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Treaty of Versailles 1918-1939

  • (Italy) Allies Win

    The Allies win WW1
  • Warring nations end fighting in WWI

    Warring nations sign an armistice to end fighting in World War I. The armistice comes into effect at 11.00am.
  • (Germany) Most influential communist leaders arrested and killed

    Most influential communist leaders, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknech arrested and killed.
  • (Germany) SPD wins the new national assembly

    The Social Democrat Party (SPD) wins 38 percent of the votes in elections for the new national assembly.
  • (Great Britain) Self-Declared Independence

    A declaration of independence was ratified by Dáil Éireann, the self-declared Republic's parliament in January 1919.
  • (Great Britain) Irish Republican Army

    A Anglo-Irish War was fought between Crown forces and the Irish Republican Army between January 1919 and June 1921.
  • (Germany) The establishing of the Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles (established by the Triple Entente after WWI in 1918 at the Paris Peace Conference) presumed Germany responsible for the cause of WWI.
  • (Germany) The New Weimar Constitution

    The proclamation of the new Weimar constitution, creating a new liberal democratic political system for Germany.
  • (Italy) Socialist Parties

    Socialist parties were also gaining support, and in the 1919 elections it was the Socialist Party that gained the most votes.
  • (Germany) American Jazz to Germany

    Paul Whiteman Band Brings American Jazz to Germany. Jazz music became a symbol of American culture to Germans and was both admired and reviled by members of the German public and intellectuals.
  • (Germany) DAP changes to (NSDAP)

    Hitler’s party, the DAP, renames itself the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (or NSDAP).
  • (Germany) NSDAP publishes political manifesto

    The NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party) publishes its political manifesto, a 25-point statement listing its beliefs, value and agenda.
  • (Germany) Founding of the Nazi Party

    Adolf Hitler joined the German Workers' party as a spy for the army and later became its leader.
  • (Italy) The National Fascist Party

    The National Fascist Party was another post-war party that began to gain support in the early 1920s.
  • (Great Britain) The Birth of Ireland

    Northern Ireland was created in 1920, and the Irish Free State
  • (Great Britain) Ireland gains Independence

    Republic of Ireland gains independence
  • (Germany) Socialist parties wins the national Reichstag

    Elections for the national Reichstag see socialist parties win almost 40 percent of votes and seats.
  • (Italy) Chamber of Deputies

    In the elections of May 1921, 35 fascists, including Mussolini, were elected to the Chamber of Deputies, representing about 250,000 official party members drawn mostly from the lower middle class.
  • (United States) Woodrow Wilson

    Woodrow Wilson: a Democrat who was president
  • (Japan) Hara Takashi

    n 1918 Hara Takashi (1856-1921), a protégé of Saionji and a major influence in the prewar Seiyokai cabinets, had become the first commoner to serve as prime minister.
  • (Germany) Hitler becomes the next supreme leader

    Hitler accepts an invitation to re-join the party and replaces Anton Drexler as its supreme leader.
  • (Germany) Hitler gets arrested

    Hitler is arrested for disturbing the peace, after gate-crashing a meeting of a rival political group.
  • (Italy) The Washington Conference

    November 1921: The Washington Conference is Held The United States convenes the Washington Conference, attended by Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, China, Japan, and Portugal. The Conference results in a naval armaments treaty that sets a ratio for tonnage of capital ships (over 10,000 tons, with guns bigger than eight inches) for Great Britain, the US, Japan, France, and Italy.
  • (Italy) Clashes

    In 1922 clashes between the left-wing and right-wing factions emerged in Italy.
  • (Japan) Comintern

    The Comintern realized the importance of Japan in achieving successful revolution in East Asia and actively worked to form the Japan Communist Party (Nihon Kyosanto), which was founded in July 1922
  • (Italy) March of Rome

    On October 26, 1922, Mussolini decide to take advantage of the peoples' fear of a revolution to seize power. The March on Rome was to establish Mussolini and the Fascists party as the most important political party in Italy.
  • (Germany) Nazis attempt an armed rebellion by Hitler

    The National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) attempt an unsuccessful armed rebellion led by Adolf Hitler.
  • (Soviet Union) Stalin

    Trotsky's main competition for power was Joseph Stalin. Stalin had been involved in the Communist Party since before the Revolution. He served under Lenin as commissar for nationalities, and in 1923 became general secretary of the party.
  • (Soviet Union) Rapid Industrialiaztion

    In the period of rapid industrialization and mass collectivization preceding World War II, Soviet employment figures experienced exponential growth. 3.9 million jobs per annum were expected by 1923, but the number actually climbed to an astounding 6.4 million.
  • (Great Britain) Labour Election

    Labour won the 1923 election, but in 1924 Baldwin and the Conservatives returned with a large majority.
  • (Great Britain) Trade Unions

    During the war trade unions were encouraged and their membership grew from 4.1 million in 1914 to 6.5 million in 1918. They peaked at 8.3 million in 1920 before relapsing to 5.4 million in 1923
  • (United States) Warren Harding

    Warren Harding : a Republican who died suddenly in 1923
  • (Great Britain) World trade fell in Half

    Britain's world trade fell in half (1929–33), the output of heavy industry fell by a third, employment profits plunged in nearly all sectors.
  • (Japan) Japan Commmunist Party

    The announced goals of the Japan Communist Party in 1923 were an end to feudalism, abolition of the monarchy, recognition of the Soviet Union, and withdrawal of Japanese troops from Siberia, Sakhalin, China, Korea, and Taiwan.
  • (Italy)Invision of expansion

    Mussolini envisioned an Italian-based empire reminiscent of the Roman Empire. These thinly-veiled plans made neighbors around the Mediterranean Sea nervous and distrustful of Italy, including Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • (Soviet Union) Lenin

    After suffering a series of strokes, Lenin died on January 21, 1924, with no clear path of succession.
  • (Great Britain) Labour Government

    A Labour government, under Ramsay MacDonald, was in power for the first time briefly in 1924
  • (Soviet Union) Flag

    Endorsed by the Constitution of the USSR in 1924, the State Emblem of the Soviet Union (above) was a hammer and sickle symbolizing the alliance of the working class and the peasantry.
  • (Germany) The "New Beginning"

    Hitler calls for a “new beginning” for the NSDAP, as a legitimate political party rather than a revolutionary group
  • (Germany) Hitler sets up a new security group

    Hiltler sets up a new party security group called the Schutzstaffe (Protection Squad) or SS
  • (Italy) Mussolini

    Benito Mussolini becomes the dictator of Italy
  • (Great Britain) Chancellor

    Chancellor of the Exchequer Winston Churchill put Britain back on the gold standard in 1925, which many economists blame for the mediocre performance of the economy.
  • (Great Britain) Conservatives

    The Conservative government had provided a nine-month subsidy in 1925 but that was not enough to turn around a sick industry.
  • (United States) Gang

    Capone was very good at what he did. in 1925, Torrio was nearly killed by a rival gang and he decided to get out of the criminal world while he was still alive. Torrio handed over to Capone his 'business'.
  • (Japan) Peace Preservation Law

    Fear of a broader electorate, left-wing power, and the growing social change engendered by the influx of Western popular culture together led to the passage of the Peace Preservation Law (1925), which forbade any change in the political structure or the abolition of private property.
  • (Japan) Peace Preservation Law Cont.

    The 1925 Peace Preservation Law was a direct response to the "dangerous thoughts" perpetrated by communist elements in Japan.
  • (Japan) Western Influences

    Western influences in popular culture in the Taisho period in the 1920s created new tensions as national fervor produced a backlash and a consequent desire to promote and protect all things Japanese. Many of these social tensions are depicted in the novel Naomi, written in 1925 but not translated into English until 1985.
  • (United States) KKK leader was Imperial Wizard

    The leader of the KKK in the 1920’s was a dentist called Hiram Wesley Evans whose name in the KKK was Imperial Wizard.
  • (Japan) Communist Party

    Japan Communist Party had been forced underground,
  • (Great Britain) Economic depression

    In 1926 the country suffered a general strike. Severe economic stress increased during the worldwide economic depression.
  • (Germany) Germany became member of the League of Nations

  • (Soviet Union) Trotsky fled to Turkey

    By 1927, Trotsky had lost his position on the Central Committee, and was expelled from the party. He fled to Turkey, and eventually to Mexico, where he was killed in 1940 by a Stalinist agent.
  • (United States) Poloticians in Chicago

    Capone managed to bribe both the police and the important politicians of Chicago. He spent $75 million on such ventures but considered it a good investment of his huge fortune. His armed thugs patrolled election booths to ensure that Capone's politicians were returned to office. The city's mayor after 1927 was Big Bill Thompson - one of Capone's men.
  • (Japan) Unstable Coalitions

    Unstable coalitions and divisiveness in the Diet led the Kenseikai and the Seiy Honto to merge as the Rikken Minseito in 1927
  • (Great Britian) Free State

    In 1922, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Ireland effectively seceded from the United Kingdom to become the Irish Free State; a day later, Northern Ireland seceded from the Free State and became part of the United Kingdom. As a result, in 1927 the United Kingdom changed its formal title to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,". Former parts of the British Empire became independent dominions.
  • (Soviet Union) Peak Iron

    From 1928 to 1932, peak iron output, necessary for further development of the industrial infrastructure rose from 3.3 million to 6.2 million tons per year.
  • (Sovit Union) Economic

    Soviet economic policy markedly turned toward the mass collectivization of agriculture.
  • (Soviet Union) NEP

    1928 also marked the end of the NEP, which allowed peasants to sell their surplus on the open market.
  • (United States) Election

    In America an election is held in November. However, the victorious president does not take over until January of the following year to allow the government to ‘run-down' and the incoming president time to pick his team i.e. there was an election in November 1928 but Herbert Hoover did not take office until January 1929.
  • (United States) Car Price Dropped

    This was a car for the people. It was cheap; mass production had dropped its price to just $295 in 1928.
  • (United States) Americans have cars

    By 1928, just about 20% of all Americans had cars. The impact of Ford meant that others had to produce their own cheap car to compete.
  • (Soviet Union) First Five Year Plan

    This 1,700 page report became the basis of the First Five-Year Plan for National Economic Construction, or Piatiletka, calling for the doubling of Soviet capital stock between 1928 and 1933.
  • (Soviet Union) Population Increase

    Between 1926 and 1930, the urban population increased by 30 million. Unemployment had been a problem in late Imperial Russia and even under the NEP, but it ceased being a major factor after the implementation of Stalin's massive industrialization program.
  • (Soviet Union) Gosplan released two drafts

    In April 1928 Gosplan released two drafts that began the process that would industrialize the primarily agrarian nation
  • (Great Britain) Shipping Industry

    For over a century the shipping industry had dominated world trade, but it remained in the doldrums despite various stimulus efforts by the government. With the very sharp decline in world trade after 1929, its condition became critical.
  • (Great Britain) Great Depression

    The Great Depression originated in the United States in late 1929 and quickly spread to the world. Britain had never experienced the boom that had characterized the US, Germany, Canada and Australia in the 1920s, so its bust appeared less severe
  • (Soviet Union) Policy of Liquidation

    The policy of liquidation of kulaks as a class—formulated by Stalin at the end of 1929—meant some executions, and even more deportation to special settlements and, sometimes, to forced labor camps.
  • (United States) Stockbrokers

    . Stockbrokers were at fault as they were happy to accept a ‘margin’ to buy shares for a person ; this was accepting just 10% of the cost of the shares that were to be purchased for a customer. The rest was to be collected when the price of shares went up - as they would, of course.... By 1929, over 1 million people owned shares in America.
  • (United States) Calvin Coolidge

    Calvin Coolidge: a Republican who was president until 1929
  • (United States) Wall Street Effects

    1) 12 million people out of work 2) 12,000 people being made unemployed every day 3) 20,000 companies had gone bankrupt 4) 1616 banks had gone bankrupt 5) 1 farmer in 20 evicted 6) 3,000 people committed suicide in one year - the highest ever
  • (United States) Popular

    Not only were cars popular. Radios (10 million sold by 1929), hoover’s, fridge’s and telephones sold in huge numbers.
  • (United States) Wall Street Crash

    In October 1929, the Wall Street Crash occurred. Its impact was felt worldwide.
  • (Japan) Party Leadership Destroyed

    By the summer of 1929 the party leadership had been virtually destroyed
  • (United States) Jazz Age

    The Jazz Age dominated the 1920's along with Prohibition but the glamour of this period came to a shattering halt with the Wall Street Crash of October 1929.
  • (Japan) Great Depression

    Externally, Black Thursday (Wall Street crash) of October 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression in the world economy had a severe negative impact on the Japanese economy.
  • (Soviet Union) Central Committee

    The November 1929 Plenum of the Central Committee decided to accelerate collectivization through force.
  • (Japan) Japanese conquered Manchuria

  • (Italy) Fascist Party

    Amid the chaos of the early inter-war years, Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party, the Fascio di Combattimento, in March 1919. The Fascist Party, composed largely of war veterans, was vehemently anti-communist, and advocated the glorification of war, which they claimed displayed the nobility of the Italian soul.
  • (Great Britain) Finacial Crisis

    During the financial crisis of 1931, George V asked MacDonald to head a coalition government, which took the country off the gold standard, ceased the repayment of war debts, and supplanted free trade with protective tariffs modified by preferential treatment within the empire and with treaty nations.
  • (Japan) Politics

    From 1931 to 1937, Japanese politics was gradually overtaken by the military.
  • (United States) Capone got What He Deserved

    In 1931, the law finally caught up with Capone and he was charged with tax evasion. He got 11 years in jail. In prison, his health went and when he was released, he retired to his Florida mansion no longer the feared man he was from 1925 to 1931.
  • (Italy) The final League of Nations Disarmament Conference

    February - July 1932: The final League of Nations Disarmament Conference is Held The last major League of Nations-sponsored disarmament conference meets from February to July 1932 at Geneva, with 60 nations in attendance, including the United States. However, this conference, like it's predecessors, fails to secure any agreement, and organized disarmament remains an unaccomplished goal.
  • (United States) Hoover did not think the Depression would last

    Hoover did not believe that the depression would last - "Prosperity is just around the corner" is what he said to businessmen in 1932 when things were just about at their worst.
  • (Japan) Rikken Minseito alternated in power

    The Rikken Minseito platform was committed to the parliamentary system, democratic politics, and world peace. Thereafter, until 1932, the Seiyokai and the Rikken Minseito alternated in power.
  • (Japan) Economic Downturn

    Japan experienced the deepest economic downturn in modern history during 1930-32.
  • (Japan) Economy

    The Japanese economy began to recover in 1932 and expanded relatively strongly until 1936 (the last year of non-wartime economy)
  • (United States)

    The very rich lost money on Wall Street but they could just about afford it. But the vast bulk could not afford any loss of money. This had a very important economic impact as these people could no longer afford to spend money and therefore did not buy consumer products. Therefore as there was no buying, shops went bust and factories had no reason to employ people who were making products that were not being sold. Therefore unemployment became a major issue. The depression took a while to get go
  • (Soviet Union) Stalin's Laws

    Stalin's laws to "tighten work discipline" made the situation worse: e.g., a 1932 change to the RSFSR labor law code enabled firing workers who had been absent without a reason from the work place for just one day
  • (Germany) Adolf Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany

    Adolf Hitler was legally and democratically appointed chancellor of Germany
  • (United States) Depression

    The Depression of 1930 to 1933 was followed by the New Deal of F D Roosevelt as America strove to pull herself out of the economic quagmire she was in.
  • (Great Britain) Recovery from Depression

    Recovery from the depression began to be evident in 1933. Although old export industries such as coal mining and cotton manufacturing remained depressed, other industries, such as electrical engineering, automobile manufacture, and industrial chemistry, were developed or strengthened.
  • (United States) Herbert Hoover

    Herbert Hoover: a Republican who was president until 1933
  • (United States) AAA Paid Farmers

    The AAA paid farmers to destroy some of their crops and farm animals. In 1933 alone, $100 million was paid out to cotton farmers to plough their crop back into the ground!
  • (Japan)

    By 1933 the party had largely disintegrated.
  • (Japan) League of Nations

    Japan was criticized by the League of Nations over the occupation of Manchuria. In protest, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations.
  • (Germany) Political leaders are held captive

    Dachau concentration camp opens and immediately begins receiving political prisoners.
  • (United States) Farmers benifited from the AAA Paying them

    In 1934, the farmers who had benefited from the AAA, hit another major problem – dust storms. These storms destroyed farms especially in Oklahoma and Arkansas and throughout the 1930’s over 350,000 farmers left for the west especially California where the weather created a more friendly farming environment.
  • (Japan) Poverty

    Around 1931, rural impoverishment became severe. Moreover in 1934, rural communities were hit by famine. Especially in Tohoku (northeastern) Region of Japan, rural poverty generated many undernourished children and some farmers were forced to sell their daughters for prostitution. This rural disaster caused much anger and popular criticism against the government and big businesses.
  • (Germany) Hitler declares himself der Fuhrer

    On 2 August 1934, President von Hindenburg died. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government, and was formally named as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor). The Nazi German government is called the Third Reich.
  • (Italy) Benito Mussolini's agreement

    Italian premier Benito Mussolini and French foreign minister Pierre Laval conclude agreement in which each power undertakes not to oppose the other's colonial claims.
  • (Italy) Italian Empire Mussolini invaded Abyssinia

    Italian Empire Mussolini invaded Abyssinia in 1935
  • (Japan) Persia is renamed to Iran

  • (Japan) Large hurricane hits the Florida Keys

    Labor Day Hurricane of 1935: A large hurricane hits the Florida Keys killing 423
  • (Germany) Laws against homosexuals were strengthened

    Nuremburg Laws introduced and Laws against homosexuals were strengthened
  • (Italy) Abyssinia Invasion

    Abyssinia is an African country next to the Italian colony of Somalia. The Italian dictator Mussolini wanted to build an Italian empire and as a result had Italian soldiers attack a party of British and Abyssinia investigators in Abyssinia.
  • (Italy) Spanish War

    . During the Spanish Civil War Italy provided military support for Franco in 1936
  • (Italy)

    1936 Mussolini and Hitler sign an agreement known as the Roman-Berlin Axis
  • (Italy) Nazi-Italian Treaty

    Treaty of friendship between Germany and Italy, laying the groundwork for the formation of the Axis Powers (which would also include Japan) a few years later, preceding WWII.
  • (Great Britain) Throne

    George V was succeeded by Edward VIII, after whose abdication (1936) George VI came to the throne.
  • *Soviet Union* Agriculture

    By 1936, about 90% of Soviet agriculture had been collectivized. In many cases, peasants bitterly opposed this process and often slaughtered their animals rather than give them to collective farms, even though the Government only wanted the grain.
  • (Great Britain) After Munich

    Great Britain had begun to rearm in 1936 and, after Munich, instituted conscription.
  • (Japan) Korekiyo Takahashi

    Korekiyo Takahashi is called "Japanese Keynes." He adopted Keynesian policies even before John Maynard Keynes wrote the famous General Theory in 1936
  • (Italy) Roman Berlin axis

    Italy also began to establish an alliance with Germany. The Rome-Berlin Axis in 1936 was the beginning of the alliance.
  • (Italy) Italian-Abyssinian War

    Italy captures lands in East Africa, causing a rift with the League of Nations (Allies). As a result, economic sanctions were levied against Italy, causing it to seek an alliance with Germany instead.
  • (Japan) 1936 Japan signed a anti-communist pact with Germany and Italy

    Signed anti-communist
  • (Germany) Nazis arrest "Gypsies"

    The Nazis target Romany (‘Gypsies’) as ‘anti-socials’, launching a wave of arrests and detentions.
  • (Great Britain) Prime Minister

    In 1937, Neville Chamberlain became prime minister.
  • (Great Britain) Jet Engine

    Sir Frank Whittle invents the Jet Engine
  • (Soviet Union) Coal Output

    By 1937 coal output was 127 million tons, pig iron 14.5 million tons, and there had been very rapid developments in the armaments industry.
  • (Soviet Union) Pope attacks religion

    In 1937, Pope Pius XI decried the attacks on religion in the Soviet Union.
  • (Soviet Union) Great Plurge

    The "Great Purge" swept the Soviet Union in 1937.
  • (Japan) Japan-China war

    Japan-China War began--on July 7, Japanese and Chinese troops had a skirmish at Marco Polo Bridge near Beijing (Beiping). The incident was minor but Tokyo (Konoe Cabinet) decided to send more troops to China. Thus began a full-scale war with China (until 1945).
  • (Soviet Union) Mass Purges Disrupts the Country

    By 1938, the mass purges were starting to disrupt the country's infrastructure, and Stalin began winding them down
  • (Germany) Jews extracted from the economic life of Germans

    A Nazi decree orders that Jews be gradually extracted from German economic life.
  • (Soviet Union) Labor Laws

    In contrast, the 1938 legislation, which introduced labor books, followed by major revisions of the labor law, were enforced.
  • (Great Britain) Axis Powers

    Appeasement of the Axis powers, which was the policy of the Chamberlain government, reached its climactic failure in the Munich Pact of Sept., 1938.
  • (Soviet Union) WWI

    The joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939
  • (Italy) Beginning Alliance

    Italy also began to establish an alliance with Germany. The Rome-Berlin Axis in 1936 was the beginning of the alliance.
  • (Italy) ITaly conquers Albania

    1939 Italy conquers Albania and Mussolini sides with Hitler and Fascist Germany
  • (Germany) Germany occupies Czechoslovakia

  • (Great Britain) Soviet-German Pact

    With the signing of the Soviet-German pact of Aug., 1939, war was recognized as inevitable.
  • (Germany) Germay invade Poland

  • (Great Britian) WWII

    On Sept. 1, 1939, Germany attacked Poland. Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on Sept. 3