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APUSH Timeline

  • 1492

    The Colombian Exchange

    The Colombian Exchange
    The Colombian Exchange started in 1492. The exchange is just how it sounds, it was an exchange of goods and crops over the Northern Atlantic Ocean. Many crops were exchanged to make it easier for agriculture to expand. Some processed things like chocolate were also exchanged during the Colombian Exchange. Another major part of the exchange was the Triangle Trade or the Atlantic Slave Trade. This brought slaves from Africa to the lower islands in South America and then up to North America.
  • Roanoke Settlement

    Roanoke Settlement
    Roanoke, or the 'Lost Colony' was the English's first settlement in the new world. About 115 settlers sailed to Roanoke, which was a colony that had failed 2 years prior. John White, the leader of the colony, had to sail back to England for new supplies. He arrived and had to stay for 3 long years because of the Spanish Armada. When he returned to where he left the colony, there was not a trace of it nor its inhabitants. There has never been a real solid answer as to what happened to them.
  • Jamestown Settlement

    Jamestown Settlement
    Jamestown was established in Virginia and became a colony of Great Britain. This was the first established town/community in the New World. They were expected to establish themselves and turn a profit for Great Britain. Instead, they experienced what was known as "The starving time"; they couldn't grow crops because they didn't know how. As a result over 75% of the population passed away. Native Americans eventually stepped in and helped them establish themselves several years later.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a street fight that ended in tragedy. On March 5th, 1770, nine British soldiers were standing guard at the Old State House when a mob of patriots crowded them and started to throw rocks, snowballs, and sticks at them. The British soldiers shot into the crowd killing five men. The rest of the group fled, running in various directions. This massacre caused mass anger in the colonists and only added to their hatred of and will to fight Britain.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party took place at the Boston Harbor port on December 16th, 1773, a few years before the war. The colonists were protesting the Tea Act, and other taxes in general, by pushing freshly shipped crates of tea into the Boston Harbor. The Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans, raided the ships at the port, and dumped over a million dollars worth of tea into the harbor. The colonists wanted to show that they meant "No taxation without representation."
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    The Battle of Concord was the official start of the violent Revolutionary War. Paul Revere set out at midnight to warn those in bordering towns that the British were coming. "The shot heard round the world" is a famous quote about the battle. The whole world was waiting to see what would happen during the first meeting face to face between the armies. The British army's goal was to get the armory and supplies from Lexington but the patriot beat them there and emptied all the warfare.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition, supported by conservatives led by John Dickinson, was a petition to King George the Third asking for reconciliation. The idea of the Olive Branch was brought up during the Second Continental Congress. The radicals heavily disagreed with the petition and thought the only way out of their unfair treatment was war. King George the Third ended up rejecting their petition and announced that the colonies were in open rebellion.
  • Battle of Long Island

    Battle of Long Island
    The Battle of Long Island took place in Brooklyn, New York. Washington was backed up and surrounded, by water on one side, and the British military on the other. Through Washington's quick thinking, he evacuated the army to Manhattan and saved the patriot's cause instead of surrendering. This battle ended in British victory because Washington retreated and British forces claimed the land. After, he keeps one army in Manhatten and the other in New York for easy coordination.
  • Signing of the Declaration of Independence

    Signing of the Declaration of Independence
    The formal signing of the Declaration of Independence was on August 2nd, 1776. The US viewed this as their official severance from Great Britain. They viewed themselves as an independent nation from this day forward, regardless that the war had yet to start. This was also the official start of the Revolutionary War. While before tensions had been rising they weren't to the point of battles or a full-on war.
  • Battle of Trenton

    Battle of Trenton
    "The Crossing of the Delaware" a famous painting made by Emanuel Leutze, depicts the pre-battle army. Washington took his army of 2,400 men to cross the Deleware River into Trenton, New Jersey on Christmas morning to surprise attack the Hessians residing there. This battle took place on December 26th, 1776. When Washington and his troops won this battle it significantly boosted their morale and made them think this war was worth it. This victory set up another victory, the Battle of Princeton.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga turned the favor of the Revolutionary War. The US had won this battle by simple luck, they knew the terrain better and how to get around the swamp that took out a British army from the battle. Due to the slowed down progress of the British army, the US army could get another unit to them in time and force the British army to retreat. This gained us food, supplies, and the alliance with France.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown, or Siege of Yorktown, lasted 3 weeks ending on the morning of Oct. 19th, 1781. General Cornwallis, Britain's best, kept retreating while Washington kept chasing him. This was Cornwallis' plan all along, but what he didn't know was Washington was already onto him. When Cornwallis retreated into Yorktown to meet the ships there to help them, he realized they were French Navy ships instead. Surrounded, Cornwallis had to surrender to Washington.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris, was the official ending to the Revolutionary War. Representatives from both the US and Britain met in Paris, France, a neutral place for negotiations, and signed this treaty in 1783. While the US now had their freedom they had a lot to work towards now. They had their freedom and their land, but they needed other countries to recognize them as independent nation. The Treaty of Paris established the US's independence and established the new nations' borders.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Following the Revolutionary War, the government was trying to figure out a way to run the newly independent country. They had to figure out things like war debt and how they were going to pay it off. Shay's rebellion, starting in 1786 and ending in 1787, was a direct result of this. Shay's Rebellion was an uprising in Massachusetts in opposition of high taxes, that were paying off the debt. Armed groups went around shutting down courts so they couldn't execute debt processes and foreclosures.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    In Phillidelphia, Pennsylvania in 1787 delegates from each state, excluding Rhode Island, meet to talk about the Articles of Confederation. Many thought the Articles of Confederation were failing our country, we needed a new system of rules. Thus came the Constitution and Bill of Rights. The constitutional Convention was the meeting at which the government officials decided they needed to set aside the Articles of Confederation and rewrite our government with a new constitution.
  • Temperance movement

    Temperance movement
    The Temperance movement was a major movement during and after the Second Great Awakening. Temperance was the fight against alcohol consumption in America. At the time, water wasn't very safe to drink all the time, so many turned to alcohol as a default drink. Many problems were uprooted: financial, family, and health problems especially. Many women advocated for Temperance, WCTU for example fought against the heavy consumption of alcohol. Many women feared for their husband's or son's health.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    Following the American Revolution, the US had to reopen its borders to other countries. During this time there was a major spike in invention and economic growth. Eli Whitney was one inventor who made 2 major inventions, the cotton gin and interchangeable parts. The cotton gin was so important because it made it much easier to separate the seeds from the cotton. While it was not singly the cotton gin that led to the rise of slavery again it was a major factor in the reintroduction.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The newly formed government imposed a tax on whiskey in the early years of their independence. The Whiskey Rebellion lasted from 1791 to 1794. Smaller farmers protested so heavily because they found that the tax was unfair to them. For big-time farmers/distillers, these taxes weren't as big of a deal because they made more whiskey and money than the smaller farmers. This rebellion was the first major test of authority that the new Federal government had.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was made by Thomas Jefferson from Napoleon. It almost doubled the size of the US and significantly helped us to expand into the West and follow manifest destiny. Bought in 1803 at the price of $15 million it was an amazing deal, that even the strict constitutionalist Jefferson wouldn't pass up. Although it went against his morals he knew it was better for the country as a whole. This purchase gave us full access to the Mississippi River which was what Jefferson wanted.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    Lewis and Clark were the leaders of the Corps of Discovery, and geography experts that traveled west into the new territory that Jefferson purchased, The Louisianna Territory. They had many goals during this expedition: map out the land, make relations with Natives, find a water route to the Pacific, and bring back samples and information about plants and animals. They return with lots of information about geography, ethnography, and cartography, along with a detailed journal of their travels.
  • The Burning of the White House

    The Burning of the White House
    In the War of 1812, after the Battle of Bladensburg, an American defeat, the British troops marched into Washington DC led by Major General Robert Ross. Late in the night, the British begin to set fire to the Capitol. Government officials were forced to evacuate. As Madison and Dolly, his wife, were leaving the White House Dolly grabbed a famous portrait of George Washington and other irreplaceable historical artifacts. The British followed right as they left and set fire to the White House.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    The Treaty of Ghent, signed in 1814 in Belgium, was the peace treaty to end the War of 1812. The treaty stated that all conquered land was to be returned, whether the British or the US took it., and they settled for a boundary between Canada and the US. The British didn't know how to set free the impressed sailors since the treaty had not made it back to the US, and in the months it took for the treaty to make it back the biggest battle of the war happened, The Battle of New Orleans.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was the 'last battle' of the War of 1812. This battle took place after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed. The news had not yet gotten back to the states, and so Jackson led the US army into battle. He recruited the best fighters for the battle: slaves, farmers, pirates, and criminals all fought the battle alongside Jackson. Unfortunately for the British, this was the most lopsided battle in the war, with 2042 British to 71 American casualties.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise, made up by Henry Clay, was a compromise to satisfy both the North and South. With the North wanting to admit new territories as free states, the South wanted them to have their own choice. The South wanted more equal representation from slave states and to do so they needed new states to be slave states as well. The terms in the Missouri Compromise were that Missouri could enter the Union as a slave state but only if Maine entered as a free state, keeping the balance.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    During Andrew Jackson's presidency, he was brought the Indian Removal Act to either sign or veto. In 1830, Jackson passed this bill and thus started the Trail of Tears. Approximately 60K people were moved off their lands in 20 years. They were forced to move west to modern-day Oklahoma. In Worchester vs GA, the state did not have the right to impose regulations on native lands, Marshall decided against GA. This did not stop Jackson who proceeded with his forcible removal of the Indian tribes.
  • The Fall of the Alamo

    The Fall of the Alamo
    During the bloody battle of Mexico trying to recapture the fort, to which they eventually succeeded, all of the men fighting for the Texas/Union army died. The fighting started 13 days before the fall. Mexican forces set up camp and both armies traded fire with little to no casualties. The hand-to-hand combat only lasted 90 min, the Mexicans winning and killing off everyone, including Congressman David Crockett, Bowie, and Travis. Although Mexico won they also suffered heavy casualties.
  • New Communications

    New Communications
    With the development of USPS and the telegraph, the United States was able to communicate quickly and effectively. USPS interlinks all areas of the US and makes it easier for personal correspondence and commercial communication. The invention of the telegraph and Morse code helped to communicate quickly across long distances. It allows you to send messages through systems of wires. Usually, at major rail centers, someone would be able to revive a message and decipher it to send it to the next.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    In 1824, Mexico started to invite people from the US to come and settle on their land in Texas. Too many ended up moving and Mexico enforced a border and raised taxes with a military presence. In 1846, Texas officially declared independence from Mexico, effectively starting the Mexican-American War. The US Army invaded Texas and attempted to take over and bring Texas into the union. From the war, we gained Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
  • Gold Rush in California

    Gold Rush in California
    The mass migration to California in the late 1840s was due to the discovery of gold nuggets in the Sacramento Valley. Thousands of people who wanted a better chance at life took the risk and moved their families to California. Urban life in California skyrocketed, big towns being built around sites they would mine. Once the gold from those towns was rung dry, or never found, the towns were quickly abandoned, becoming ghost towns. They moved right to the next major town, and the process repeated.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The purpose of the Seneca Falls Convention was to advocate for women's rights. It was originally called the Women's Rights Convention but was named after where it was held. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the woman who set up the convention. This was the launch of the Women's Suffrage Movement. While before there was a movement it wasn't as publically followed. On the first day, only women could attend, on the second it was open to everyone. 300 people showed up despite its small advertising.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850, proposed by Henry Clay, set the date of the Civil War back by about a decade. He came up with yet another genius plan that, mostly, satisfied the North and the South. The conditions were: letting California enter as a free state, the slave trade was abolished in DC, the Fugitive Slave Laws were stricter nationwide, and territories applying for statehood would be governed by popular sovereignty. These conditions satisfied the North more but kept the South from succeeding.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Kansas was trying to be admitted into the Union and the citizens were voting for whether it would be a free or slave state. During the poll, Missouri Border Ruffians came into Kansas and attacked Lawrence, guarded the courthouse, and voted pro-slavery in place of the citizens. During this time John Brown, an anti-slavery voter, went around to several pro-slavery homes, forced them out, and killed the men in front of the women. He was very angry that the vote ended up corrupted
  • Rise of the Republican Party

    Rise of the Republican Party
    The Rise of the Republican Party was a mix of anti-slavery Whigs and Free Soilers. While they weren't called Republicans until the Ripton, Wisconsin schoolhouse, the values remained the same. They were the rival of the already set Democratic party. The Republican party were briefly known as the Know-Nothings. Their values were low taxation, anti-slavery, limited government intervention, free market labor, etc. They quickly rose to power during Jackson's presidency and during the Civil War
  • Dred Scott Court Case

    Dred Scott Court Case
    Dred Scott was a slave who sued his owners for his freedom, his case going all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled against him, saying that the Constitution did not extend to African Americans. Therefore they could not enjoy the same freedoms or liberties that a white man could. His case went against the Missouri Compromise, originally Missouri allowed him his freedom before realizing that he was African American. This satisfied the South's belief that slaves weren't equal.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The Election of 1860 was a 4 person election. Lincoln won this election because Stephen Douglas didn't take all the votes from his party. After you split the vote it is nearly impossible to win the election. While he didn't receive the majority of the popular vote, he did win the electoral college votes easily. This election was especially important because if Lincoln won the election, the South was afraid he would get rid of slavery and threatened to succeed.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    The Attack on Fort Sumter officially started the Civil War. On April 12th, 1861 there was an army of Union soldiers trying to get to Fort Sumter, which was within Confederate lines, because they had soldiers peacefully stationed there. They wanted to bring these soldiers supplies for survival. Instead, the Confederacy took this as a violent act and attacked the fort before the supplies could get there. The Confederates shot first, there weren't a lot of casualties, but there were a few wounded.
  • Battle of Bullrun

    Battle of Bullrun
    The Battle of Bullrun, while not officially the first, was the first full-on fight of the Civil War. The battle ended in Confederate victory. Although not the bloodiest battle during the war there were still 4800~ casualties. General Mcdowell's leadership throughout the battle is what helped the Confederates pull through and win. It was during this battle that both sides realized it wasn't going to be a quick and easy war, but that it was going to be long and bloody.
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    Homestead Act of 1862
    President Lincoln wanted to hurry along the process of Westward expansion. Land grants, also known as homesteads, were being given to those who were the head of household and planned to settle and farm on the land. 160 acres were given to each household. The requirements to fully own the land were: to live there for at least 5 years, use the land for agriculture, and they must improve the land (i.e. build a home, farm, barn, etc.) Many failed but it significantly boosted westward expansion.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The Battle of Shiloh was a major defeat for the Confederate army. While both armies faced casualties the Confederacy suffered a lot more. General Johnston of the Confederate army was the first to take charge, pushing Grant and his army against the Tennessee River. General Buell and his army arrive just in time and join forces with Grant's army. Grant's goal was to capture a major rail center in Kentucky to have control over the region. With the Union victory, he accomplished this goal.
  • Battle of Fort Henry

    Battle of Fort Henry
    The Battle of Fort Henry was the first major Union victory. General Ulysses S Grant marched his troops to Fort Henry on the morning of February 5th. The fort was barely guarded, with less than 4K soldiers on watch compared to the 15K that Grant brought with him. The fort was already in bad condition before the Union army came, flooded, and many troops ill. The Confederacy surrendered to Grant. This battle also acquired the Union Tennesse and most of Kentucky back as border states.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    With the Union victory, Lincoln finally had the opportunity that he wanted to announce the Emancipation Proclamation. Although very early into the Civil War, The Battle of Antietam was a major turning point. The Union army was able to keep the Confederate army from pushing into the Union's territory. This battle, combined casualties, was a bloody battle with lot of casualties. This battle was a pivotal moment because it uplifted the Union's spirits and helped their will to continue the fight.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg, with 50K~ deaths and casualties, was the most deadly battle during the Civil War. Civil War. General Lee of the Confederate Army had a goal to win a battle within Union lines to force the Union to negotiate with them. Unfortunately for him, this battle ended in a Union victory and sent him retreating into Confederate territory. Although the Union won the battle they still suffered huge casualties as a result of the fight.
  • The Gettysburg Address

    The Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address, a speech made by President Lincoln, followed the bloody battle. In the address, Lincoln made it clear to the public what his goal was: to bring the Union back together peacefully. He didn't care whether he was completely abolishing slavery or not, since that wasn't an original goal of his when he became president. He didn't wish for the people who have died for it to be in vain, nor for any more people to die for the cause that didn't seem to be going anywhere.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    The Battle of Vicksburg was an 18-month-long campaign against Vicksburg. The Union wanted to take full control of the Mississippi River to cut off the two halves of the South from communicating with each other. They used siege tactics to take over the river. It ended because the Confederate soldiers were starving and wounded due to their lack of communication and supplies through the Mississippi River. General Pemberton chose to surrender on July 4th because it was Independence day.
  • The Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse

    The Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
    After the Battle of Appomattox and the fall of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, the South was forced to surrender. General Lee surrendered to Grant because he wanted to spare his men the suffrage they were to face if they continued this war. The Confederacy was tired, hungry, and could not continue to battle with such low numbers. The battle itself did not last very long before Lee decided he needed to surrender. This was the last major battle of the Civil War, 6 battles followed.
  • Lincolns Assassination

    Lincolns Assassination
    On the night of April 15th, 1865 Lincoln and his wife were watching the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre. An accomplished actor in the play, John Wilkes Booth, shot Lincoln in the head putting him in critical condition. Booth's original plan was to conspire with others and kidnap Lincoln, but instead, since the Confederacy had already collapsed, he assassinated him. Lincoln was the first president to have an attempted and successful assassination on him.
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    Transcontinental Railroad
    The start of the Transcontinental Railroad started in 1863 and ended in 1869. They wanted to connect the East and West coast. President Lincoln gave them a deadline of 10 years to finish the series of tracks. Each mile of track laid came with an incentive based on what kind of terrain it was built onto. If the tracks were not finished being laid by the agreed time then the railway companies had to give back all the land grants they received. Westward expansion thrived due to these rail systems.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    The Battle of Little Bighorn was one of the bloody battles in the 'Indian Wars'. The fight was due to the continued mistreatment of the Indian people. They were continually removed from their ancestral lands and then from the reservations. General Cluster took some 200 men to attack the people of Little Bighorn, after an hour Cluster and all of his men were dead. The battle was the US's worst loss in the 'Indian Wars', but the Native Americans' best win.
  • Election of 1876 "The End of the Reconstruction

    Election of 1876 "The End of the Reconstruction
    The Election of 1876, Rutherford Hayes vs Samuel Tilden, was the first election in which the South was back and readmitted to the US. The Election is significant because it marked the end of the Reconstruction and there was speculation that it was an unfair or corrupt election. With Hayes winning the election there needed to be a compromise made; the South proposed that military oversight needed to be eliminated. Due to this election cycle, there was a more balanced Congress.
  • Americanization of Indian Children

    Americanization of Indian Children
    From the early 1890s through the 1900s, the Native Americans were being Americanized. They were put on reservations that had rules against their traditions. Their children were taken from them and put into border schools. The US government wanted to cut off the Native American traditions and targeted the children to achieve this goal. They forbade them from speaking native languages and practicing their religion from the young age of 6. Spending 10-12 years in these schools erased their culture.
  • Spanish American War

    Spanish American War
    A Cuban revolt occurred due to the unfair treatment they received from Spain. In turn, Spain cracks down in brutal ways. The De Lome letter is intercepted by US officials, a letter where Spain is bashing President McKinley, blowing up the Maine was the final straw. We prepare for war to not only help Cuba but also the Philippines from harsh Spanish rule. After a few very bloody battles the Spanish surrendered to the US, Cuba gained independence, the US became a world power and gained territory.
  • Hawaii Annexed

    Hawaii Annexed
    Following the Spanish-American war, the US gained a lot of territory, including Hawaii. Hawaii was a valuable area for the US because it would supply a convenient coaling station for ships in the Pacific. Also spurred by nationalism, McKinley asked Congress to allow the annexation of the islands. It also granted all Hawaiian citizens American citizenship and it became an official territory in 1900. It also helped later to allow the US to gain influence in the Pacific which helped during WW2.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    In the Greenwich Village of Manhattan, New York City on March 25th one of the deadliest industry disasters in the history of the US happened. The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire was much more important because the employers had the doors locked and many employees were not able to escape because of this. 146 people died that day due to unsafe working conditions and unfair treatment. This event changed the labor code and created the first safety measures in the workplace still carried on today.
  • Gas Warfare

    Gas Warfare
    Part of the reason that WWI was so horrific was because of the deployment of new types of brutal warfare, one being the development of gas in war. While the deaths that the chemical weapons caused were less than 1% of the total number of deaths, the real weapon was fear. The introduction of chemical warfare caused wide-scale fear on all sides. If the gas didn't kill you while on the battlefield then it caused long-term life-altering effects after the war.
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    Another war type that made the First World War so horrific was trench warfare. New weapons such as machine guns were introduced. In between your trench and the enemies, there was an area known as "no-mans-land" which you had to run through to try and throw grenades or harm the other side in some way, but without getting shot down first. In the trenches, troops would eat, sleep, and go to the bathroom, they lived there. This brought brutal conditions such as trench foot to light.
  • Archduke Ferdinand Assassination

    Archduke Ferdinand Assassination
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian-Hungary throne. Tensions among European nations were already high, the Archduke was assassinated. He was a perceived threat to Serbia and their continued independence. Though tension had been high throughout Europe for quite some time, this was the tip of the iceberg. Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia, which led to many nations declaring war against each other due to treaties they had with one of the two, Austria-Hungary or Serbia.
  • Lusitania Sinks

    Lusitania Sinks
    The Lusitania was a British-registered ocean liner that was carrying ammunition at the time that Germany attacked it. It was also carrying British and American citizens, who did not know there was ammunition in the boat. Germany used submarine warfare tactics to sink the boat and cause the storage chamber to blow up. The sinking of this boat killed 1195 people though only 128 Americans, this still angered America beyond belief, changed public opinion, and was another reason we joined the war.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    Because of the First World War and the draft, many of the white working class had to join the military and go fight overseas. African American families saw this as opportunity to gain advantages in life and try to climb the social ladder. The factories in the North needed workers, and fast. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the south migrated to the north to fill these roles. This was one of two major migrations to the North, the second being during the Roaring 20's.
  • National Parks Act of 1916

    National Parks Act of 1916
    In order to preserve the natural land of the US that kept slowly getting used, deforested, and destroyed the National Parks Act was signed by Teddy Roosevelt in 1916. Roosevelt wanted to preserve the land not only for the plants and animals living on and off of it but also for the future generations to come. It was also brought up during this time by Rachel Carson in her book Silent Spring, a documentation of the harm to the environment and what it could look like for the generations to come.
  • Zimmerman Telegraph

    Zimmerman Telegraph
    The Zimmerman Telegraph was intercepted by British intelligence and passed on to the President. The contents included a proposal to Mexico from Germany: if Mexico launched a surprise attack on the US then once Germany won the war they would give them back their land of Texas, California, New Mexico, etc. Germany hoped that if Mexico could successfully attack the US it would slow down aid that was being transported to Europe to help with the war. The Zimmerman note was the reason the US joined.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    The Harlem Renaissance was an important time during the 20s for the black community. New communities were established and they flourished. The Renaissance started because of a large number of migrants to the area from the south. A black pride movement started, due to this migration, led by W.E.B. Dubois. From this time, many different realms of the community flourished: music, literature, and style were all influenced by the growing community. This age was the Jazz Age and a new era for music.
  • 18th and 21st Amendments

    18th and 21st Amendments
    The 18th Amendment, ratified on January 16th, 1919, illegalized the making, distribution, and selling of alcohol. The Prohibition Era started with this ratification, although it did not last long, nor was it followed during its time. Many made an effort to sneak around this law in very extensive and creative ways, speakeasies were formed, and new ways to transport alcohol to conceal it. In 1933, the 18th Amendment was repealed with the passing of the 21st Amendment relegalizing alcohol.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles officially ended the fight in the Great War. It was signed in Paris, France on June 8th, 1916. The treaty outlined the requirements from Germany to end the fighting: Germany needed to pay reparations, disarm their military, lose the territory they took over, and give up all of their colonies overseas. The other Central Powers, including Germany, were forced to take the blame for the entire war. However, this poorly written treaty was short-lasting and not very strong.
  • The Red Scare

    The Red Scare
    The Red Scare was a huge provocation of unrest throughout the US because of the supposed rise of communistic ideals in and out of the US. Patriotism made everyone suspicious of each other and any unpatriotic values, this caused another wave of anti-immigrant ideals. The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed into the US from certain countries. Michell Palmer also went on mass raids to arrest, and possibly deport, any suspected radicals or unpatriotic members of society.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    The 19th Amendment, ratified on August 18th, 1920, was the right of the citizens of the US to vote regardless of sex. Following the long-standing fight for Women's suffrage, this was the first major victory. It was not only the right for women to vote, but it was the first step that allowed women to advance in society. Susan B. Anthony leads NAWSA through peaceful protests, rallies, and debates. Articles were written and finally, women earned their right to vote in local and US elections.
  • The Scopes Monkey Trial

    The Scopes Monkey Trial
    The Scopes Monkey Trial was against a young high school science teacher who had been teaching evolution which was a violation of Tennessee law. While church and state were not very separate, it was a crime to teach anything other than the divine creation as described in the Bible. The court had found Scopes to be guilty and fined him $100, the minimum available at the time of the trial. This trial was later brought to the Supreme Court and overturned, but was unresolved until 1968.
  • The Klu Klux Klan (KKK)

    The Klu Klux Klan (KKK)
    While the KKK had been around for a long time and would continue to stay around during the 20's they were on the rise once again, gaining over 5 million members. Not only was it common community members but they were workers of all parts of government. Following the publishment of The Birth of a Nation, many members of society continued to see blacks as unequal to whites. Although the Klan is most well known for their racial motives they were also against anyone who was 'un-American' to them.
  • Stock Market Crash

    Stock Market Crash
    The stock market crash was a major contributor to the Great Depression. Everyone lost money due to the collapse which also led to businesses closing. The stock crash of '29 was the most major contributor to the beginning of the Great Depression, and its slow to no recovery continued to fuel the loss in per capita. Several things led up to the crash and its devastating effects but the worst symptom was that people were buying stocks on margins. This caused the market to surge but fall hard.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    The Dust Bowl was one of the worst natural disasters to happen in the US at the time, affecting many western agricultural states for several years. The giant dust storms swept over miles of land engulfing everything in their path, took over the West during the Great Depression. They heavily damaged the crops, turning them to dust, and uprooting the planted seeds. Once the dust would finally settle down again it was feet worth, thus raising the ground levels, which destroyed homes and buildings.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    The New Deal was about creating agencies and programs to protect and provide people relief. FDR created the precedent for the first '100 days'. His new deal included the FDIC to get 'unhealthy' banks weeded out, the SEC to regulate trading in stocks and bonds, FERA so states can use federal funding for whatever they may need, NIRA to help labor codes and raise the minimum wage, and SSA to create social security for retirement. Though this was good the Supreme Court found it unconstitutional.
  • Rise of fascism 1933

    Rise of fascism 1933
    Adolf Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany marked the start of the rise of the Nazi party. A party with extreme nationalist, racist, and antisemitic ideals. After he came to power he slowly started to overstep and test the limits of the Treaty of Versailles: growing the army, marching into Rhineland, and finally annexing Austria after nothing was done. When nothing was done slowly but surely he continued to escalate the conflict until it exploded into the conflict we know today as World War 2.
  • Election of 1940

    Election of 1940
    This election was not only important because it occurred during the Second World War, but because Franklin D Roosevelt was running and reelected for an unprecedented third term in office. There was a precedent set by George Washington following his second term that a president would have to step down after he served his two terms. FDR was so well-liked and such a successful president that not only did not many people complain about his rerunning but he was fairly voted into office.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor, a day to remember, caused the US to join World War 2. On December 7th, 1941, Japan attacked the US because of the oil embargo, which hurt their economy. Angered that we weren't supplying them with any more oil, they sent bombers to Pearl Harbor to destroy our warships and other important naval ships. Very important battleships were destroyed during this attack, hoping to slow down the ability of the US to fight back. Instead of slowing down, we promptly joined the war.
  • World War 2 at Home

    World War 2 at Home
    World War 2 at home in America was very different from European WW2 at home. The US, while we were in a war, was prosperous. Lots of changes were happening in America, and women and African Americans in the workplace had a major role in helping keep the war going. The families in America would ration and help to give more supplies to the army and soldiers who needed them most. Victory gardens were also a huge help in the war because it left the agriculture to the military to send to Europe.
  • Home Front in WW2

    Home Front in WW2
    During the Second World War there was many changes within the US even though there wasn't any battle in the country. The US went through major social during WW2, Women and African Americans were more widely accepted into the workplace, although mostly because there wasn't anyone else to fill these jobs. Industries changed from making their regular production to going into wartime production. The car industry goes on to make tanks, boeing starts making bombers, and cult makes machine guns.
  • D - Day

    D - Day
    D-Day was the code name for the operation that changed the directory of the war. There were different parts of the operation, airborne, on foot, and naval. The airborne division would drop into Normandy the night before to surround the German forces. Naval forces brought in millions of men to drop at the Normandy beaches. The men on foot had it by far the toughest. Omaha Beach was the most defensible and by far hardest to earn a victory from. ~4,400 troops died on this day, ~2500 being American.
  • The GI Bill of Rights

    The GI Bill of Rights
    The GI Bill of Rights signed on June 22nd, 1944 was a promise to returning veterans of WW2 to get education and other benefits. It was a show of thanks for their bravery and sacrifice. It paid for college and/or trade school and lowered interest for business and home loans. This changed the way education was looked at by this generation and how they influenced their children's generation. Today college education is required to get a good job, that's partially due to the influence of the GI Bill.
  • The Yalta Conference

    The Yalta Conference
    The Big Three, FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met during World War 2 to discuss future wartime progress and what the postwar world should look like. They knew it was already an Allied victory, but they needed plans for how the Pacific War would go and postwar Europe. They discussed Russia entering the war against Japan once the war in Europe ceased, the idea of the UN was brought up during this conference, and Germany taking some but not all of the responsibility for reparations in Europe.
  • Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Following the surrender of Germany in WW2, the goal was to get Japan to surrender. Hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians had already passed from bombings and starvation, but the Japanese government did not show signs of surrendering. Truman at the time caught news that the Japanese seemed very committed to their goals and so he authorized the use of the world's first atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs were devastating to the country and forced them into surrender.
  • The Iron Curtain

    The Iron Curtain
    During the Cold War, the 'Iron Curtain' was the curtain separating communist and noncommunist countries. After the Second World War, the USSR continued to spread communist ideals and 'take in' the countries that needed help after much of Europe was destroyed. This area was under the guidance of the USSR until the end of the cold war in the early 1990s, so for a little less than 50 years the Iron Curtain, and the beliefs it symbolized, held strong and continued to stand metaphorically.
  • The Hollywood 10

    The Hollywood 10
    During the second wave of the Red Scare, there are massive investigations and accusations against many influential and not influential people. Some of those influential people were the "Hollywood 10", 10 of the biggest writers, directors, and producers of Hollywood. Accused of being a part of the communist party it was a big deal because these were the people producing the media that the public was absorbing. They were later put on trial and after not cooperating, arrested and blacklisted.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan, formed by George Marshall, was a plan to rebuild much of Europe after the 2nd World War. This helped fund the rebuilding of industry, trade, water systems, transport, and more. Europe was having a time of mass restlessness and economic failure, unsure of what to do and how to fix their economies the US stepped in and helped. The main reason for this help wasn't just because the US wanted to, but its main reason was to stop more countries from falling to communism and the USSR.
  • The Berlin Airlift

    The Berlin Airlift
    Following WW2 Germany was split in half to be taken under the guidance of the US and the USSR to help rebuild the nation. Berlin, the Capital, was also cut in half creating an East and West Berlin. The USSR had control of East Germany and Berlin was in East Germany, the USSR banned anyone from West Germany from even stepping foot into East Germany. The US took that literally and sent planes to airdrop the supplies and goods that the people of West Berlin required, for almost a year this went on.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    Following the plea for help from Southern Korea the US sent troops to aid South Korea (democratic) vs North Korea (communist). The North attacked the South first and very suddenly. The Southerners are struggling to keep North Korea pushed back when they finally ask for aid. The US joins the fight and can push them back to the 38th percentile. China also joins this war but in favor of the Northerners. Once the war stabilizes, an armistice is formed, but a peace treaty is never made.
  • Brown v Topeka School Board of Education

    Brown v Topeka School Board of Education
    Brown vs Topeka School Board of Education was a very significant case in the history of Civil Rights in America. The case argued by Thurgood Marshall, also a very important part of the Civil Rights movement, was for little Linda Brown. Linda had to walk down to school and past 3 'whites only' schools before reaching the first 'colored' school available to her. This case won in favor of Brown and banned the segregation of students in schools. However, it was not enforced by the government after.
  • The Little Rock Nine

    The Little Rock Nine
    The Little Rock Nine was another major movement in desegregating the school systems in the South. In an attempt to help integration 9 black students were enrolled into a 'white' school. Unfortunately, many community members found this unacceptable and the mayor himself sent out Alabama's national guard to 'defend' the school and ensure the students were not let inside. To counter this, Eisenhower sent members of the 101st airborne division to escort these students to and from school every day.
  • Launch of Sputnik

    Launch of Sputnik
    The Launch of Sputnik by the USSR was in short the launch of the space race between the US and USSR. Though it wasn't very advanced and didn't do much other than send signals back down to Earth, it was the first satellite to be launched into space and succeed. This scared the US because they didn't want to fall behind in advancements to the USSR, especially in space. However, this did lead to the US funding the development and research in space science so they didn't fall behind.
  • Election of 1960

    Election of 1960
    John F. Kennedy v. Richard Nixon. This election is a very important one because it was the first where the debates were broadcast on live TV and the first that Hawaii and Alaska participated. The fact that it was broadcast is very important because many who only listened to debates preferred Nixon to Kennedy but because the people who watched this election saw Kennedy as a more polished man and Nixon looked terrible, due to lack of experience in TV. Many who listened believed that Nixon had won.
  • Greensboro Sit-ins

    Greensboro Sit-ins
    In Greensboro, North Carolina 4 African American college students sit down at a whites-only lunch counter and wait to be served. They're told to leave, but they don't move or talk back. The police come and they get arrested. When they're released they go back and do it again, sit, wait to be served, and eventually get arrested. This angers many community members and causes distress and violence. 6 months into this silent series of protests the 4 finally get served and desegregate the sit-in.

    The formation of the NAACP was a lot earlier, in 1909, but the influence still lasts today. Its biggest movements and accomplishments came during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s though. They helped to advance the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. They also helped to plan many important and historical events such as the March on Washington, and the Montgomery Bus Boycotts. They fought for fair voting, employment, living, and desegregation.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    During the Cold War, there was a lot of spying going on between the US and the USSR. One of those planes, the U-2 spy plane, was shot down by the USSR defense force while it was attempting to take photographs. The pilot Francis Powers didn't self-destruct nor commit suicide like it was expected of him to do so before ever being caught. They took him and put him on trial and he confessed to his crimes and was later released back to the US, but he was hated by most of the American population.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    In October of 1962, a US spy plane photographed the formation of missile sites in Cuba, built by the USSR. This led to a dangerous confrontation between the two world powers during the Cold War. This was a period in the war where the two countries were closest to setting off nuclear weapons. It was 13 days of tense confrontation and fear of miscommunication or miscalculations on both ends. Khrushchev sent a letter back to the US saying they'd remove the missiles if the US didn't invade Cuba.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    The Freedom Rides was a series of trips around the southern states during the Civil Rights Movement. College students, (~1000) black and white, from the North, wanted to see just how much the federal government was enforcing the laws against segregation. Unfortunately, these rides were often very violent. One awful event was in Birmingham, Alabama where the community smoke bombed the bus to get the students out, and proceeded to brutally beat them without any repremands.
  • Children's Crusade

    Children's Crusade
    The Children's Crusade was another protest done in Birmingham that ended in violence. Approximately 1000 students planned and executed a walk-out during the school day to protest segregation in schools. On the first day of this many were arrested, but soon let out. The next day was much worse, when arriving downtown, 'Bull' Connor orders them to be sprayed by the fire hoses and sets the dogs on many of them. This is televised and seen by President JFK, making him support them publically.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The March on Washington was not just a major event for the Civil Rights Movement but in US history as well. Over 230,000 people attended this protest. It was organized by very important organizations like NAACP, SNCC, SCLC, and CORE. Martin Luther King Jr's infamous "I Have a Dream" speech was spoken during this rally. It was the biggest gathering for Civil Rights at its time. Hundreds of thousands of people traveled from all over the country to be able to take part in this historical moment.
  • The Great Society

    The Great Society
    The Great Society was a cluster of projects put on by Lindon B. Johnson when he entered office. It was a fight for not only civil rights but also rights for the poor. He passes the first major civil rights legislation. The Great Society is a very progressive era in America. Johnson established Medicare, and the Jobs Corps, and increased the quality of education. He made a program to help fund the arts and also made public broadcasting. It was a very happy and prosperous time in the US.
  • The Gulf of Ton kin Incident

    The Gulf of Ton kin Incident
    The Gulf of Ton Kin was the direct action that led to the US entering the Vietnam War with troops. The US had been sending aid and delegates to Vietnam before this but this was when Johnson waged war on Vietnam officially. 2 of America's destroyers, USS Maddox and C. Turner Joy were both destroyed by Northern Vietnamese military units in the Gulf of Ton Kin. This action was labeled as unprovoked aggression and that was the reason for war.
  • The Moon Landing

    The Moon Landing
    Ending the space race between the US and the USSR, Americans stepped on the moon on July 20th, 1969 for the first time in history. Being the first man on the moon Niel Armstrong said his infamous words "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind". Because the US had made it to the moon first and 'won' the space race they used this as a way to show that freedom reigned superior to communism. It also showed the superiority of America's engineering and technology.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    During Nixon's presidency, he did a lot of good in foreign relations but was most definitely not admired for his actions at home. Nixon's presidency ended in scandal when his committee, CREEP, broke into a democratic headquarters in Watergate to find information to use against them. Although Nixon wasn't the one to order this, he tried to cover it up and not allow the media to find out. During the Saturday Night Massacre, many public officials resigned due to his corruption, followed.
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis

    Iranian Hostage Crisis
    During the revolution in Iran by the Islamic fundamentalists, the US Embassy in Tehran became a very well-known target. This is because the Slah of Iran was pro-American. They captured the Embassy and about 50 Americans to hold as hostages. These American diplomats were held for 444 days, being released right after Reagan became President. Former president Carter's administration seemed too weak and so he was never successful in releasing the hostages from their captors.