AbolitionismA movement to end slavery. In 1780, Pennsylvania passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery.
Eli Whitneydec 8, 1765- jan 8 1825. He was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin in 1793. He patented it March 14th 1794.
Louisiana PurchaseThe U.S purchased Louisiana territory from France at a price of $15 million or 4 cents an acre. 1803 commissioned by Thomas Jefferson
Lewis and Clarkfirst American expedition to cross the western portion of the u.s after the lousiana purchase. They departed from St. Louis on the Mississippi River making their way to the Pacific Coast.
Robert E LeeBorn to Revolutionary War hero Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee in Stratford Hall, Virginia, Robert Edward Lee seemed destined for military greatness. From 1852 to 1855, Lee served as superintendent of West Point, and was therefore responsible for educating many of the men who would later serve under him - and those who would oppose him - on the battlefields of the Civil War.
Jefferson Davis• 1808 in Christian county, Kentucky
• President of confederacy &Served as U.S. senate(1861-1865)
• Also serves secretary of war
• he resigned from the U.S. Senate
• in 1861 he struggles to manage the southern war effort
• imprisoned and charged with treason inn 1865
William t Shermannever commanded in a major Union victory and his military career had repeated ups and downs, but William T. Sherman is the second best known of Northern commanders. He received a brevet for his services in California during the Mexican War but resigned in 1853 as a captain and commissary officer.
Missouri CompromiseAn agreement between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories. The Compromise encouraged people in the north to return runaway slaves to their homes and did not prohibit slavery, even in the free territories.
Monroe DoctrinePolicy of the u.s introduced on dec.2 1823. The doctrine stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize the u.s or south America would be viewed as acts of aggression and would require the u.s to interfere.
Erie CanalProposed in 1808 and completed in 1825. The canal connects the Eerie Lake from the west to the Hudson river in the east. The canal was made to offer a cheap and safe way to carry produce to the market.
Nullification crisisIt arose in the early 1830s when leaders of South Carolina advanced the idea that a state did not have to follow a federal law and could, in effect, "nullify" the law. The idea that "states' rights" superseded federal law was promoted
Sitting BullMarch 1831- December 5 1890
Chief of the Sioux tribe
1st war party at 14 and gained reputation for bravery in battle.
1868 Sioux accepted peace with US gov.
Sitting Bull responded but could only win battles, not the war.
Arrested and killed in 1890
Elizabeth Cady Stanton(November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was the leading figure of the early womens right movement.
Nat Turner(October 2, 1800 – November 11, 1831) an american slave who led a slave rebellion in virginia on August 21, 1831. It ended with 60 white deaths and at least 100 black deaths.
William Lloyd Garrison(December 10, 1805 – May 24, 1879) An american abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of “The Liberator”- abolitionist newspaper and founder of American anti slavery society. Also a key speaker in womens suffrage movement.
Grimke sistersThey were born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Sarah Moore Grimke was born on November 26, 1792 and Angelina Emily Grimke was born on February 20, 1805. Throughout their lives, they traveled throughout the North , lecturing about their first hand experiences with slavery on their family's plantation. Among the American first women to act publicly in social reform movements, they received abuse and ridicule for their abolitionist activity.
RockefellerJuly 8 1839 – May 23 1937
Richford, New York
1870 built first oil company called the Standard Oil Company
Monopoly oil business in US
Later in life he devoted himself to giving money away
Frederick Douglass(Feb 1818- Feb 20 1895) Became an abolitionist after escaping from slavery/ a leader of the abolitionist movement. During this time he wrote several autobiographies. Firm believer in the equality of all people. Speaks at an anitslavery meeting in New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1841.
Manifest Destiny19th century u.s held the belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent. By 1843 John Quincy Adams, originally a major supporter, had changed his mind and repudiated Manifest Destiny because it meant the expansion of slavery in Texas.
Kansas Nebraska ActCreated the territories in Kansas and Nebraska opening new lands for settlement
Stonewall JacksonGeneral in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall. Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.
Wilmot ProvisoAmendment to a bill put before the U.S. House of Representatives during the Mexican War; it provided an appropriation of million to enable President Polk to negotiate a territorial settlement with Mexico. David Wilmot introduced an amendment to the bill stipulating that none of the territory acquired in the Mexican War should be open to slavery.
Thomas EdisonFebruary 11 1847 – October 18 1931
Photograph, transmitter for telephone speaker, improved light bulb, motion picture apparatus, etc.
1870’s Worlds first industrial research laboratory in Newark, New Jersey
Seneca FallsAn early influential womens right convention, the first to be organized by women in the western world. The meeting was for two days, july 19 and 20 1848.
Samuel GompersJanuary 27 1850 – December 13 1924
American Leader (1850-1924)
American Labor movement
1st president of American Federation of Labor
Influenced many social movements
Gompers’s Social Conservatism
Dred Scott casecase before the court was that of Dred Scott v. Sanford. Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom.
Ida TarbellNovember 5 1857- January 6 1944
American teacher and author
Best known for 19047 book The History of the Standard Oil Company
John Brown’s Raidled a group of 21 men (16 white and 5 black) across the Potomac River from Maryland to Virginia. Their immediate objective was the capture of the cache of weapons stored at the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Brown's ultimate goal was to destroy the slave system of the South
President Lincolnthe 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Fort Sumter• Charleston Harbor, South Carolina in 1829
• Famous being the first shots of the Civil War(1861-65)
• Confederate general P.G.T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861
• resisting several bombardments by Union forces before abandoning the garrison prior to William T. Sherman’s capture of Charleston
Battle of Antietam• The bloody and inconclusive Civil War Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg, as it is often called in the South) was fought along its banks on September 17, 1862.
• First major battle in American history
• Bloodiest day in American history
• with 22,717 dead, wounded and missing on both sides combined
Emancipation Proclamation• January 1, 1863
• an order issued to all segments of the Executive branch of the United States
• by president Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War
• It was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces
• It proclaimed all those enslaved in Confederate territory to be forever free, and ordered the Army
• to treat as free all those enslaved in ten states that were still in rebellion, thus applying to 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves
Battle of Vicksburg• In May and June of 1863
• On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations
• Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies
• Union victory
Battle of Gettysburg• July 1-3 in 1863
• General Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Major General George G. Meade’s army of the Potomac at the crossroads county seat of Gettysburg
• On July 1, Confederate forces converged on the town from west and north, driving Union defenders back through the streets to Cemetery Hill
• On July 4, Lee began withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles
• Union victory
13th Amendment• Passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864
• It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War.
• President Abraham Lincoln and other Republicans were concerned that the Emancipation Proclamation, which in 1863 declared the freedom of slaves in ten Confederate states then in rebellion, would be seen as a temporary war measure, since it was based solely on Lincoln's war powers
Battle for Atlants• July 22 in 1864
• Fulton County, Georgia
• Atlanta Campaign fought during the American civil war
• Union forces commanded by William T. Sherman overwhelmed and defeated Confederate forces defending the city under John B. Hood
• After taking the city, Sherman's troops headed south-southeastward toward Milledgeville, the State capital, and on to Savannah with the March to the Sea
• Union victory
Andrew Johnson• In office April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
• the 17th President of the United States
• As Abraham Lincoln's vice president, Johnson became president when Lincoln was assassinated
• A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded
• His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives
• The first A
14th Amendmemnt• July 9, 1868
• Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
• Which had held that people of African descent could not be citizens of the United States
• Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness
• This clause has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to th
Ulysses Grantthe 18th President of the United States following his highly successful role as a war general in the second half of the Civil War.
15th Amendment• The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
• It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and final of the Reconstruction Amendments
• The Fifteenth Amendment is the third of the Reconstruction Amendments
• It prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race, color, or pre
Jim Crow Laws1876-1965
Jim Crow Laws
Separate but equal in the southern states
Examples: public laws, public places, public transportation, segregation of restroom’s, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. US military also being segregated
Compromise of 1877• a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election
• it pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era
• The compromise involved Democrats who controlled the House of Representatives allowing the decision of the Electoral Commission to take effect
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882US federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882
Also revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868
Those revisions allowed US to suspend Chinese Immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years
The law was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943
American Federation of LaborDecember 8 1886
Federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955.
Wounded KneeDecember 29, 1890
Wounded knee Creek in South Dakota
Last battle of American Indian Wars
Troops went into camp to disarm Lakota and one man named Black Coyote gave up his rifle and that’s what started the gun fires and killed men, women, and children as well as some of their own troops.
150 men, women and children killed. 51 wounded and died later.25 troops died and 39 wounded.
Ellis IslandJanuary 1 1892
1892-1954 over 12 million immigrants entered the US through Ellis Island
Small island in New Harbor
Upper bay just off the New Jersey Coast
Enlarged from original 3.3 acres to 27.5 acres
1st Federal immigration station by Pres Benjamin Harrison in 1890
“Oyster Island”- rich and abundant oyster beds and plentiful and profitable shad runs
Samuel Ellis private owner in 1770’s
Federal gov purchased Ellis Island from New York State in 1808
Plessy vs FergusonJune 7 1892 when Homer Plessy was jailed
1896 law passed
State laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the “separate but equal” doctrine
1894 Pullman StrikeMay 11 1894
American Railway Union (ARU) and the railroads in the US
Shut down most of nations freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan
Began in Pullman, Illinois on May 11
Founded in 1893 by Eugene V. Debs
ARU organization of unskilled railroad workers
30 people killed
Debs sentenced to prison
Upton Sinclair's the JungleFebruary 28, 1906
Wrote to portray the lives of immigrants in the US
Depicts poverty, absence of social programs, unpleasant living and working conditions, and hopelessness among the working class
Known as a muckraker, or journalist who exposed corruption in government and business.
First published in serial form in 1905 in the socialist newspaper