor plants to represent mankind conquering nature
- over six million people from around Europe visited it
- Britain became leader of the industrial revolution
- displayed achievements of industrial revolution
Crimean WarThe Crimean war was a war in which Russia suffered a huge loss to an alliance between the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardina.
- Russia no longer a great power
- Austria had no allies
- End of Concert of Europe
Austro-prussian warThe Austro Prussian war was a war fought between Austria and Prussia sparked by Bismark.
- Paved way for German Unification
- Austria gave Venetia to Italy, Austria out of power
- Lead to Franco-Prussian war
Second Industrial Revolution
Unification of GermanyGerman Unification was largely due to Bismarck and the Austro-Prussian war putting Germany in power.
- Prussia became much more powerful
- Balance of power disrupted
- Bismarck became extremely influential marched into place of Versailles
Berlin ConferenceThe Berlin conference wasa conference held by Bismarck to settle and control the territory grabs.
- Required presence in territory
- Even greater rush for territory
- Held to reduce conflict
Russia Bloody Sunday RevolutionThe Bloody sunday Revolution was held on the coronation day of Nicholas ii when he open fired on innocent and harmless protestors.
- Creation of the Duma
- Creation of military run government
- Led to revolution of 1917
Start of WW1The first world war lead to the deaths of over 40 million people, because of a surge of nationalism within Europe many soldiers were excited to head off to war to represent their country.
- Lead to total war within many European nations
- New use of "Trench wars"
- Introduction of tanks, subs, airplanes, into war
Start of WW1 *Most important in History*The start of world war one was the most important event in history because it created a domino effect that lasted until the end of the cold war and even further. After the first world war Germany was Humiliated and this started world war two, then after world war two the two remaining global superpowers, America and Russia fought a cold war and didn't end until the Maschrist Treaty in 1991.
The start of WW1 *most important in history*The second world war was the most destructive war in history with over 75 million people dead and two atomic bombs dropped and it was almost a direct result of world war one. Since the start of world war one three major wars were fought and many other other smaller wars, with terrorists attacks like 9/11 also a result of the domino effect of the start of world war one.
Bolshevik RevolutionMany of the Russian people were upset with the government fighting a pointless war, russia after the humiliation of the russo-japanese war refused to embarrass themselves again.
- Russia pulls out of the war to focus on internal conflict
- The provisional government and Duma was overthrown
- Creation of U.S.S.R
End of WW1After over 40 million dead and the involvement of almost all of Europe world war one finally ended.
- Treaty of versailles was created
- Women gained the right to vote in many countries
- Creation of many monuments for the dead
Treaty of Versailles
Start of Great DepressionAfter WWI nations struggled to restore their economies. After the stock market crashed and America was forced to remove investments from Europe, Europe faced a huge economic downturn resulting in the Great Depression.
- America withdrew stock from Europe
- Unemployment rates rose to around 40%
- Increased Tariffs and quotas throughout Europe
Hitler becomes chancellorHitler rose to power through his book mein kampf, the beer hall putsch and many other factors.
- Creation of the Enabling act
- Re-armed the Rhineland
- Annexing more land (Austria)
Spanish Civil warThe Great Depression gave rise to political instability in spain until 1936, when the popular front, a coalition of anti-fascist parties including democrats and radical socialists took control. the spanish military rebelled however and launched a three year civil war.
- Spain becomes fascist under Franco
- Nazis test military in spanish civil war
- Spain declare neutrality
Nazi invasion of PolandThe Germans invaded poland through both, land, air and water giving them an easy victory.
- Britain and France declare war on Germany
- WWII starts
- Jews killed/sent to camps
Nazi invasion of U.S.S.RNearing the end of World War two Hitler decided to break the non-aggression pact and invaded the soviet union.
- German defeat in Soviet Union
- Hitler killed himself
- Germany no-longer in WWII
Atomic bombsThe U.S released two bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki within three days of each other after this japan surrenders ending the most destructive war in history.
- Yalta conference, in exchange for military assistance against Japan with U.S, Soviet Union would get land in East Asia and influence in Eastern and Central Europe
- Deterioration of Grand Alliance
- Iron Curtain, communism and democracy
Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan provided huge financial aid to Europe after world war two to help rebuild.
- Helped Europe rebuild
- Further conflict with U.S.S.R
- Helped make NATO
Hungarian rebellion against U.S.S.RThe Hungarian revolt took place when Hungary attempted to free itself from Soviet rule, resulting in the U.S.S.R sending in their military to end the revolt.
- Soviet military sent to stop revolt
- Alexander Dubcek (Czech revolt) - "communism with a human face"
- Prague Spring
Prague Spring / Paris student revoltsAlexander Dubcek sought to create "communism with a human face" but the Soviet military, invoking the Brezhnev Doctrine, crushed this "Prague Spring". The Paris student revolts were a result of a younger generation fighting against an older generation about the outdated topics they were learning in school and old stereotypes. There were revolts about feminism and many protested the second Vietnam war.
- "Prague spring" end of red army
- "sexual revolution"
- Title nine
OPEC oil embargoDuring the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo against the United States in retaliation for the U.S. decision to resupply the Israeli military and to gain leverage in the post-war peace negotiations.
- Stopped exports of oil to U.S
- Helsinki accords
- oil prices 10x more than before
Fall of Berlin wallThe fall of the Berlin wall was a result of internal dissent like revolts from the people and outside pressure from nations (U.S airlift) to take down the wall. The fall of the Berlin wall signified the end of the Iron curtain and the beginning of the end of communism.
- End of Iron Curtain
- End of cold war
- Maschrist treaty
End of U.S.S.R / Maschrist treatyDuring the Coup against Gorbachev the russian military lead by the russian President Lenin intervened, after the coup Russia pulled out of the U.S.S.R and following their lead so did many other countries ending the Soviet Union. The Maschrist Treaty formed the EU making the European union.
- Common currency (Euros)
- Common agricultural policy
- Greater flexibility in travel among member nations
9/11The Islamic Terrorist group al Qaeda, hijacked four planes. Two of the planes flew into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. The terrorists were acting in retaliation for America’s support of Israel and its involvement in the Persian Gulf War.
- U.S attacked Taliban
- Killing of Osama Bin Laden
- Creation of Department of Homeland security