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Session 1: Braided Histories Timeline

  • 1519

    Spanish Colonization of Mexico

    Spanish Colonization of Mexico
    Spaniard Hernán Cortés arrived at Veracruz in 1519. In May 1521, Cortés and his followers attacked and conquered the Aztecs. Cortés then colonized the area and named it Nueva España. By 1574, Spain controlled a large portion of the Aztec empire and had enslaved most of the indigenous population. The diseases brought by the Spaniards devastated the indigenous population of Nueva España, killing an estimated 24 million people between 1521 and 1605.
  • Pueblo Revolt of 1680

    Pueblo Revolt of 1680
    A coordinated uprising of most of the Indigenous peoples of the Pueblos against Spanish colonizers in modern day New Mexico. The Revolt led to 400 Spaniards being killed and over 2,000 being driven out of the province. Over the course of 5 years, Pueblo leaders began plotting the revolt and on August 10, they rose up. By August 13, all Spanish settlements in New Mexico had been destroyed and Santa Fe was under assault. By August 21, the Spaniards had retreated south of the Rio Grande River.
  • Whiteness was born

    Whiteness was born
    White, the language of race first appears in Virginia law. This law proposed that white people had rights and people who were not white didn't. Used God as an excuse to justify this decision. It's significant because it sets the tone for how people who aren't white will be treated for generations to come.
    https://medium.com/message/how-white-people-got-made-6eeb076ade42
  • Precursor of Law enforcement in U.S. - Slave patrol

    Precursor of Law enforcement in U.S. - Slave patrol
    The first formal slave patrol was created in the Carolina Colonies. They were created to capture runaway slaves and prevent slave revolts. It's significant because the racism and bias is true today! There is still little justice for Black bodies!! The origins of the law enforcement was RACIST and continues to be RACIST!!!
    https://time.com/4779112/police-history-origins/
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    Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution, also called War of Texas Independence, occurred between Mexico and Texas colonists that resulted in Texas’s independence from Mexico and the founding of the Republic of Texas (1836–45).
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    U.S. Forced Medical Experimentation on Enslaved Black Women Establishes Modern Gynecology

    "In the 1840s, the Alabama physician James Marion Sims conducted infamous experimental gynaecological surgery exclusively on black women, bound to the surgical table by chattel slavery, physical force and opium. The drug did not allay their pain, and some historians think that they became addicted to it." https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00340-5
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    Mexican - American war

    (1846-1848) Occurred after Texas gained its independence from Mexico. Much of the what we know now as the U.S. Southwest was Mexico before the war. Leading by the ideology of "manifest destiny" the U.S. decides to fight Mexico for the land. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war and the new border is the Rio Grande. Mexico also sells California to the U.S. https://www.history.com/topics/mexican-american-war/mexican-american-war
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    Freed Slave Emigration & Liberian Immigration

    The country of Liberia began as a settlement established by the American Colonization Society, a group of white men from the United States (including a U.S. President). ACS was an organization that believed that black people would have better chances at freedom and prosperity in Africa than in the United States. More recently, the Liberian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act is allowing Minnesota to become home to the largest Liberian population in the U.S. with roughly 30,000 Liberians.
  • US Constitution 13th Amendment

    US Constitution 13th Amendment
    Under President Lincoln and after the Civil War the US House and US Senate passed the 13th Amendment to abolish slavery in its current but inserted an exception. The 13th amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
  • 1878 St. Croix Fire Burn (Labor Riot)

    1878 St. Croix Fire Burn (Labor Riot)
    In July 1848, the slaves of Danish West Indies staged a protest and gained their freedom. This freedom would be short-lived. The now free laborers were forced, by law, to sign contracts which bound them and their families to the plantations on which they worked. By signing these contracts, the laborers became slaves again, in all but name. In 1878, a violent rebellion took place in which houses, sugar mills, sugar fields, and over half the city of Frederiksted burned down.
  • Harlem Renaissance : A time of reset and black sanctuary

    Harlem Renaissance :  A time of reset and black sanctuary
    The Harlem Renaissance is the great migration to New York neighbourhoods for black folx as the cultural mecca where anything was possible ( with the usual restrictions that come with being black) in th 1910s through the mid-1930s, the period is considered a golden age in African American culture, manifesting in literature, music, stage performance and art.
  • Transgender Health Care/Institute for Sexual Science

    Transgender Health Care/Institute for Sexual Science
    Magnus Hirschfeld, a German physician who could be considered the father of transgender health care in Berlin. He offered both Hormone Replacement Therapy/Sex Reassignment Surgeries for his patients.
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    Brown Vs Board Of Education

    9-0 Supreme Court Decision (Vague declaration, structureless instruction) “We have concluded… Unanimously that the doctrine of Separate but equal has no place in public education. Separate facilities are inherently unequal.” (overturned; Plessy Vs Ferguson)
    Thurgood Marshall Argued The Case, "The only way the supreme court could uphold this unfair law would be to prove that Black Americans were in fact inferior to White Americans." Advocacy; Housing Covenants, Social Segregation, Voting Rights.
  • Transgender Studies/Kinsey Institute

    Transgender Studies/Kinsey Institute
    The Biologist, Dr. Alfred Kinsey, who founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University in 1947. He coined the term Transsexual.
  • The Transsexual Phenomenon

    The Transsexual Phenomenon
    The Endocrinologist, Harry Benjamin, who laid the foundation of modern transgender healthcare.
  • Secret War/Vietnam War- Hmong Soldiers

    Secret War/Vietnam War- Hmong Soldiers
    newly elected US president John F. Kennedy authorized the recruitment of ethnic minorities in Laos to participate in covert military operations against the spread of communism. CIA agent Bill Lair met with the young Hmong military officer Vang Pao to discuss supporting US objectives in Laos. A sharp increase in the number of Hmong troops, supported by American military and CIA advisers, along with huge drops of military supplies, signaled the start of what is now called the Secret War.
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    The Secret War

    The Secret War refers to the recruitment, training, and involvement of Hmong soldiers by the CIA on a secret operation against Laos. President Kennedy approved this operation on his fight against global Communism. They fought on Lao territory for over a decade, until a cease fire was reached.
    https://www.mnhs.org/hmong/hmong-timeline
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    The Secret War -Hmong Soldiers

    newly elected US president John F. Kennedy authorized the recruitment of ethnic minorities in Laos to participate in covert military operations against the spread of communism. CIA agent Bill Lair met with the young Hmong military officer Vang Pao to discuss supporting US objectives in Laos. A sharp increase in the number of Hmong troops, supported by American military and CIA advisers, along with huge drops of military supplies, signaled the start of what is now called the Secret War.
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965

    The Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The Voting Rights act, signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson sought to legitimize the right for black citizens to vote by eliminating certain barriers to legal voting including banning literacy tests, monitoring poll taxes and actively registering black citizens to vote. Although few of these laws were enforced regularly, the event opens doors to challenge the legality of limiting the black vote.
  • Founding of the American Indian Movement in Minneapolis

    Founding of the American Indian Movement in Minneapolis
    The American Indian Movement, is a movement that was formed to address systemic issues of poverty & police brutality. At the time, the Minneapolis Police Department continued to send police to Little Earth to harass and round up Natives to send them to jail. AIM began to focus on issues such as treaty rights, employment, education, & cultural preservation & revitalization. As the movement grew to in prominence, their actions continued to elevate American Indian Tribal rights to the forefront.
  • Stonewall Riots of 1969

    Stonewall Riots of 1969
    At the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, NYC, Marsha P. Johnson, a transgender woman of color, was celebrating her 25th birthday when police raided the bar on claimed suspicion of selling liquor without a license. At the time, many of the regular patrons were people of color who were ostracized by the white gay community. Many incidences of police brutality on that evening led to 6 days of outcry and uprising in NYC streets. The gay rights movement in the US was borne from these events.
  • U.S.A Forced Sterilization

    U.S.A Forced Sterilization
    Sterilization against women of color, especially, non-white women who were sterilized without consent and forced into manipulation. For example, pain medication and cesarean section were denied if they did not signed a form that, clearly, they could not read. Those deceitful tactics were practice by U.S.A. Gynecologist. At the end, women reproductive rights and their autonomy to decide towards their bodies were taken from them. This implicates more generational trauma and ostracization.
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    Ethiopian Fall of Empire, Communism, Civil War, Ethnic Federalism Drive Global Diaspora

    In the last 50 years, Ethiopia experienced the military coup of imperial rule, a violent communist regime, decades of civil war, and finally the birth of today's so-called ethnic federalist democracy. With each transition of political power, millions of Ethiopians left the country and established diaspora communities across the globe. Still today, political unrest and economic development remain Ethiopia's greatest challenges. Prime minister Abiy Ahmed has been received with mixed response.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act was the first disability civil rights law to be enacted in the United States. It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in programs that receive federal financial assistance, and set the stage for enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Section 504 works together with the ADA and IDEA to protect children and adults with disabilities from exclusion, and unequal treatment in schools, jobs and the community.
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    Overthrow of Americo-Liberian regime

    Americo-Liberian individuals governed the country of Liberia from its founding to 1980. After violent suppression of opposition, Indigenous Liberians led a coup d’etat against President Tolbert and several of his administration Cabinet members, ending 133 years of Americo-Liberian rule. After this coup, there was a period of 26 years that encompassed tribal warfare, transfers of power, and a First (1989-1996) and Second (1997-2003) Liberian Civil War.
  • Origination of the Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation)

    Origination of the Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation)
    The EZLN is an indigenous militant group which has secured an autonomous zone in Chiapas since 1994, and has an ongoing struggle with the Mexican government to protect indigenous people.The organization's main focus was against NAFTA and global capitalism, but it has become highly matriarchal, and has focused a lot of its force in the education and empowerment of indigenous women.
    https://wagingnonviolence.org/2018/04/zapatista-women-inspire-fight-against-patriarchy/
  • 1986 Immigration Reform

    1986 Immigration Reform
    Ronald Regan signs into legislation the naturalization of 3 million undocumented folks in the U.S. This was the most people had been naturalized at one time.
    https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/its-25th-anniversary-ircas-legacy-lives
  • Institutionalised practice of international adoption

    The 1988 Olympics shed light on South Korea’s institutionalised practice of international adoption; the country was criticised for being a baby-exporting nation. Since the Korean War ended in 1953, South Korea has systematically sent an estimated 200,000 children to be adopted internationally to the US, Western European countries, and Australia.
  • Million Man March

    Million Man March
    Nation of Islam led by the Honorable Minister, Louis Farrakhan, called to order on the steps of Washington D.C. 1 million Black Men to come together for a public display of our re-commitment to the Black Family, demand equity, restore our faith in God. 1.5 million Black Men showed up.It was a moment when our Women uplifted and supported our Men, Mothers sent their Sons off on buses to this experience.Dr. Dorothy Height also spoke in solidarity with the movement and moment. it centered black men.
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    Hurricane Mitch

    Hurricane Mitch is the second-deadliest hurricane on record and the worst to hit the Western Hemisphere in more than 200 years. It hit the Caribbean and Central American in a long-drawn pattern of rains, pouring as much as 10cm of rain per hour in its worst days.
    http://www.hurricanescience.org/history/storms/1990s/mitch/
  • The Uprising for the Coalition for Unity and Democracy Party in Ethiopia ( ቅንጅት )

    The Uprising for the Coalition for Unity and Democracy Party in Ethiopia ( ቅንጅት )
    This was an uprising in 2005 that led the coalition of four existing political parties of Ethiopia which combined to compete for seats in the Ethiopian General Elections held on May 15, 2005, and around the end of that year, became a full-fledged political party led by Dr Hailu who was placed under house arrest in early June 2005 after a government investigation into his alleged involvement in the planning of riots which the government claims over 40 were killed.
  • Michelle Alexander Publishes The New Jim Crow

    Michelle Alexander Publishes The New Jim Crow
    Civil Rights advocate, Attorney, and professor Michelle Alexander published the book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The New Jim Crow” was hardly an immediate best-seller, but after a couple of years it took off and seemed to be at the center of discussion about criminal-justice reform and racism in America. The book considers not only the enormity and cruelty of the American prison system but also, as Alexander writes, the slavery by another name.
  • Murder of Trayvon Martin

    Murder of Trayvon Martin
    17-year-old Trayvon Martin was fatally shot in Sanford Florida by George Zimmerman. On the evening of February 26th, Martin was walking back alone to the fiancée's house from a nearby convenience store. Zimmerman, a member of the community watch, saw Martin and reported him to the Sanford Police as suspicious. Several minutes later, there was an altercation and Zimmerman fatally shot Martin in the chest.
  • Black Lives Matter Movement is founded

    Black Lives Matter Movement is founded
    After the acquittal of Trayvon Martin's murderer, Opal Tometi, Patrisse Cullors and Alicia Garza founded the Black Lives Matter movement as a response to the need for a platform and an organizing tool for Black people to come together to fight racism and anti-Black sentiments in the United States, and now worldwide.
  • Israel gave birth control to Ethiopian Jews without their consent.

    Israel gave birth control to Ethiopian Jews without their consent.
    Israel has admitted for the first time that it has been giving Ethiopian Jewish immigrants birth-control injections, without their consent.
  • Transgender Healthcare Coverage in the U.S.A

    Transgender Healthcare Coverage in the U.S.A
    Finally, in 2014, a government appeals board ruled that Medicare must cover surgery for Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS) overturning a policy that had been in place since the 1980's.
  • Opening of National Museum African American Cultural and History

    Opening of National Museum African American Cultural and History
    President Obama have the inaugural speech at the opening of the Smithsonian museum. Civil rights leader and US congressman John Lewis was the champion for the creation of this museum. This day was a three day festival filled with music, food, arts, and black vendors. This was the first national African American museum in the United States. It’s the fourth most visited museum with an average of 8,000 visitors a day.
  • The Not Too Young To Run..

    The Not Too Young To Run..
    The global campaign Not Too Young To Run was launched at the first United Nations Forum on Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law taking place at United Nations Geneva.. Not Too Young To Run is an act of parliament which sought to reduce the age limit for running for elective office in Nigeria.
    In a rapidly changing world where more than 50 percent of the population is under 30, but less than 2 percent of elected legislators.
  • The muslim ban

    The muslim ban
    Under the ban, millions of people fleeing violence; hoping to reunite with their families, access medical treatment, pursue their careers; and many more are banned from entering the United States.
    The number of refugees from Muslim majority countries seeking protection in the U.S. has declined. Countries affected by the ban include Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen
    https://www.aclunc.org/sites/muslim-ban/
  • 1619 Project

    1619 Project
    In the fall of 19' an alternative account of history was presented to Americans nationwide. A Pulitzer Award Winning Project about the reclamation of the Black American Experience, An Alternative account to the history of the formation of the United States.
    The fact of the mater is that White Americans are fearful of the alternative perspective that challenges the notion of a egalitarian democracy. It recounts the many transformative contributions to American Society by the Enslaved folks.
  • Murder of Mr George Floyd

    On May 25, Minneapolis police officers arrested George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man, after a convenience store employee called 911 and told the police that Mr. Floyd had bought cigarettes with a counterfeit $20 bill. Seventeen minutes after the first squad car arrived at the scene, Mr. Floyd was unconscious and pinned beneath three police officers, showing no signs of life. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/31/us/george-floyd-investigation.html