1938

Towards the 1967 Referendum

  • Aborigines Day of Mourning and Protest

    Aborigines Day of Mourning and Protest
    January 26 1938 was the 150th anniversary of the landing of the First Fleet in Australia, for some a day to celebrate, for others a day to mourn. The Aboriginal people silently protested from the Town Hall to the Australian Hall in Elizabeth Street.
  • Aborigines Day of Mourning and Protest

    Aborigines Day of Mourning and Protest
    “On this day the white people are rejoicing, but we, as Aborigines, have no reason to rejoice on Australia's 150th birthday. Our purpose in meeting today is to bring home to the white people of Australia the frightful conditions in which the native Aborigines of this continent live. This land belonged to our forefathers 150 years ago, but today we are pushed further and further into the background.” The Aborigines want to be heard, they want to be treated with respect.
  • Brown vs Board of Education case

    Brown vs Board of Education case
    The Brown vs Board of Education case which ended legal segregation in public schools is famous as it is a turning point in the rights of black people. Those who agreed to be plaintiffs in the case were clueless to knowing that in fact they would change history. The plaintiffs were simple black Americans who just wished to be treated equally. The U.S Supreme court decision in this case is one of the most pivotal opinions ever rendered enabling white and blacks to attend school together.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montogomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montogomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign started in December 1, 1955: when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, until to December 20, 1956, when federal ruling took effect requiring segregation on public transport to be abolished.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montogomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montogomery Bus Boycott
    The struggles of the these Freedom Riders sparked uproar and prompted discussion Amercia-wide. The unjust treatment that the riders encountered interestingly inspired others to take up the cause. Before long, dozens of Americans were volunteering to travel on Freedom Rides, and participate in other rights movements.
  • Little Rock High School

    Little Rock High School
    Little Rock High School was formally an all-white school. However it is recognized today for the role it played in the desegregation of public schools in America. The 9 black American students who persisted to enrol at the school played a huge part in changing history and also a massive part in the Brown vs Board case (1954).
  • Petition - Federal Council for Aborginal Advancement

    Petition - Federal Council for Aborginal Advancement
    This was the first of many petitions which the Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement ran to press for a referendum to get the Federal Government to accept responsibility in Aboriginal affairs. People signed the petition to show their support and to prove to the government everyone wanted a change. All petitions had to be back to Collins Street, Melbourne by the 11th of August, 1958.
  • Petition - Federal Council for Aborginal Advancement

    Petition - Federal Council for Aborginal Advancement
    This Petition was the Indigenous people's of Australia's attempt to raise awareness of the way in which they were being treated, and to make amendments to the constitution which condoned this poor treatment. The petetion displayed immense support, and provided some small hope for those subjected to inequality.
  • Electoral Act Amendment

    Electoral Act Amendment
    This is an act to give aboriginal natives of australia the right to enrole and vote as electors of the commonwealth.
    In March 1962 the Commonwealth Electoral Act was amended to provide that Indigenous people could enrol to vote in federal elections if they wished. Unlike other Australians it was not compulsory for them to enrol. Once they enrolled, however, voting was compulsory.
  • Electoral Act Amendment

    Electoral Act Amendment
    In 1962 the right to vote in state/territory elections was also extended to Indigenous people in the Northern Territory and Western Australia. From this time, Indigenous people were encouraged to enrol to vote. Steps were taken to provide them with information about the electoral process, especially in the Northern Territory. Voter education programs were started and elections were held for Indigenous Community.
  • "I Have A Dream" Speech

    "I Have A Dream" Speech
    On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King delivered his most famous speech, known as the "I Have a Dream" speech, from the steps of the Abraham Lincoln Memorial. The speech called not only for Negro rights, but for the rights of all people, friendship and unity among all Americans.
  • "I Have A Dream" Speech

    "I Have A Dream" Speech
    King's words were broadcast live by the three major television networks into homes across the United States. Millions of people for whom King had been only a name in the news were thus able to witness the power of his speech firsthand. One was President Kennedy, who said while viewing the video, “That guy is really good”.
  • "I Have A Dream Speech" - Significance

    "I Have A Dream Speech" - Significance
    This is what we consider the most important event in the Global context of acceptance and equality of different-raced people. This speech not only inspired those who were considered outcasts due to their race, but also urged leaders of nations all across the world to make significant changes. This speech influenced so many people, and as a result views, laws and fundamental rights were changed for the benefit of black and indigenous people.
  • The passing of the Civil Rights Act

    The passing of the Civil Rights Act
    In the 1960 presidential election campaign John F. Kennedy argued for a new Civil Rights Act. The 1964 Civil Rights Act made racial discrimination in public places illegal. Additionally, it also required employers to provide equal employment opportunities to everyone. The provision of federal funds to projects could stopped if there was evidence of discriminated based on colour, race or national origin.
  • The passing of the Civil Rights Act

    The passing of the Civil Rights Act
    The passing of this act granted those who experienced unjust treatment the rights that they fought for and deserved. Racial discrimination was now making its initial movements out of American society. Other countries soon adopted similar policies and were influenced by this movement of civil rights in America.
  • The Jim Crow Laws

    The Jim Crow Laws
    The Jim Crow laws were racial segregation laws introduced between 1876 and 1965 in the United States at the state and local level. They promoted racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of America. A "separate but equal" status for African Americans was the purpose of the laws.
  • The Jim Crow Laws

    The Jim Crow Laws
    The separation led to conditions for African Americans being dramatically lower than to white Americans. Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public transportation, and the segregation of bathrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. army was also segregated and white people only held federal positions.
  • Freedom Ride

    Freedom Ride
    In February 1965 a group of University of Sydney students organised a bus tour of western and coastal New South Wales towns. The students planned to draw public attention to the poor state of Aboriginal health, education and housing. They hoped to point out and mitigate the state of dsicrimmination and tension between Aborginals and white Asutralians. They also wished to encourage and support Aboriginal people themselves to resist discrimination.
  • Freedom Ride

    Freedom Ride
    Two years after the Freedom Ride a referendum succeeded in removing two discriminatory references to Aboriginals from the Australian Constitution. This meant that for the first time the government could make laws on behalf of Aboriginal people and that they were counted in the census. The Freedom Ride and the subsequent referendum demonstrated the power of young people and the influence that they can have on issues in society.
  • Wave Hill Station Wage Protests

    Wave Hill Station Wage Protests
    Wave Hill Station is located approximately 600 kilometres south of Darwin. Vesteys, a British pastoral company, employed local Aboriginal people, mostly Gurindji. Working and living conditions for Aboriginal people were very poor. The wages of Aboriginal workers were restricted and not equal to those paid to non-Aboriginal employees. The strikes across Australia on working farms in 1966 caused the Equal Wages Campaign which fought for equal wages for Aboriginals.
  • Wave Hill Station Wage Protests

    Wave Hill Station Wage Protests
    The Wave Hill walk-off was well supported and made headlines all over Australia. While the initial strike was about wages and living conditions it soon spread to include the more fundamental issue about their traditional lands. The Wave Hill walk-off had deveoped into a land claim. This protest prompted discussion within Australian community and showed the strength, hurt and determination of the Indigenous people.
  • The passing of the referendum and the signing off by the Governor General

    The passing of the referendum and the signing off by the Governor General
    Australians voted overwhelmingly to change the Constitution by removing certain phrases that discriminated against Aboriginal people. Having been accepted by a majority of voters in a majority of states, as well an overall majority of 90.77 per cent, the changes became law when this Act gained royal assent on 10 August 1967.
  • The passing of the referendum and the signing off by the Governor General

    The passing of the referendum and the signing off by the Governor General
    This day was momentous for the Aboriginal people, abolishing constitutional statements that discriminated against their race. This was certainly a large step towards acceptance and equality for the Indigenous people of Australia.
  • The assassination of Martin Luther King

    The assassination of Martin Luther King
    The assassination of Martin Luther King was one of the opening acts which affected 1968 into a year of chaos. In the early evening of April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was killed by a single shot which hit his face and neck. He was standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, where he lead a peaceful march.
  • The assassination of Martin Luther King

    The assassination of Martin Luther King
    About an hour later, he was pronounced dead at 7:05 PM at St. Joseph Hospital. As a result of Martin Luther King's death, many African Americans were outraged and began rioting in cities across the country.