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APUSH Final Timeline

  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    Both puritans and pilgrims (seperatists) both settled in Massachusetts. The separatists were willing to defy the king while puritans just wanted to purify the Angelican church. The seperatists arrived on the Mayflower at Plymouth and signed a contract on borard which outlined the self-government in the colonies.
  • Puritans in Boston

    Puritans in Boston
    The separatists were willing to defy the king while puritans just wanted to purify the Angelican church. The Puritians landed in Boston. Tens of thousands migrated, and many more converted. This urged puritans to live godly lives and to be a model for the rest of Europe.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    A movement in the 1700s that rejected traditional ways of life and looked for a more rational and scientific explanation of the world. It was the value of education, reason, and science. It encouraged people to question and test what they knew and believed. The Enlightenment led to great surge of literacy in the colonies.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The great awakening was during 1730 to 1740. It gave colonists a shared national religious experience. People felt religion was dry and dull and preachers felt people needed to be better connected with with religion. It led to the birth of deep religion convictions yet more divided religious exeriences
  • Albany Congress

    Albany Congress
    The first time in colonial history that somebody gave a voice that the thirteen colonies were more together and a unity. All the colonies met to discuss forging alliance with Native Americans (alliance of mutual defense). The idea was defeated but it was still important and led to our union.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    No expansion past Appalachian Mountains. If somebody leaves, they leave without the crowns protection. Many colonists hated the crown and went anyway.
  • Sugar Act 1764

    Sugar Act 1764
    George Greenville had the idea of lowering taxes on molasses and sugar. The act reduced smuggling, raised funds, and supported british businesses. People continued to smuggle because they didn’t want their money to go to the crown lol.
  • Quartering Act 1765

    Quartering Act 1765
    The act was passed by the crown and it stated you have to provide home and food for soldiers. No matter what YOU HAVE to let them in. This furthered the tension between colonists and british.
  • Stamp Act 1765

    Stamp Act 1765
    The british placed a stamp fee to get legally recognized. The upperclass was more affected due to being involved in businesses. This angered the rich.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    British guards were being harrassed by the colonists and opened fire. 5 sodliers killed 5 colonists. It was originally named The Bloody Massacre. Photos created propaganda and angered the colonists. This was the first “massacre” and killings during the “revolution”.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The sons of liberty got drunk and ran through Boston and threw boxes of tea into the harbor. It costed 1.8 tax million dollars. The British striked back with even stricter laws such as the intolerable acts and took control of the colonial government. Ports also stayed closed until they earned back all the money.
  • First continental congress

    First continental congress
    Delegates agreed they were willing to remain a part of the British Empire if they provided concessions be made for representation and limited taxing authority. 50% of delegates wanted freedom and 50% wanted to stay because they knew they couldnt fight. So they compromised and if the king didn’t agree they would fight.
  • The Midnight Ride

    The Midnight Ride
    The british were planning on arresting Samual Adams and John Hancock but Paul Revere rode out and alarmed everybody. He yelled “THE REDCOATS ARE COMING!” Sam and John were able to escape.
  • The Second Contiential Congress

    The Second Contiential Congress
    King George rejected the Olive Branch Petition and declared the colonies in open rebellion. All 13 colonies went unlike the first congress. This was presided by John Hancock and led to the declaration of Independence.
  • Shot Heard Round The World

    Shot Heard Round The World
    Militia men were ordered to stand down but a random shot went off. Nobody knows who shot it. The british opened fire and the militia fled. The british was faced with 1,500 militianmen who harassed them back to Boston killing 250+ redcoats. This was the beginning of the Revolution.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The turning point of the war. British general John Burgoyne and his army plan to move to South where he will meet up with two other british armies and face the continentials. The other two armies weren’t there and the army is faced with the continential army and forced to surrender.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    When Cornwallis arrived at Yorktown, he oufnd the french navy at his back and the american army before him. Cornwallis was not aware that the french navy
    had defeated the british fleet at the battle of capes in september
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Officially ends the war. The US are granted all British lands between Atlantic Ocean and Mississippi River and North to British Canana. Friendship calways the friendship between contract.
  • Shays Rebellion

    Shays Rebellion
    Farmers went into debt or debtors jail. They took over the courthouses and it brought weakness to the articles of confederation. Which was the first governing document that reflected our fear from the past with the british ruling.
  • George Washingtons Election

    George Washingtons Election
    Inagurated as president in 1789 and his vice president is John Adams. Washington was selected not elected as he was seen as a good leader from the past war. Washington established many government precendents such as the president would become a standard practice.
  • Washington Retires

    Washington Retires
    When retiring he established the precedent of only a two term prediency. He felt he would become corrupt if any more. It eventually became the 22nd amendment in 1951. He wanted Adams to be president and recommended it
  • Federal Judiciary Act of 1789

    Federal Judiciary Act of 1789
    Passed by congress. It created an independent federal court system with supreme court and lower level courts. It established the presidental cabinet. All passed under Washingtons presidency.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    Pensillvania farmers refused to tax until American Army enforces it. The upholds the power of the new federal governement.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    In order to repair relations with the French, Adams sends diplomats to negotiate treaty. The french sent two men that looked like fools meaning they didn’t take American seriously. The french demand a gift (bribe) of $250,000 before they would negotiate.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    Alien Act allowed the president to deport any alien considered dangerous. Sedition act made it illegal for newspapers to print any material that is critical of the president or congress. This went against the constitution. Naturalization act increased the amount of time immigrants had to live in the U.S before they could become citizens. It went from 5 years to 20 years.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    It stopped all foreign trade which hurt port cities who depended on trade money. The war of 1813 further discouraged trade and encouraged U.S. factories. But after the war money flowed back into American buisnesses.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The british sailors take american sailors from ships and force them to be slaves. The americans are forced to fight to prove to britian that the victory of the revolution wasn’t just luck. It led to a sense of nationalism for the U.S.
  • Battle of Thames

    Battle of Thames
    British and indian forces are defeated by American forces in Canada. Tecumseh’s death ended Indian reisistance in the Ohio River Valley.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The british are virtually mauled by United States forces hiding behind cannons. Andrew Jackson led to the victory of the United States. There were 2,042 british and only 71 United States casualties.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    No canidate recieved a majoried of the vote so the 12th amendment sent it to the House of Representatives. Clay publicly supported Adams ahd the house selected him as president. Many supporters claim it was a corrupt bargain.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    Jackson wanted to recreate old jeffersonian coalation of nothern farmers and others. He created national committee that oversaw local and state party units. This was the first political party AKA democrats.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson. It authorized the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy
  • Schism

    All the women were told to sit in the balcony and remain silent even though it was a women activist convention. William Lloyd Garrison, a prominent speacher that night, refused to speak and instead went up to the balcony and spoke to the women to hear their ideas and thoughts.
  • Mexican - American War

    Mexican - American War
    Texas became the US but if mexico fights it would be war. Our government set it up for us to be “attacked”. The treaty of Guandloupe-hilgada forced mexico to secceed and give us multiple parts of their land which is now states.
  • Seneca Falls

    Seneca Falls
    The first womens activist convention. People created the Decleration of Sentiments and changed the constitution to “We the people… men and women.” Seneca wished for equality of rights and the declaration was signed by 100 people who were later mocked and ridiculed for supporting it.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Proposed by Henry Clay, one must come in as a slave and one as a free man to keep the balance. California entered as a free state and slave trade is abolished in D.C. But this also enacted strict fugitive slave laws nationwide.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise, created two new territories, and allowed for popular sovereignty. Many people were upest and it created an uprising
  • Dred Scott Court Case

    Dred Scott Court Case
    Dred and his owner moved to a free state and he claimed he should be a freeman since theyre in a free state. So the bonds of slavery should disolve. The ssupreme court disagreed and abloitionist claimed the free state law is now a myth.
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    Homestead Act of 1862
    Granted 160 acres of land to any household who claims it. Land = Opportunity! There were rules though, you have to farm it for 5 years. You have to live on it. And you have to improve it.
  • 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment

    54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment
    A group of freed black men that were trained really well and strict. The general pushed them to fight and make the same pay as white men. They did really well on the battlefield and proved that black people had the same capabilities as whites.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    Vicksburg was known as the “nail head that holds the two halves of the south together” It broke the confederacy in half and marked a turning point for fortune for the union. It proved the anaconda plan to be successful.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Made slavery legal in a few states and gave the South a choice. The choice was either come back to union and keep your slaves in these states or we conquer you and you lose them to freedom. It didn’t fully free slaves but it was a big step.
  • Pacific Railway Act of 1862

    Pacific Railway Act of 1862
    To build the railway the government gave away land instead of money to pay. It created mining companies and the land was vary valuable since it was near a railroad.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    Seen as the turning point, Gettysburg ended the war. With more than 50,000 estimated casualties, the three-day engagement was the bloodiest single battle of the conflict.
  • Wade - Davis Bill

    Wade - Davis Bill
    Many radicals in congress felt Lincoln 10% plan was too lenient on the Southern rebels. Lincoln refused to sign this bill but then he was assinated. The bull claimed 50% of voters had to swear oaths to rejoin as a states and only non-confederates could hold office.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    Sherman's March to the Sea
    Led by William Tecumseh Sherman, Shermans March was a group effort of spreading terror through the south. There weren’t many casualties but Sherman and his accomplices burned building and ruined towns.
  • Reconstruction

    After the war, cities were torn to rubble and economic life was at a halt. America needed to rebuild their economy, fields, buildings, and fix the union as a whole. Reconstruction was an era of rebuilding.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    Known as congressional reconstruction the civil rights act gave citizenship to black people and offered protection against black codes. Black codes restricted freedom of freed blacks and freedmen were forced to sign contracts that were illegal to break.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    States that all people born within the United States is a citizen. All natualized people are citizens and if a state denied people to vote, they would lose representation in congress.
  • Dawes Act of 1887

    Dawes Act of 1887
    Offered 160 acres to each native family. Many natives took advantage of this but the land came out of the reservations. It also ment non-communal living which was seen as an attack to their culture. The natives lost 86 million acres of land.
  • Temperence

    A movement eventually culminating into the 18th amendment, the only amendment repealed, pushed strongly by the church and newfound middle class women. This saw alcohol as the root of all evils and its end in America. Although successful it is a true insight into America's past beliefs.
  • Teddy and Taft

    Teddy and Taft
    Both Teddy Roosevelt and Howard Taft were the strong Progressive presidents. They pushed for trust busting, with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, TR founded the Food and Drug Administration, both set aside huge parcels of land for National parks (Taft economically utilizing them), TR passed the Antiquities Act, Taft made the Children's Bureau. Taft's presidency ending in 1913. TR had big stick diplomacy with the White Navy, and Taft with Dollar Diplomacy for American Imperialism.
  • Wisconsin Plan

    Wisconsin Plan
    An idea from the man Robert "Fightin Bob" La Follette, Governor and later Senator from Wisconsin, it proposed many changes in America's administration of democracy. This included to do away with monopolies, trusts, high costs of living, and predatory wealth. Reforms in labor and worker's rights were major aspects of the Wisconsin Idea.
  • Automobile

    Henry Ford introduced the Model T in 1908, where it cost $850. He wanted to lower that cost so that everyone could afford a car, and pioneered branding and the moving assembly line, which revolutionized the way factories and corporations operated. He also pioneered the idea that efficiency=affordability, and worked to change the employer-employee relationship for the better. This forced his competition to do the same in order to compete. The automobile boom lead to steel and construction spikes.

    Created in part by early African American activist W.E.B Dubois, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was a civil rights organization pushing for interracial equality, in response to the Springfield Race Riot. They sought to improve voting rights, education and employment opportunities, and legal justice for people of color. Although they would not make significant headway until the "official" civil rights movement of the 50s, the NAACP began pushing for change in 1909.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    The Great Migration was a large demographic movement of African Americans from Southern U.S.A. to the north and west around WWI. This not only allowed those African Americans not only escape the Jim Crow Laws of the South, but also gave them opportunities in factories and other work with many white men being drafted into the war.
  • WW1

    Due to a mix of reasons like unrestricted U-boat warfare, the Zimmerman Note (A note from German Ambassador telling Mexico to attack America for German Support and a part of America), as well as America's strong economy America was drawn into a non-American war. This was a terrible war that was slow and very deadly (disease). It showed the possibility of gas, machine guns, planes, and U-boats. It also helped out economy with War Industry Boards, and ended in the allies winning.
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    Zimmermann Telegram
    Already wary of potential American involvement in WW1, Germany sought to ally with Mexico in order to make America fight a war on two fronts. This attack from their south, they hoped, would make America stay out of Europe's war. Germany promised Mexico the regaining of lands lost during the Mexican Cession in return for attacking the U.S. However, this plot was discovered through the interception of the Zimmermann Telegram. America saw this as an act of war, and entered WW1 on the Allied side.
  • Wilsons 14 points

    Wilsons 14 points
    At the end of WW1 that addresses the reasons of WW1 and how to end it. 1. No more secret Allies 2. Freedom in the seas and trade 3.No Tariffs, trade barriers to help relations 4. Reductions of arms in Europe 5. Adjustment of colonial claims, 6-13. Adjustment of European boarders 14. creation of League of Nations.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    At the end of WW1, the allies won. The only reason the war ended was because Germany agreed to an armistice if the treaty that come out of the country's aligned with Wilsons 14 points. However this was not respected leading to the Treaty of Versailles were Germany was pinned with fault and had to pay huge reparations that were meant to be unpayable. They also reduced their military, and didn't allow Germany's military on its own land. This bred the conditions for Hitler.
  • Prohibition

    An absolute failure. With alcohol illegal, gangs and gang violence grew as more of them got into the game. This also led to speakeasies, complex systems to conceal alcohol, and Nasar. This lasted 13 years before being repealed. One of America's weirdest time periods.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    A large movement in the African American movement of art, literature, music, and civil rights. There are many writers still being read from this period, and Jazz very quickly became mainstream. This was a strong movement of black pride and self recognition.
  • 19th amendment

    19th amendment
    The end of women's suffrage as it gives "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." or women can't be discriminated against when trying to vote. However this is not equality, no gender quality ever has passed through the government yet.
  • Roaring 20s

    Roaring 20s
    The Roaring 20's are highlighted by the good economy, new women, stocks and credit, jazz and black music, prohibition, and changing society. Women out and enjoying the night life and casual sex was normal if not glorified. The flapper which smoked, drank, bobbed their hair, and wore short dresses encapsulated this idea. This era is highlighted with city vs country as half of America was now in a city, and the two very different lifestyles. Fast, complicated, immoral, vs simple, slow, peaceful.
  • Stock Market Crash

    Stock Market Crash
    As credit, loans, overbuying and debt added up, the economy began to sink. Industrial wages were going up, but far slower than corporate, whereas farm wages were dropping off completely. People were buying more than they could afford, and turned to 'buying on the margin' of the Stock Market, which caused a temporary surge before bad lending processes, declining international trade, weak banks and poor personal finance habits subsequently caused the Stock Market to crash, starting the Depression.
  • Great Dust Bowl

    Great Dust Bowl
    An ecological effect of not only the agricultural depression but also the research done into the planes and sustainable growing practices. Because when converting plains to farmland the farmers dug up the deep rooted grasses, strong winds picked up now loose soil creating the dust bowl. Eventually solved with the help of the CCC as well as an industry wide change in farming practices.
  • great depression

    great depression
    A preceding depression in the agricultural sector of America, and poverty across Europe warned the U.S. of recession. On top of those unsafe bank loaning and low restrictions on it led to several rushed mass withdraws, sparking the depression. It started with community aid groups helping as much as possible, however it was not enough. FDR was elected on the platform of government change and passes the New Deal programs, that went mediocrely. The ultimate end of the depression was WWII.
  • FDR

    Hoovers reluctance to give direct Aid, let FDR run under it. He promptly started signing legislature. He stopped the Banks and enforced good practices as well as ensured banks with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. He created government jobs, social security, huge infrastructure overhauls. Even though all of this passed the New Deal generally failed in saving us from the Depression. There's also the court packing scandal and laissez-faire economics and huge debt the government is in.
  • Banking Act

    Banking Act
    As part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's overall plan for addressing the country, the New Deal instated many new programs, the first of which was the Banking Act of 1933, which created the FDIC, the SEC, began regulating the stock market, insured individual deposits, shut every bank down until they regained stability, and only allowed healthy banks to reopen. Despite its unconstitutionality, congress didn't want to fall out of favor since to the people it appeared FDR was working to end hardships.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    A Second New Deal Program, SS was a safety net for all Americans struggling financially. It took a percentage of their paycheck to be taken and saved before withdrawn upon retirement, which encouraged people to retire (not work until they died) which freed up jobs for the younger community. Its intent was to supplement, not replace, everyday income, as people had been less keen on retiring fearing they'd lose all money. It changed the people-government relationship, and is close to collapse now.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Hoovers reluctance to give direct Aid, let FDR run under it. He promptly started signing legislature. He stopped the Banks and enforced good practices as well as ensured banks with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. He created government jobs, social security, huge infrastructure overhauls. Even though all of this passed the New Deal generally failed in saving us from the Depression. There's also the court packing scandal and laissez-faire economics and huge debt the government is in.
  • GI Bill of rights

    GI Bill of rights
    A huge piece of legislature that redefined American values. After serving in WW2, soldiers would come home to an education, trade school or college, low interest home loans, low interest business loans. Not only did it help to employ those 18 1/2 million who served, it also gave opportunity rather than money or jobs for those soldiers to create a good life. Because of this an emphasis was placed on higher education and it supports the American Dream.
  • D-Day

    Officially known as "Operation Overlord", D-Day was not only the largest seaborne invasion in human history, but also marked the turning point of WW2, because after its completion Germany never again mounted an offensive. A mass combination of battleships, land troops, paratroopers, aircraft and tanks stormed 5 beaches in Normandy, France, split between the allied powers who had set up a false beach to distract Germany and lure them into security. It allowed the allies to retake the coast.
  • End of WW2

    End of WW2
    In the West this was months after D-Day and the taking back of Europe, Hitler committed suicide, and the Germans were defeated. In the east this did not end until the second atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. At the end, importantly, the USSR did not leave eastern Europe as well as took over places like Afghanistan and other nations. This leads to Eastern Europe falling under an Iron Curtain and the start of the Cold War.
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    The leaders of the biggest allied countries- Churchill, FDR and Stalin- met at Yalta to discuss how the world would look post WW2. There, they created the global peacekeeping program the United Nations. Unlike the League of Nations from before, the US actually joined this new platform for international diplomacy. Also discussed was what to do with Germany, and Russia's promised entry into the war against Japan (with a very uncooperative Russia that would soon be starting a war of their own.)
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    A secondary meeting, this conference was adjourned specifically to deal with the issue of Germany post WW2, which had previously been the cause of much tension between the allied powers, particularly Stalin. Stalin had wanted a quicker invasion of Europe, and claimed the allies had intentionally waited in order to wound Russia. He demanded Japan pay massive reparations, and wanted to keep Poland because Russia held half of it. This didn't sit well with Truman and later boiled into the Cold War.
  • Baby Boom

    Baby Boom
    With 18 1/2 million men coming home to their wives many children were made. This led to tons and tons of babies. The largest generation ever. This also means jobs at every level to support these babies. More nurses, schools, clothes, food, daycares, homes, cars, everything. This generation however doesn't enjoy the conformity of their veteran parents and out comes the Beatniks (Alan Ginsburg). Also enjoyed Rock & Roll and Elvis Presley.
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    Iron Curtain Speech
    Having watched most of Eastern Europe fall to the now rapidly expanding communist USSR, the allied powers realized they had replaced Hitler with Stalin. On a visit to the U.S, British Prime Minister Churchill delivered his infamous speech, wherein he called the divide of free western Europe and communist-controlled eastern Europe the "Iron Curtain". This curtain, they realized, required action to stop it from spreading across the globe, and sparked the allies into formulating anticommunist plans
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    Cold War was the product of a very long spy game between USSR and America effectively ending with their collapse. Its early years saw the Marshall plan, NATO, helping Turkey and Greece, and West Berlin. NATO designed to stop the spread of communism (confinement), Turkey and Greece helping with military (not direct conflict). The Marshall Plan rebuilt Europe to prevent another Hitler and the spread of Communism, as well as do well for our economy, supported by our us dollars, and berlin airdrops.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    Lasted until around 1957, as the population was continuously growing a fear of communists in the midst of our great democracy. Although there was a threat, blowing it out of proportion let senator George McCarthy use it as a political weapon, this included the Hollywood 10 and the ostracizing of thousands of individuals based on nothing. Eventually ending McCarthyism when he targeted out military.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine was the first instance of an anticommunist strategy referred to as 'containment'- essentially keeping Russia at bay and 'containing' communism before it spread further. As a part of this doctrine, Truman called it America's duty to stand up since no one else could. He also commissioned $400 million in aid plus troops to help Greece and Turkey, who had appealed for help against communist forces. The doctrine proved a success, as those countries never fell to communism.
  • Jackie Robinson

    Jackie Robinson
    Arguably the first event of the Civil Rights Movement, Jackie Robinson's introduction into MLB as the first black player certainly caused a stir. The manager who hired him was seeking someone with even temperament who wouldn't react poorly, even in the worst of situations, knowing any slip-up would mean bad press and the end of the movement before it had even really begun. Robinson paved the way for future black athletes, and jump started the Civil Rights Movement into its largest actions yet.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Named after its creator, Sec. of State George Marshall, this plan was America's way of assisting all of Europe. It aimed at rebuilding infrastructure of both friends and enemies, thus proving that American capitalism was in the right. Its main policy stated that economic health= peace and stability, and it helped create currency, expand trade and cooperation, remove restrictions and increase agricultural production for those countries as a result of American abundance. We hoped for future trade.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    Berlin, Germany's capitol, was, like the rest of the country, split between communist and free. However, unlike west Germany, west Berlin was in deep turmoil and sought outside help as an island of democracy. Through "Operation Vittles", Truman authorized the Berlin Airlift- American planes that would fly over and drop much-needed supplies to West Berlin without ever touching the ground and violating Russia's blockade. Stalin couldn't shoot down the planes or risk the wrath of the US.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    Started debatably with brown v board 1954 and when until beyond 1965. This included a range of organizations, NAACP, SNCC, SCLC, CORE, working together as well as large names like, MLK, Little Rock, Linda Brown and many more. Most of the court cases were engineered for victory under the law slowly picking away at segregation. Sit ins, marches, freedom rides all popular.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    One of the most infamous events of the Civil Rights Movement was Rosa Parks' arrest, which started a 385-day bus boycott. By refusing to give up her seat, Parks protested the Jim Crow laws that still dominated the south. The incident was planned and she was chosen by the SCLC for such a purpose. After that, black Americans chose to walk rather than ride the bus, impacting the industry until change could be made. This event is a representation of the larger changes that were beginning to be made.
  • Interstate and Highway Act

    Interstate and Highway Act
    An act passed under Eisenhower that not only would interconnect major cities throughout America, supporting its automotive industry, as well as commerce and had a military background. The roads could be use as landing strips and to help evacuate cities in case of attacks or nukes. This greatly improved automotive sales as well as the commerce between cities. However it worked like rivers and railroads, as it took the life out of smaller, not connected towns.
  • Space Race

    Space Race
    Minor part of the Cold War, but a huge part of human history. With a more friendlier side, instead of spying the USSR and USA put stuff into space then men on the moon. No clear winner and a sight of strength by the governments.
  • Brown Vs Board of Education

    Brown Vs Board of Education
    In the previous ruling of Plessy v Ferguson, the Supreme Court had ruled that education facilities could be separated by race as long as they were equal. However, by the 1950s, it was increasingly apparent that they were not. This new case of Linda Brown was taken up by the NAACP, and represented by Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court Judge. It was also the case that overturned the Plessy v Ferguson ruling, forcing places to desegregate, but not stating exactly when to do so.
  • SCLC

    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was a major factor and leader of the organization of the Civil Rights Movement. The church was a prominent piece of African American culture, and was used as a way of mass communication as well as headquarters for protests. The SCLC elected MLK as its leader, and adopted his policies (based on those of Gandhi) of nonviolence in order to achieve direct change. This catapulted him to fame and helped achieve most of the peaceful protest action.
  • 1960 Presidential Debate

    1960 Presidential Debate
    While Republicans chose to nominated politically proven Richard Nixon, Democrats introduced the radically different, younger, Catholic JFK. Though Kennedy seemed promising, he had yet to prove a track record and many questioned whether he would answer to the Pope first. This was the first instance of a televised presidential debate that clearly showed the issue of perception over reality. Those who watched the broadcast claimed JFK won based on looks, as Nixon was unfamiliar with how it worked.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    With the USSR backed Fidel Castro in power of Cuba, it was found that ICBM launching stations were in Cuba. This led to a big blockade around the island as the ship with the ICBMs came from Russia. Crossing the no cross line US ships fired warning shots around the Russian boat and it turned around, not only avoiding all out war but also keeping America safe. Largest development in the cold war that thankfully never came out to anything.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    This happened right after the summer of 1963 in Birmingham where King was arrested. This was the culmination of all the protesting, lawsuits, deaths, and segregation in the South. MLK was the key note speaker and delivered his famous I have a dream speech. Around 250,000 people showed up in support, and was a sign of end in the Conflict.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    The legislature signed into by Johnson, however drafted by JFK that was to give everyone equality. Stating " prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin". However this was met with not enough compliance and voting was still very restricted. This led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Voting Rights Act

    Voting Rights Act
    The last of legislation that enforces the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, barring any voting poles or tests. This however was not the end of the movement as later groups like the Nation of Islam, Black Panthers, and Malcom X came and went.
  • Vietnamization

    After years of participating in a conflict not formally considered a war, President Nixon began a program he called "Vietnamization", in order to remove America from a fight that had become extremely unpopular at home. Though it was part of the fight against communism, many Americans felt we weren't truly winning the fight there. Nixon's program consisted of standing down and turning the war back over to Vietnam, which was subsequently lost and fell to communism once American troops left.
  • Trade Deficit

    Trade Deficit
    In 1971, America experienced something it never had before- a trade deficit. For the first time in history, it was importing more goods than it was exporting. One reason behind this was the dollar's linkage to gold- which made it strong but expensive abroad. Another was up and coming competition from nations we'd previously aided. Because of this, inflation went through the roof, and despite Nixon removing the gold standard, unemployment skyrocketed and bankruptcy loomed in several major cities.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Despite Nixon's successful domestic policies, he is most remembered for the Watergate Scandal. Named after the Watergate Hotel where it took place, the event involved meetings between a journalist and an informant 'Deep Throat'. He revealed that a recent break-in at Democratic HQ had ties to the president himself, seeking information on the other party. Nixon's denial forced his near impeachment, and he is the only president to have resigned. It showed how one event could mar an entire legacy.
  • Nixon

    Through Nixon's presidency he accomplished many things, Title 9 (prohibits sex-based discrimination in school or programs that receives federal funding), the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Détente (deescalation of the cold war with china and SALT 1). However all of this was overshadowed by watergate. Nixon, directly ordering them or not, abused his power as president to attempt to cover up the scandal, leading to his resignation or otherwise impeachment.
  • Carter Doctrine

    Carter Doctrine
    In his State of the Union address, President Carter announced what he called the "Carter Doctrine"- a direct response to the USSR's invasion of Afghanistan, what he called the 'biggest threat since WW2'. It that the United States would use force, if necessary, to protect the Persian Gulf (and the assets the US held there). Not long after, the US helped organize the boycott of the 1980 Olympic Games. This doctrine kept in line with America's image of itself as the world's peacekeeping force.