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APUSH Timeline 2nd Semester

By Ratt
  • The Knights of Labor

    The Knights of Labor
    Unlike the National Labor Union, which accepted only those who were skilled, or the American Federation of Labor, which accepted only white males, the Knights of Labor had no such qualms and as such recruited from every area of society. With a goal of abolishing the wage system and creating a worker owned industry, they used a variety of methods such as strikes, walkouts, and sometimes violence to achieve their goals. They also pushed for an 8 hour work day, and the prohibition of child labor.
  • Rockefeller establishes Standard Oil

    Rockefeller establishes Standard Oil
    John D. Rockefeller was once the richest man on the planet, and his company, Standard Oil, was at that time the world's largest oil company. Well-known to be the world's first billionaire, he was also famous for the extreme ruthlessness that he employed when dealing with business matters. Most famous of these was the carelessness that he showed towards his workers, forcing them to work long hours in dangerous conditions with low salaries that left them living in abject poverty.
  • Great Railroad Strike

    Great Railroad Strike
    The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, originally beginning in Martinsburg, West Virginia as a response to the second wage cut by management in the past year, was one of the very first strikes that took place on a national level. Since railroads were then integral to the economy of the country, the government soon dispatched militiamen as well as the national guard to free the railways. From then on, the strikes quickly turned violent and led to many deaths, but soon were suppressed and forgotten.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act, or the Immigration Act of 1882, was the first and last immigration policy that barred a specific nationality from immigrating to the United States. A result of the economic and racial tensions of the time period, it not only prevented any immigration from China upon threat of deportation or arrests, but also prevented those who were already in the United States from attaining permanent residency or citizenship and thereby prolonging the naturalization process.
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act

    Pendleton Civil Service Act
    The Pendleton Civil Service Act benefited many wage earners and made getting a job fairer to everyone. It's main premise was that employees should be offered jobs based on merit and that this merit should be measured based on competitive exams. This law also made it illegal to fire or demote employees based on political reasons, which really helped prevent the tyranny of political machines like boss tweed who would offer jobs and houses by buying the poor wage earners vote in the elections.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    The Interstate Commerce act was a major turning point in the relationship between businesses and the government. By using the commerce clause, which stated that interstate and international commerce could be regulated by the federal government, it gained the power to regulate railroad rates and make them "fair and just". This law prevented the railroad companies from monopolizing on their services to the general public and charging exorbitant amounts for transportation vital to the country.
  • Publishing of "How the Other Half Lives"

    Publishing of "How the Other Half Lives"
    Jacob Riis, a journalist, was the first to put into practice the idea of using photos to convey a more realistic and impactful story than what words could have conveyed. He used photojournalism to document and share the terrible conditions that the working class were forced to endure in the New York Slums and unveiled the horrors of tenement housing. His works were part of the factors which led to the housing and safety regulations that we take for granted in today's society.
  • Panic of 1893

    Panic of 1893
    The Panic of 1893 was a nationwide economic crisis that resulted form the unemployment left in the wake of the collapse of two of the United States' largest employers, one of them being the Philadelphia Railroad company. Due to the sudden collapse, stock prices hit an all time low, banks and businesses failed, farmers were kicked out of their land under the banner of foreclosures that erupted across the country. In the end, J.P. Morgan bailed the government out with over 60 Million in Bonds.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    One of the first major battles in the abolitionist movement, the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court Case challenged the Jim Crow laws that discriminated against colored people. It ended with a ruling against Plessy, with the court upholding Jim Crow laws and stating that Jim Crow laws were not in the wrong as long as facilities for both were "separate but equal", which never was a possibility. The ruling reinforced the helplessness of colored people and took away their faith in the government.
  • "Remember the Maine"

    "Remember the Maine"
    As the United States was negotiating a peaceful compromise between the revolutionaries of Cuba who wanted independence and Spain which once again wanted control of its colony, it sent a battleship called the U.S.S. Maine to prove that it had the strength to uphold any treaty that they agree on. However, a mysterious explosion caused the battleship to explode while in Havana Harbor, killing the soldiers inside and therefore earning the wrath of the United States, and leading to the War of 1812.
  • Andrew Carnegie founds U.S. Steel

    Andrew Carnegie founds U.S. Steel
    As the demand for Steel as a material for construction and engineering grew around the world, the United States jumped forward as the foremost producer of Steel in the world. In one of it's factories worked Andrew Carnegie, a poor immigrant who in the next few decades will found the largest Steel company in the world, U.S. Steel. Ruthless as he was in acquiring his wealth, he later turned into an avid philanthropist and built many institutions for education such as libraries and universities.
  • William McKinley Assassination

    William McKinley Assassination
    President McKinley, when shaking hands with the public, was shot dead by an anarchist that went by the name of Leon Czolgosz. After his death, succession of the seat of president was given to Theodore Roosevelt, the widely popular Vice President whom McKinley owed the popular vote to. The Republican party, in order to keep Roosevelt under control gave him the nomination for Vice President, but with this unplanned event, he will bring upon many reforms in the newly beginning Progressive Era.
  • Publishing of "The Jungle"

    Publishing of "The Jungle"
    Upton Sinclair, a famous muckraker like Jacob Riis, published his work called "The Jungle" which exposed the general public to the horrors of the meatpacking industry. It not only highlighted the struggles of the workers that were pushed to the brink of exhaustion for the lowest of wages, but also exposed the unsanitary and disgusting conditions that they worked in, thereby contaminating everyday meat. It was due to his influence that the Food and Drug Act was passed that ensures quality today.
  • Antiquities Act

    Antiquities Act
    The Antiquities Act was signed into law by President Roosevelt, an avid conservationist who loved nature. The law gave the president the authority to “declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated on land owned or controlled by the Federal Government to be national monuments.” With this law the federal government now preserves many of nature's wonders from undue exploitation by man.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    The NAACP was an interracial organization created by W.E.B. Dubois who was the first African American to gain a doctorate from Harvard. Their purpose was “To promote the equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States….” By focusing specifically on Suffrage (Voting Rights), Equal Education Opportunities, Equal Vocational Opportunities, and by appealing for Justice in the courts. They achieved this through direct pressure on the government.
  • Debut of the Assembly Line

    Debut of the Assembly Line
    Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motors Inc, revolutionized industry when he started manufacturing the Ford Model T. Instead of the regular hand crafted procedures, where each employee had to learn to build the entire car, he utilized the idea of interchangeable parts invented by Eli Whitney to assign each employee a stage in the manufacturing process where he/she only had to affix one part of the entire build over and over again. This reduced training costs and increased efficiency tremendously.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The Panama Canal was planned to build along the thinnest strip of land between the North and South American continents in order to reduce the time to ship from coast to coast. The Colombians, however, would not permit the building of the Canal, hence, the United States led a revolt by the Panamanians and helped them gain independence in return for permission to build the Canal. Once completed, the Canal provided easy access from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and boosted worldwide trade.
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    The Great Migration

    The Great Migration was the widespread resettlement of not only millions of African Americans, but also some Mexicans. The colored people moved en masse to the North and the West looking for opportunities for a better life. As the Great War began and the white males left the country to fight, the African Americans quickly filled up the thousands of jobs that were now open to them. This allowed them to move up in the economic ladder and gain the influence required to fight for their Civil Rights.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    As the Great War began in Europe, and Germany began the aggressive attack against other countries, the United States chose to remain Neutral and not take part in a war that was occurring overseas. However, in January of 1917, a note sent by Germany to Mexico that outlined details for an alliance to defeat the United States was intercepted by the government and sparked widespread public outrage. The idealism of neutrality was broken, and just a few months later the United States entered the war.
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    Harlem Renaissance

    The Harlem Renaissance was a nationwide awakening and recognition of the African American culture that began in Harlem, Massachusetts. The movement led to many famous works of literature and art, as well as the introduction of a new form of music, Jazz. Jazz was a very important tool that connected a generation of whites to the “new negro”. This cultural awakening provided the African American community a sense of unity and shaped the Civil Rights movements that took place in the 1950’s and 60’s
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Towards the end of the war when Germany discovered that it was ultimately going to lose and the Allied Forces were assured victory, President Wilson released the 14 points, which didn’t lay the blame on any specific country and designed a set of rules which would assure no future war was fought. Germany surrendered, thinking that the treaty would be based on the 14 points, but the allies instead crafted a treaty with very harsh conditions for Germany, which led to them retaliating in WWII.
  • Women's Suffrage (19th Amendment)

    Women's Suffrage (19th Amendment)
    The Nineteenth Amendment, which states that “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”, was the conclusion of the Women’s Suffrage movement that was growing slowly but surely alongside the fight for Civil Rights. Organizations such as the National American Women’s Suffrage Association and personalities such as Susan B. Anthony, Ida Wells, and Elizabeth Candy Stanton spearheaded this movement.
  • Revival of the KKK

    Revival of the KKK
    With the Harlem Renaissance in full swing and a major recognition of African American culture taking place nationwide, racist dissenters who disliked the accepting of the “new negro” banded together to form a new Ku Klux Klan and restarted the persecution of colored people in the South, which spread across the US. Founded by William J Simmons, the Klan took inspiration from a film by D.W. Griffith called “Birth of a Nation” which portrayed the Klansmen as heroic saviors of the United States.
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    As Women, especially those of the middle class, slowly gained influence in the political world, they began taking the lead on Moral Issues. One of these was the issue of alcohol, which they viewed as the root of all evil. Forming Organizations such as the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, they succeeded in the passing of the 18th Amendment which prohibited the Manufacture and Sale of Alcohol, leading to the emergence of powerful crime rings dealing with illegal bootlegged/imported alcohol.
  • Scopes “Monkey” Trial

    Scopes “Monkey” Trial
    The Scopes “Monkey” Trial, or officially the State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes, condemned the latter who was a school teacher for going against the Bible and teaching the concept of evolution. In the end, the Butler Act, which previously forbid the teaching of evolution was upheld and Scopes was charged a fine of $100. However, this court case showed the shifting of values across the United States, as religious beliefs were slowly being cast aside and a more scientific approach adopted.
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    The Great Depression

    Much through the Roaring 20’s the world outside the United States was already experiencing the Great Depression, however, due to naive optimism the United States failed to prepare for it. The Public endorsed the widely popular credit culture, bought stocks on margin, and deposited their lifetime savings in banks. When the depression hit, stock markets crashed, banks closed down, unemployment surged, and all that was left was the loans, opportunity for foreclosure and the never ending despair.
  • Bonus Army

    Bonus Army
    As the Great Depression blossomed and spread across the nation, World War I veterans looked to the promise for a Bonus that the government made upon their return. When asked, however, the government refused due to the already dire condition of the federal reserve. In response to this, the veterans arranged the Bonus Army March and protested, and the government was forced to send in the National guard to disperse the crowd by force. This disrespect shown to the veterans was horrifying and cruel.
  • FDR and The New Deal

    FDR and The New Deal
    With the rise in public discontent due to the inaction taken by Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt won by a landslide Majority. During his first “Hundred Days”, he enacted numerous reforms focusing on relief and recovery. By using the tactic of “Keynesian Economics”, and the idea that the United States could consume its way out of the depression, he let money loose into the economy and provided a temporary pillow for it to rest on until the world war after which the economy recovered.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act was a safety net for all Americans, and basically granted all Americans above a certain age a government check with some money to lead a basic livelihood. It was, however, not enough for most people and required an additional income or savings to support themselves. During the Great Depression, the uncertainty caused by those grim times was making Americans reluctant to retire and give their jobs to the younger generation, therefore this Act helped motivate them to quit.
  • Supreme Court Scandal

    Supreme Court Scandal
    Even though FDR was hailed as a hero and a great president that saved the people from the depression, he was still not perfect, and had his fair share of negative qualities. One of his greatest mistakes was the Supreme Court Scandal of 1937, in which he attempted to pack the Supreme Court with an infinite number of “yes men” that would be loyal to him in response to the Supreme Court ruling against one of his new deal policies. If it would’ve been allowed, it would tip the balance of power.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    As another world war was raging across Europe, and Nazi Germany was taking over many nations, the United States was still trying to remain neutral and did not want to enter a war amidst the already raging depression. However, the attack on Pearl Harbor, a surprise airstrike that caused the death of many soldiers and great losses in naval power, forced it’s entry into the war against Germany on the condition that the allied forces would then join the United States in a war against Japan.
  • Japanese Internment

    Japanese Internment
    After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the fear of another Japanese attack on the West Coast made the public and govt paranoid about Japanese spies among the residents of the United States. This led to the Japanese Internment camps which all people of Japanese Ancestry were forced to relocate to or face arrests. Almost 120,000 people, two-thirds of which were United States citizens, were put in these internment camps. Later, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 made amends for the mistreatment they faced.
  • GI Bill

    GI Bill
    After World War II, the government passed the GI Bill, which provided education to the veterans of war for little or no expense. This provided them an opportunity to rebuild their lives after having to go spend the years that they should have spent setting up for their future, instead fighting a war in another country. This law also dramatically increased the range of people going to college from only the top few percent of the United States and opened up many opportunities to the veterans.
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    After the Second World War, the United Nations was formed with the purpose of “maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.” After the failure of the League of Nations, which some attribute to the unwillingness of the United States to join, the UN included more than 50 countries including the United States. The organization still exists today as a forum for open discussions.
  • Atomic Bombing of Japan

    Atomic Bombing of Japan
    After being informed of a successful test of the atomic bomb, the then United States president Harry S. Truman decided to run some analytics on the casualty comparison. After deciding that despite its tremendous losses, the bomb would produce less casualties on both sides, a bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. However, with a lack of response from Japan, a second was dropped on Nagasaki, which ultimately forced them to surrender. This was the official end of World War II on the eastern front.
  • Levittown Sales Begin

    Levittown Sales Begin
    A revolution in the housing industry, a new model of a community was planned and perfected by William Levitt, and his company Levitt and Sons. Instead of having houses built on demand, houses for “Levittown”, the name for this model of community, would have only a few designs of houses available for a buyer to choose from. This would drastically reduce the wastage of materials, since the company could buy materials in bulk. This ultimately led to a reduction in houses, and suburbanization.
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    McCarthyism and the Red Scare

    A Republican Senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy’s term was amidst a second red scare during the Cold War, With the threat of nuclear weapons an everyday reality, and the fear caused by it running rampant, he manipulated this feeling and with it and his power as a government official to accuse other government officials as communist. This caused many in government and society to be discriminated against and treated as outcasts. This practice culminated in a period called McCarthyism.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    After the War, the European countries that had taken part were in shambles, and the economy across the continent would have taken decades to recover, hence the Russian government took advantage of this weakness and tried to absorb them. Seeing this as a threat to democracy, President Truman came up with the Policy of Containment. From that was born the Marshall Plan, which offered monetary grants and loans to the countries, and made them strong enough to repel the communist advances of Russia.
  • Creation of NATO

    Creation of NATO
    Another physical manifestation of the Truman Doctrine, just like the Marshall Plan, NATO, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, was a way to enforce the policy of containment. In simple terms, it was a defense contract among nations of the northern hemisphere, or mainly the USA and Canada in the west and many European Countries in the East. If any of the countries part of the contract were attacked, then the rest would mobilize troops, preventing Russia from absorbing any more countries.
  • Brown v. Board

    Brown v. Board
    The Brown v. Topeka Board of Education was a landmark Supreme Court case that was one of the first victories in the legal arena for the Civil Rights movement of this period. Citing the 14th Amendment, which granted equal civil and legal rights to emancipated African Americans, it overturned the ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson and stated that the separation of schools was now illegal because separate facilities are rarely equal.This victory would open the path for many more cases in the near future.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Pact was a contract between the Soviet Union and the nations it had absorbed. This pact, a response to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which it viewed as a direct attack against the Soviet Union, though in some cases the same as the NATO alliance, granted the Soviet Union much more power and influence over the other countries. This was not the last situation in which the United States and the Soviet Union would for power compete over, as shown by Vietnam/Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    A war that lasted for the length of the presidency of Eisenhower to Nixon, the Vietnam War is the only war that ended with a defeat for the United States, with almost 50,000 American deaths. Beginning with the French attempt to take back the colonies that it had lost to Japanese invasion, it escalated because of the want for independence among the natives, and ultimately ended up a conflict between democracy (US, France), and Communism (Soviets, China). Vietnam is now under Communist control.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    A major turning point in the fight for Civil Rights, the Montgomery Bus Boycott began with a staged event, on which Rosa Parks, a middle aged woman, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger. Protesting this, the bus boycott took place, enforced by the African American community. In the end, the boycott proved successful, and fearing the fate of their companies if the massive losses continued, they gained corporate support, and Court ruled segregation unlawful on buses.
  • National Highway Act

    National Highway Act
    The National Highway Act, or The Eisenhower Interstate System Act, was a defense mechanism that was a countermeasure during the Cold War in the case of a nuclear weapon being launched against the US. Fast highways with high speed limits, no stop signs, no traffic lights, and more lanes would prove to be an easy escape route for residents if the blast took place close to them, or if the blast was forecasted to take place close to them. To date, this is the biggest public works project ever.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    After the ruling of Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, schools nationwide had begun to desegregate. Amidst this transition, a major event took place in Little Rock, Arkansas. When 9 African-American students applied to Central high school in the area, they were denied admission into that school against the order of the Supreme Court. When a second court order demanded they be let in, violence ensued, which resulted in federal marshals being deployed to ensure the students got in and were safe.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    After the federal court ruled that segregation was outlawed on buses on the interstate as well as any commerce that took place next to the interstate, the Congress of Racial Equality set out to test the enforcement of the law and arranged interracial charter buses to travel through various parts of the south. These rides were often met with violence, and after the gory aftermath of Bombingham, President Kennedy sent marshals to ensure the riders’ safety and pledged support for the movement.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The threat of Nuclear Weapons was rampant during the Cold War, and when a U-2 Plane piloted by the US captured pictured of what looked like Nuclear missiles in Cuba, the then President John F Kennedy decided to place a Naval Blockade around Cuba and demanded that the Soviet Union remove their missiles from the islands. After a ship was almost shot down, the Soviet Union agreed upon the withdrawal of the missiles in return for a promise from the States that it would not invade Cuba in the future.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    At the very apex of the Civil Rights Movement, almost every organization that fought for Civil Rights got together and organizes a march on Washington in which the crowd gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial. African Americans from all over the country attended the March, which culminated with the speech of Martin Luther King Jr., a man of great promise who had managed to inspire millions to rise up in the fight for freedom. His “I have a dream” speech is one of the most powerful even today.
  • Assasination of John F. Kennedy

    Assasination of John F. Kennedy
    Soon after the pledge given by John F. Kennedy to support Civil Rights, he was unfortunately assassinated before any action could have taken place.After being shot in the neck by Lee Oswald in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, the presidency was given to his Vice President, Lyndon B, Johnson.His assassination came as a shock to many in the United States and around the globe, as he was one of the most popular presidents, and many were confident in his victory when running for a second term of office.
  • Civil and Voting Rights Acts of 1964

    Civil and Voting Rights Acts of 1964
    Soon after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson decided to continue to support his predecessor’s support for Civil Rights, and managed to pass a bill through Congress regarding the Civil and Voting Rights in the same year. The climax of the civil rights movement, it brought great joy to the African American community. In the recent future, however, one of the greatest leaders of the movement, MLK Jr. was assassinated. He will always be remembered for his valiant efforts.
  • Richard Nixon

    Richard Nixon
    Lyndon B. Johnson was a great President, and would’ve been remembered as such, if not for his mistake regarding the Vietnam War. He pushed for the further involvement of the US in the war, and when he failed to produce results, he declared he wouldn’t run for a second term, thus, Richard Nixon was elected. He enacted great reforms such as the EPA and Endangered Species Act, and eased Cold War tensions to a great degree as well. Sadly, the thing he is most remembered for is his greatest mistake.
  • Environmental Protection Agency

    Environmental Protection Agency
    One of Richard Nixon’s greatest achievements, it was a law that was the first of it’s kind. Nixon passed a bill through congress and signed into law the creation of a government organization called the Environmental Protection Agency, commonly called the EPA, that would protect nature and the environment by regulating “pollution, emissions, and other factors that negatively influence the natural environment.” Along with the Clean Air Act, these nature protecting reforms remain popular today.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    The downfall of the Nixon Presidency, and an event that still stains his presidency to date, the Watergate Scandal was a political scandal that took place within the Nixon Administration. It involved the monitoring of the Democratic National Committee building in Watergate, and a break in by members of his administration at a later date. When he came to know of these acts, he attempted to cover them up using his authority, which when leaked to the public sparked outrage, and led him to resign.