Stage of history that begins with the taking of the Bastille during the French Revolution until today.
Writer and politician born in Britain, he was prime minister of Britain during WW2. He's considered the greatest political figure in the 20th century of Britain and a national hero.
Russian communist politician and dictator of the USSR from 1929 until his death in 1953. He belonged to the allies during WW2.
32nd president of the USA that was born in 1882 and died in 1945. He brought the US into WW2 after the Japanese attacked the base at Pearl Harbor.
Politician and leader of the Italian fascism party. In march 1919 he formed the fascist party. He organized the armed squads known as the black shirts, that marched on Rome in 1922, forcing king Victor Manuel to invite Mussolini to form a Government. He imposed a fascist totalitarian dictatorship in italy.
33rd president of the United States of America (1945-1953). During World War II he became famous as president of the parliamentary committee in charge of supervising the war economy, moderating expenses and avoiding discrimination. He commanded the launch of two atomic bombs on two Japanese cities, in order to try to achieve the surrender of that country.
REGENCIA MARIA CRISTINA
La regencia empieza en 1885 cuando fallece el rey Alfonso XII, cuando Alfonso XIII solo tenía unos meses de edad. Al cumplir Alfonso XIII los 16 años en 1902, la regencia de la madre termina, y comienza el reinado del hijo.
Rey español hijo de Alfonso XII y que reinó de 1902 hasta 1931. Murió en 1941.
Politician and leader of the NAZI party. He was born in Austria in 1889 and he use his position as canciller to impose a totalitarian dictatorship. His policies precipitated WW2 and the Holocauts
French general and statesman. He was the leader of the french resistance during WW2. In 1958 he founded the french fifth republic and served as its first president from 1959 to 1970.
Militar y dictador español. Tras participar en el fallido golpe de Estado del 18 de julio de 1936 y liderar la victoria de las fuerzas sublevadas contra la Segunda República en la Guerra Civil Española, instauró una dictadura que perduró hasta su muerte, conocida como el franquismo.
Chinese communist leader. He was the founder of the PRC and founder member of the Chinese Communist Party. He introduced communism in the largest country in the world.
Leader of the USSR from 1955 to 1964. He was born in Russia and he succeed Stalin and promoted peaceful coexistence between the USA and the USSR during Cold War.
CRISIS DEL 98
El desastre del 98 es el nombre con el que se denomina la pérdida por parte de España de sus últimos territorios en Asia y América, tras ser contundentemente derrotada.
He was the 124th Emperor of Japan between 1926 and 1989. During World War II he made alliances with Hitler and Mussolini, forming the Tokyo-Rome-Berlin Axis. With these he fought the Allies in the Pacific.
REINADO ALFONSO XIII
El reinado de Alfonso XIII coincide con una época regeneracionista. El sistema político al comenzar el siglo es una monarquía liberal, aunque no democrática, basada en la alternancia de los dos grandes partidos: el conservador de Cánovas y el liberal de Sagasta.
Actor and republican politician. The 40º president of the USA from 1980 to 1989. He's considered a key figure in the collapse of the USSR and the end of the cold war.
35th president of the USA. Kennedy's years in power were marked in foreign affairs by Cold War tension. He was assassinated in 1963
After the elections for the constituent assembly, a constitution was approved in the city of Weimar. Germany became a democratic republic.
Revolution that tried unsuccessfully to impose a communist regime in Germany.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party was a political party active in Germany between 1920 and 1945 whose ideology was National Socialism. Its predecessor was the German Workers' Party (DAP), which existed between 1919 and 1920.
FASCIST NATIONAL PARTY
Italian political party founded by Mussolini in 1921 of fascist ideology.
Proto-fascist autocracy that ruled Hungary during the interwar years.
Mussolini exercised dictatorial power and established a fascist regime that was characterized by abuse of authority, nationalism, anti-communism, anti-liberalism and by using the dominant religion as a method to strengthen its power.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a communist federation of republics that was created after the Russian civil war with the Bolshevik victory. Its first ruler was Lenin. It was the leader of the communist block during the Cold War.
MARCH ON ROME
Demonstration bound for Rome organized by Mussolini, leader of the Italian fascist party, when they lost the elections of 22 and wanted to come to power by force. Finally, they succeeded and Mussolini came to power on October 29.
Coup d'état was led by Hitler that failed in 1923. For this event, Hitler was imprisoned.
DICTADURA PRIMO DE RIVERA
Suspendió la Constitución, se disolvieron los ayuntamientos, se prohibieron los partidos políticos, se crearon los Somatenes como milicias urbanas y se declaró el estado de guerra.
Book written by Hitler during his stay in prison. In it, he shapes his ideals and makes a manifesto of the political ideology of National Socialism.
Leader of the Cuban revolution that finished with Batista's dictatorship in 1959.
Piłsudski was the de facto ruler of Poland thanks to his prestige as a political and military leader, similar to a dictator.
CHINESE CIVIL WAR
The Chinese civil war was a conflict between the Chinese Nationalist Party or Kuomintang KMT and the Chinese Communist Party PCCh and that took place between August 1927 and October 1949. At the end of this war, when the communists were victorious, the new regime of the People's Republic of China was declared.
CRISIS OF 29
There was a brutal increase in unemployment and austerity policies applied to combat the crisis further impoverished the workers. Social tensions increased. In these circumstances. The workers and the middle classes began to support the Communist Party and the National Socialist Party, respectively.
ALEXANDER I DICTATORSHIP
King Alexander I of Yugoslavia, established one of the worst dictatorships from January 6, 1929.
Stalin ruled through an absolute dictatorship in which he controlled the legislative, executive, and judicial powers, and monopolized industries, land, and private property.
He was the last General Secretary and head of the USSR from 1985 to 1991.
JAPAN OCCUPIES MANCHURIA
Countries like Japan initiated aggressive and expansionist foreign policies to control markets and basic raw materials, and to end the crisis by promoting nationalism.
La Segunda República española fue el régimen democrático que existió en España entre el 14 de abril de 1931, fecha de su proclamación, en sustitución de la monarquía de Alfonso XIII, y el 1 de abril de 1939, fecha del final de la Guerra Civil, que dio paso a la dictadura franquista.
El bienio reformista fue un etapa la cual inicia desde la proclamación del 14 de 1931 hasta las elecciones en noviembre de 1933 en el cual se dieron multiples cambios y reformas en el estado.
El Bienio de derechas, llamado Bienio Negro por los izquierdistas, supuso la llegada de partidos conservadores al poder y la paralización de todas las reformas. Para las elecciones de noviembre de 1933, la izquierda no triunfó debido a su desunión y al descontento social.
It was an authoritarian, corporatist, conservative, traditionalist, colonialist, nationalist and third-positionist regime, therefore anti-liberal, anti-parliamentary, anti-communist, instituted under the leadership of António de Oliveira Salazar
The seventh German parliamentary elections are held. The National Socialist German Workers' Party became the party with the most votes, but it did not reach the majority necessary to govern, but Hindenburg, pressured by businessmen and by the most conservative groups in Germany, appointed Hitler chancellor in January 1933.
Nazi leaders began to make good on their promise to persecute German Jews soon after they came to power. During the first six years of Hitler's dictatorship, from 1933 until the start of the war in 1939, Jews felt the effects of more than 400 decrees and regulations that restricted all aspects of their public and private lives.
Declares Parliament dissolved, arguing that it is incapable of functioning. Austria becomes an authoritarian, corporate, Catholic state. Now he only governs by decree; this dictatorial power allows him to suppress the right to strike and assemble, as well as the criminal courts, and to ban the Marxist press.
HIITLER BECAME CHANCELLOR
Hindenburg, pressured by businessmen and by the most conservative groups in Germany, appointed Hitler chancellor in January 1933.
The nazis set fire to the Reichstag to blame the communists.
Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and the Presidency, until his death in 1945.
NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIFES
Purge led by Hitler to end all those who might oppose him within his own party.
HITLER BECAME PRESIDENT
When Hindenburg died, Hitler became President of the Republic, so he accumulated the three main positions in the country.
Marriage between Jews and Aryans was prohibited.
ITALY INVADE ETHIOPIA
Besides, Mussolini reoriented his policy toward collaboration with Nazi Germany.
GERMANY INCORPORATES THE SAAR
On January 13, 1935, a referendum was held on the future status of the Saar Basin Territory. More than 90% of voters opted for reunification with Germany, with 9% voting for the status quo as a League of Nations mandated territory and less than 0.5% for unification with France.
Hitler signs this treaty with Japan against the USSR
Friendship treaty signed on October 25, 1936 between the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany.
Metaxás led a conservative, authoritarian and anti-communist government in Greece. The regime was modeled on the fascist government of the Kingdom of Italy, but never became a proper totalitarian state.
BERLIN OLYMPIC GAMES 1936
Nazi Germany used the 1936 Olympics for propaganda purposes. The Nazis promoted the image of a new, strong and united Germany, while masking the regime's attacks on Jews and Roma, as well as the country's growing militarism.
GOLPE DE ESTADO 36
Sublevación militar dirigida contra el Gobierno de la Segunda República. Su fracaso parcial condujo a una guerra civil y, derrotada la República, al establecimiento de una dictadura en España que estuvo vigente hasta la muerte de Franco en 1975.
GUERRA CIVIL ESPAÑOLA
La guerra civil española fue un conflicto bélico desarrollado en España desde el 18 de julio de 1936 hasta el 1 de abril de 1939 entre el bando republicano y el bando franquista.
MATANZA DE BADAJOZ
El 15 de agosto de 1936 las tropas sublevadas, bajo el mando del general Yagüe, tomaban la ciudad de Badajoz desatando una represión sádica y sin medida.
BATALLA DEL JARAMA
Se da por terminada la Batalla del Jarama con un saldo de unas 6000 bajas por cada bando, de los cuales 2500 han sido brigadistas internacionales. El desenlace da como resultado victoria tactica para al república, se ha frenado de nuevo la ofensiva sobre Madrid.
El 26 de abril de 1937, en plena Guerra Civil Española, Gernika, la ciudad símbolo de los vascos y de su ancestral democracia, fue bombardeada por los aviones de la Legión Cóndor alemana.
ANNEXATION OF THE SUDETES
The invasion of this region of Czechoslovakia ended on October 10, 1938, after England and France yielded in Munich to Nazi demands.
GERMANY INVADES AUSTRIA
German troops entered the country on March 12, 1938, received enthusiastic support from most of the population, and Austria was incorporated into Germany the next day.
NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS
Dozens of Jews were murdered and 26,000 were imprisoned in concentration camps. In addition, synagogues and premises run by Jews were destroyed and burned.
BATALLA DEL EBRO
La Batalla del Ebro fue el episodio más sangriento de la guerra civil y el que acabó propiciando la derrota de la República, pues los franquistas una vez recuperados del combate iniciaron la ofensiva sobre Cataluña, cuya caída aceleró el fin de la zona Centro y la victoria de Franco.
SECLUSION IN GHETTOS
The Nazi authorities promoted a new form of confinement for the Jews and created the ghettos, which were the neighborhoods of the cities in which the Jews were forced to live, in terrible conditions and poverty.
LA CAIDA DE MADRID
El 28 de marzo de 1939, se registró un avance crítico en la guerra civil española y la capital Madrid se rindió ante las tropas del general Franco. Tras la conquista de Madrid, se acabó la guerra civil de tres años y empezó la dictadura franquista que duró hasta 1975.
Fue una dictadura totalitaria en la que Franco gobernaba con todos los poderes del Estado y dictó leyes fundamentales. Se opuso firmemente a las ideologías de izquierda, con el objetivo de evitar que el comunismo avanzara hacia España. Empezó tras el fin de la Guerra Civil y terminó con la muerte del dictador.
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed a ten-year non-aggression pact on August 23, 1939, in which each of the signatories promised not to attack the other.
The German-Soviet pact allowed Germany to attack Poland on September 1, 1939 without fear of Soviet intervention.
GERMANY INVADES POLAND
Hitler demanded that the Polish government hand over Danzig, but the latter refused. Hitler invades Poland and then France and England declare war on him.
WW2 just started.
World War Two was the most destructive global conflict in history. It began when Nazi Germany unleashed ferocious attacks across Europe, but it spread to the USSR, China, Japan and the United States.
THE AXIS OFFENSIVE
First phase of WW2, in which the axis had the upper hand, but the US entry into the war changed the course of this.
GERMANY ATTACKS DENMARK AND NORWAY
To ensure the supply of Norwegian iron and control of the North Sea.
GERMANY INVADES FRANCE
Thanks to the so-called "lightning war" Hitler manages to invade France in just 10 days.
ITALIAN OFFENSIVE IN NORTH AFRICA
Mussolini wanted to occupy the French and British colonies in Africa and seize control of the Suez Canal from the British. In 1940, he ordered attacks on British positions in East Africa and Egypt.
BATTLE OF ENGLAND
The Battle of Britain was a major air campaign fought largely over southern England in the summer and autumn of 1940.
HITLER INVADES USSR
Hitler invaded the USSR in the summer of 1941 as he considered communism his main enemy.
The Nazi authorities considered that the Jews had to be eliminated as Russian territory was conquered.
In response to the US embargo on Japan for invading Indochina, the Japanese bombed the base at Pearl Harbor, this caused the US to enter the war.
THE ALLIED VICTORY
Second phase of the 2gm. The allies were winning faster and faster to the axis powers.
Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II.
Japanese and American troops clashed at Midway Island, where the Japanese were defeated.
EL ALAMEIN BATTLE
The British Army defeated the German Army in North Africa.
The red army launched a strong counteroffensive against the German troops, which were defeated.
Allied forces halted the Japanese advance.
ALLIED INVASION OF ITALY
Once conquered North Africa, the allies began the invasion of Italy from the south.
The king deposed Mussolini.
The biggest tank battle of WWII, where the German army was defeated by the Russians.
The allies landed in Normandy with the aim of liberating France.
LIBERATION OF PARIS
The Allies managed to break through the German defenses and liberated Paris on August 26, 1944.
The Germans attempted a last desperate attack in the Battle of the Bulge, but failed.
Roosevelt, US President; and Joseph Stalin, leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), met in the city of Yalta, on the Crimean peninsula. That conference laid the groundwork for the end of World War II and marked the fate of the world for the next 50 years.
Nuclear attacks ordered by Truman, president of the United States, against the Empire of Japan. The attack took place on August 6, 1945, which contributed, together with the Soviet-Japanese war, to the surrender of Japan and the end of the WWII.
MUSSOLINI IS EXECUTED
The allies reach Mussolini and execute him.
OCCUPATION OF BERLIN
The Soviets occupied Berlin, Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered.
Nuclear attacks ordered by Truman, president of the United States, against the Empire of Japan. The attack took place on August 9, 1945, which contributed, together with the Soviet-Japanese war, to the surrender of Japan and the end of the WWII.
The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after World War II by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, fostering friendly relations among nations, and promoting social progress, better living standards, and human rights.
GREEK CIVIL WAR
The Greek civil war took place between March 1946 and October 1949 and was the first case of a communist insurrection after World War II, so it can be considered as the first war conflict of the Cold War.
On March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill gave a famous speech in the assembly hall of Westminster College at the University of Fulton, Missouri, where he denounced the communist advance in Europe, thereby proclaiming the official start of the cold war.
The US government designed an aid plan to reactivate the European economy worth almost 13 billion dollars.
The Cold War is the period between the end of World War II in 1945 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 that divided the world into the capitalist western bloc, led by the United States, and the communist eastern bloc, led by the USSR.
1º PHASE COLD WAR
The first years of the cold war were the hardest. Although there were others, two major crises stood out in this period: the Berlin blockade and the Korean War.
The Truman Doctrine is a containment policy of President Truman in which it was established that the United States should provide economic and military support to the countries of the world that require it to contain the expansion of communism or Soviet forces. First expressed in his speech to Congress on March 12, 1947, in which he requested military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington in 1949, which established a defensive military alliance against any possible aggression against the Western world.
The Korean War was a war between South Korea and North Korea between June 25, 1950 and July 27, 1953, it is considered one of the most violent and bloody wars in history and is part of one of the conflicts of the Cold War.
2º PHASE COLD WAR
In 1953 there was a change of leadership of the two superpowers. General Eisenhower assumed the US presidency and Nikita Khrushchev was elected first secretary of the CPSU. A new stage was opened in the relations between the two blocs, which was called peaceful coexistence. However, despite lowering the tension between the superpowers there were localized crises.
The Vietnam War was a conflict between 1955 and 1975 that pitted South Vietnam, which had a pro-Western trend, against North Vietnam, which was communist, between 1955 and 1975. This war was characterized by the direct participation of the United States, which assisted Vietnam of the South with money, troops and weapons.
The guerrilla led by Castro managed to overthrow the dictatorship of Batista in Cuba.
collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland, between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO.
In Hungary an anti-communist movement arose that ended with the entry of Soviet tanks into the capital.
It was a barrier that surrounded West Berlin and prevented access to it from East Berlin and adjacent areas of East Germany during the period from 1961 to 1989.
The Cuban missile crisis is the name given to the diplomatic conflict between the United States, the Soviet Union and Cuba in October 1962, generated as a result of the United States becoming aware of the existence of nuclear missile bases. range of the Soviet Army in Cuba.
3º PHASE COLD WAR
Between 1963 and 1973 there was a transition from detente to great tension between the two blocs and there was a serious crisis, the Vietnam War.
US TROOPS IN VIETNAM
Starting this year, US troops are being sent to Vietnam to fight the Vietcong.
The Prague Spring was a movement that sought to progressively modify the totalitarian and bureaucratic aspects that the Soviet regime had in this country and move towards a non-totalitarian form of socialism, by legalizing the existence of multiple political parties and unions, promoting freedom of the press. , of expression, the right to strike, etc.
YON KIPPUR WAR
The Yom Kippur War was the fourth armed confrontation in the Arab-Israeli conflict and was led by Syria and Egypt against the State of Israel. The Arab attack began on October 6, 1973, on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism.
US WITHDRAWS ITS TROOPS FROM VIETNAM
After Nixon became president in 1969, a ceasefire agreement was reached four years later, and the US withdrew its troops from Vietnam. But the fight between North and South lasted until 1975.
4º PHASE COLD WAR
The Vietnam War had weakened the US position in the world, and the coming to power of the new Soviet leader Gorbachev in 1985 highlighted the serious difficulties the USSR was going through.
The ideology of the Chilean dictator is located within the political spectrum from the right to the extreme right, based on the principles of anticommunism, authoritarianism, militarism, conservatism, patriotism, and neoliberalism.
Jorge Rafael Videla came to power in a coup that overthrew President María Estela Martínez de Perón, and exercised the most cruel and corrupt dictatorship in the history of Argentina. His period was marked by human rights violations, and a border conflict with Chile that was about to become war.
It began in 1979, when the Soviet Union, in the midst of the cold war, invaded Afghanistan to place a sympathetic communist government in Kabul. To counter its rival, the United States helped and armed the Taliban.
THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL
On November 9, 1989, peacefully and without shedding blood or firing a gun, the German population brought down the Berlin Wall. This structure divided the German capital for almost three decades.