US History Timeline Project

Timeline created by isamolina
In History
  • 1,345 BCE


    The Aztec civilization flourishes in Mesoamerica. From the magnificent capital city, Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs emerged a civilization of native American people located in central Mexico before the Spanish conquest of the 16th century. This civilization developed a social, political, religious and commercial organization that brought many of the region’s city-states under their control by the 15th century.
  • 1,200 BCE


    Mesoamerica refers to the different diverse civilizations that all shared similar cultural characteristics in the geographic areas comprising the modern-day countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. These civilizations were within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a period from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word "Renaissance" means "rebirth", and it was the time of coming out of the dark. The Renaissance was a enthusiastic period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic “rebirth”.
  • 1348

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death was a bubonic plague pandemic, which reached England in June 1348. It was the first and most severe manifestation of the Second Pandemic, caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria. The plague was a very devastating global epidemic in which killed thousands of people throughout Europe and Asia during the mid-1300s. This horrific plague was terrifying and very contagious, people who were perfectly healthy when they went to bed at night could be dead by morning.
  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    He made four trips across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain. He was determined to find a direct water route west from Europe to Asia, but he never did. Instead, he accidentally stumbled upon the Caribbean’s. When arriving to the New World there were millions of Native American people, civilizations and culture that already lived there. Although Columbus didn’t necessarily “discover” the New World, his journeys marked the beginning of centuries of transatlantic conquest and colonization.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange introduced horses, sugar plants, and disease to the New World. These new commodities were brought to the Old World, in which made more Europeans want to travel or trade with the New World. As Europeans traveled the Atlantic, they brought with them plants, animals, and diseases that changed lives and landscapes on both sides of the ocean.
  • 1518

    Hernan Cortez

    Hernan Cortez
    Hernán Cortéz explored Mexico in 1518. was the Spanish conquistador responsible for the conquering of the Aztec Empire and building Mexico City. He accomplished this by establishing a colony in Mexico, and gathering Native allies. His conquest allowed Spain to create civilization in the New World. Despite his reputation, he opened the door for further exploration and conquest to the south and north.
  • Virginia

    The Virginia Colony was founded and originated at Jamestown in 1607. It was the first English colony in the New World, but like other starter colonies it was consisted of disease, conflicts with Indians, and hunger in which almost destroyed Jamestown. After the failure of Jamestown, new settlers arrived in 1610 being more prepared with supplies and the colony began to thrive. Therefore in 1624 the Virginia Colony was made a royal colony.
  • Indentured Servitude

    Indentured Servitude
    An individual who signs and is bound by agreements to work for another for a specific time. These servants were men and women who work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia, food, clothing, and shelter. Most adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the tobacco fields.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was a set of rules for self-governance established by the English settlers who traveled to the New World on the Mayflower. It was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the male passengers of the Mayflower, consisting of separatist Puritans, adventurers, and tradesmen. The Puritans were fleeing from religious persecution by King James of England.
  • Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    The Caribbean islands were discovered in 1492, by Christopher Columbus. Columbus landed in the Caribbean’s and claimed the region for Spain. The First Spanish settlements in the New World were established in the Caribbean’s starting in 1493. They used crops for export. Their first crops were tobacco and cotton but their most popular crop was sugar, in which made the Caribbean Colonies very profitable.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade lasted during the 16th through the 19th century. This was a system of trade that traveled the path from England to Africa, Africa to the Americas, The Americas back to England. This trade was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that involved shipping goods from Britain to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves. These slaves would be shipped in terrible conditions, to the West Indies in exchange for sugar, rum, and other commodities, which were in turn
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Act of 1651 was put on the colonies from England to regulate colonial trade. Since the colonies has grown to be successful and contain a large amount of wealth, England didn’t want the colonies to trade with other countries. England made sure to collect most of the products and put tax on the colonies to control them.
  • Pennsylvania

    The Pennsylvania Colony was founded in 1682 by William Penn and other colonists as a haven for his fellow Quakers. The colony was classified as one of the Middle Colonies, it joined the other 12 of the 13 colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The Province of Pennsylvania was an English colony in the New World that existed from 1682 until 1776.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical movement that took place primarily in Europe and, later, in North America, during the late 17th and early 18th century. Its individuals thought the "dark" Middle Ages, were taking away human intelligence and culture. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars, revolutions and challenge to traditional religious views. This marked the peak of its influence.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution took place from 1688-1689 in England. It involved the overthrow of King James II, who was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange. It was named the Glorious Revolution because many people felt the over throw of King James II would improve the monarchy. These motives ultimately changed how England was governed, giving Parliament more power over the monarchy and planting seeds for the beginnings of a political democracy.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The infamous Salem Witch Trials began in 1692, after a group of young girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, claimed to be possessed by the devil and accused several local women of witchcraft. This began many troubles with the town because people became so afraid that any women or girl that had even a single trait of being possessed then they will be murdered.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious revival period that impacted the English colonies in America during the 1730s and 1740s. This movement came at a time when the idea of passion for religion had grown stale. Religious leaders often traveled from town to town, preaching about the gospel, emphasizing salvation from sins and promoting enthusiasm for Christianity. The result was a renewed dedication toward religion.
  • Seven-years' War/ French and Indian War

    Seven-years' War/ French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War, also known as "The Seven Years’ War", lasted from 1756 to 1763. This New World conflict marked another chapter in the struggle between Britain and France. When France’s expansion into the Ohio River valley brought repeated conflict with the claims of the British colonies. This was a series of battles that led to the official British declaration of war in 1756.
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France, as well as their respective allies. In the terms of the treaty, France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies there. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the U.S. and helped to draw up the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution (1776). Franklin was a printer, inventor, author, statesman, and scientist. As a scientist he is remembered particularly for his research in electricity. Franklin played a major role in the American Revolution and negotiated French support for the colonists. Franklin was elected president in 1769 and was elected every year since his death.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a political protest that occurred on December 16, 1773, in Boston, Massachusetts. The colonists got angry at Britain for imposing “taxation without representation,” because of this the colonists dumped British tea into the harbor as a sign of anger from the colonies. The event was the first major act of defense towards Britain, it showed Britain that Americans wouldn’t take taxes, and rallied American patriots across the 13 colonies to fight for independence.
  • George Washington

    George Washington
    George Washington (1732-1799) was the commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1775-1783). He also served two terms as the first president of the United States, from 1789-1797 and after he served he wrote his famous farewell address as a way to help president in the future. He became very well known and famous after leading his forces to victory against the British and became a national hero. Washington handed down a legacy for the future of the United States.
  • Battle of Lexington

    Battle of Lexington
    The Battles of Lexington and Concord, was fought on April 19, 1775. Tensions had been building for many years between the 13 colonies and Britain. On April 18, 1775, the British sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists. Paul Revere and other riders signaled the people, and colonial militiamen and began to seize the Redcoats. The next day, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles initiated the Revolutionary War between the colonists and the British.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by Congress on July 5, 1775. Was represented as a final attempt by the colonists to avoid going to war with Britain during the American Revolution. It was a document in which the colonists pledged their loyalty to the monarchy and asserted their rights as British citizens. The colonists wanted to give Britain one last chance of truce or peace, but Britain denied it.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    On June 17, 1775, early in the Revolutionary War, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill in Massachusetts this put a major loss on the colonies; but despite their loss, the colonist put up a good fight against the British and the inexperienced colonial forces imposed significant fatalities against the enemy. The battle provided the colonies with an important confidence boost for future battles.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common Sense was written by Thomas Paine and it's main purpose was to explain the need for immediate independence from the Britain. was another form of support of independence for the American colonies from Britain and is considered one of the most influential pamphlets in American history. Many average citizens and political leaders were behind the idea of independence. “Common Sense” helped played a remarkable role in transforming a colonial argument into the American Revolution.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was one of the most important founding fathers, he was first famously known for writing the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Jefferson was later president during the election of 1800 and became the 3rd president of the United States. During his presidency he favored more of a limited central government. The most significant things he did during his presidency was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803, doing this expanded the U.S. with many benefits.
  • Steam Power Engines

    Steam Power Engines
    The Steam Engine was first invented by Thomas Newcomen (1712) but was improved by James Watt (1776) making the Steam Engine one of the most revolutionized product during the Industrial Revolution.This invention benefited all over this U.S. It benefited in agriculture for the South and in the North with factories. The Steam Engine worked by, fuel that is burned to heat water and the water boils making steam which pushes a piston that sets the machine being powered in motion.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    A document written by Thomas Jefferson and approved on July 4, 1776. This document showed that the colonists had the right to separate from England and have their own government. The declaration is still significant to this day, because it says the people believe in equal rights for all, followed by all men have basic human rights given to them by God. Jefferson lists these rights as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.", Government must be by the consent of the governed.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was fought on Sep 19, 1777 – Oct 17, 1777. When British General John Burgoyne was defeated and forced to retreat, and surrender became a very significant time for the Colonies. The American victory convinced the French government to formally recognize the colonist’s cause and enter the war as their ally. This was known as the turning point of the war because the French greatly assisted the colonists into victory over Britain in the American Revolution.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The AOC was the first written constitution of the U.S. The U.S. speeded the process of the AOC to try to set a base of law for the U.S., in which became problematic because many people had issues with it. Under the articles, states remained independent and Congress had the last resort on appeal of disagreements. Congress was also given the authority to make treaties and alliances, maintain armed forces and coin money. However, the government lacked the ability to charge taxes and regulate trade.
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

    Treaty of Paris 1783
    The Treaty of Paris of 1783 formally ended the American Revolutionary War. American statesmen Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay negotiated the peace treaty with Britain, for the colony’s independence from Britain. In the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown formally recognized American independence and ceded most of its territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States, doubling the size of the new nation and paving the way for westward expansion.
  • Shays Rebellion

    Shays Rebellion
    Shays’ Rebellion (August 31, 1786 – June 1787) was led by Daniel Shay, a farmer and former soldier who fought at Bunker Hill. This rebellion was a series of violent attacks on government properties in Massachusetts. These attacks led to a full-blown military confrontation.The rebels were mostly ex-war soldiers that turned into farmers; these poor farmers from Massachusetts were fighting against high taxes, they opposed economic policies causing poverty and property foreclosures.
  • Anti-federalist Papers

    Anti-federalist Papers
    The Anti-Federalist papers were arguments written and published during the years 1787 and 1788 against the constitution. The Anti-Federalist believed in no change from the Articles of Confederation. They didn’t support the new constitution because they feared of a strong central government or the government becoming a monarchy like Britain. They believed the new constitution contained a form of tyranny, therefore the papers consisted of warnings of the dangers from the constitution.
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    The Virginia delegate Edmund Randolph proposed what became known as "The Virginia Plan", placed a set of outlines for the U.S. Constitution. This Plan was based on a national and state government system with the government consisting of separation of powers into three branches with checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power. It also represents a bicameral legislature (two houses) consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate would feature representation of their state.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    The New Jersey Plan was presented in the form of eleven resolutions drafted by William Paterson was collectively proposed as an alternate plan from the Virginia Plan. The New Jersey Plan detailed a legislature of only one house and featured equal representation in which each state had the same number of representatives. The goal was for smaller states to have the same level of power in the legislature as the large states.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance, was adopted on July 13, 1787, by the Second Continental Congress. This chartered a government for the Northwest Territory, provided a method for admitting new states to the Union from the territory, and listed a bill of rights guaranteed in the territory. The Northwest Ordinance was passed to make sure that all the land in the Northwest territory that was being settled would be organized in a peaceful and orderly way.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The Election of 1788 was the first Presidential Election for the U.S. as a country, George Washington was the only person who ran for president; because he was so famous across the U.S. nobody wanted to run against him. Washington won unanimously in the Electoral College and John Adams was elected Vice President. It was held from Monday, December 15, 1788 through Saturday, January 10, 1789. Washington served two terms as the 1st and most famous president of the United States.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival in United States history. This was a time in which consisted of the renewal of the personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. There were many religious leaders that wanted to help renew religion after all the problems that have been happening in the United States. It also encouraged an eager enthusiastic attitude that later reappeared in American life in causes dealing with prison reform, temperance, women's suffrage, and slavery.
  • The Federalists

    The Federalists
    The Federalist were supporters of the Constitution. They believed in a strong central government, and they were opponents of the Bill of Rights. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay were the main founding fathers of the Federalist party. The Federalists were ultimately Americans who believed in the constitutions system of government. They didn't support the AOC, they believed it was a poor way for the country to be ruled. The Federalists were a very important political party in the U.S.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    A rebellion (1791-1794) against tax on whiskey. Since the U.S. was in debt after the war they decided to put a tax on whiskey. During this time whiskey was a popular beverage and it became a great profit for farmers, because of the tax the farmers didn't have enough money to pay for it which caused them to rebel. This rebellion became very significant because when Washington heard about it he immediately shut it down. This proved that the U.S. government shouldn't be messed with.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of rights are the first 10 amendments in the Constitution. These rights were supported by the Anti-federalists and written by James Madison in response to concerns. The people wanted a guarantee of individual rights and liberties to all. These rights included; Freedom of speech, religion, & press, right to bear arms , no quartering of soldiers, protection of individual rights, etc. Without these rights the Anti-federalists feared the constitution would be too powerful.
  • Democrat-Republicans

    This political party was led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the Democrat-Republicans were a form of Republicans and they feared a strong central government, after just excluding from Britain during the American Revolution. They believed that the Constitution should clearly state that the people should have equal political power. They wanted a loose government meaning, they wanted to limit the powers of the federal government, and they believe that the states deserved more power.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, this is a machine that quickly and easily separated cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. This invention became revolutionary in the South; because the South makes it's most profit with cotton, the Cotton Gin not only increased profitability but it increased the amount of slaves. The Cotton Gin made it more easier to pick cotton and made the labor less intense for slaves in the South.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    On November 19, 1794 the representatives of the U.S. and Britain signed Jay's Treaty in which was clarified to settle issues between the two countries that were left unresolved after the American Revolution. These issues such as, Britain had to pay for the Americans ships that were taken, Americans had to pay the British debts that were owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley. Jay's Treaty was a way for the two countries to compromise.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    Washington wrote this 32-page handwritten address after serving his time in office, stressing the importance in what he believed was significant for future presidents of the U.S. to know. He stressed that the U.S. should not fall into any permanent alliances with other countries, he believed that they need to stay away from long term alliances therefore they can avoid ruining any relationships with other countries. He also advised that individuals should avoid extreme political party spirit.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a land deal between the U.S. and France. During Jefferson's presidency the U.S. bought this territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon. The Louisiana Purchase was one of the most biggest, important and beneficial purchases in the United States. The U.S. paid $15 million for the territory. This purchase was very beneficial because, they gained control of the Mississippi trade route and the U.S. doubled in size in which let them explore and settle more.
  • Lewis and Clark

    Lewis and Clark
    Lewis and Clark were individuals that were sent by Thomas Jefferson during his presidency to explore and map the Louisiana territory. Lewis chose Clark as his partner for the mission, the trip lasted about two years (05/14/1804-09/23/1806). Along the way they confronted harsh weather, injuries, starvation, disease, and both friendly and hostile Native Americans. The journey ended up being a huge success and provided a new geographic environment from the previously unexplored Louisiana territory.
  • Middle Passage

    Middle Passage
    The Middle Passage (1807- 1865) was a forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. It was one leg of the triangular trade route that took goods from Europe to Africa. This leg was tragic for the slaves; they were laid in rows and on top of each other like if they were products, because of the poor conditions of the ships many Africans died from disease or major rashes from the ships, and when arrived in the Americas they were forced to work as slaves.
  • Atlantic Slave Trade

    Atlantic Slave Trade
    The transatlantic slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s, was consisted of millions of Africans that were captured and torn from their homes, shipped across the Atlantic, and sold as slaves in the Americas. This started when the natives started to die out from diseases, so they needed more people to work on their land for them, so they brought in slaves. This was one of the biggest deportations in history and a determining factor in the world economy of the 18th century.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was a law passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by Thomas Jefferson (who was the president during this time) on December 22, 1807.The U.S. was not prepared to fight in another war therefore, Jefferson banned exportation of good from the United States by prohibiting American ships from trading in foreign ports. Jefferson hoped to weaken Britain and France by stopping trade with the U.S., but the Embargo Act ended up hurting the U.S. economy more than theirs.
  • Waltham System

    Waltham System
    The Waltham System (1812-1814) was a labor system used in the early 19th century in which was becoming a large region for textile production. The mills were usually worked by teenage girls looking to escape from the farm life. The Waltham system created the first women's workforce, as well as allowing women for one of the first times to have a sense of independence. This type of system also contributed to the beginning of the industrialized America, and women’s fight for independence.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) had become a rising young politician by 1812. He became one of America’s most popular political figure during the 1820's and 1830's. When war broke out his leadership during the War of 1812, earned Jackson national fame as a military hero. After losing to John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824, Jackson returned later to win redemption, soundly defeating Adams and becoming the 7th president of the U.S. (1829-1837). Jackson was also the leader of the Democratic Party.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny (1812-1860) , a phrase that expressed the philosophy that drove U.S. into territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny was held that the U.S. was destined by God, to expand its dominion and spread democracy and capitalism across the entire North American continent. Many people wanted or needed to travel west weather they wanted to find more land, gold, food etc. or some individuals needed a brand new start in their lives. Manifest Destiny was beneficial and gave many opportunities.
  • Francis Scott Key

    Francis Scott Key
    Francis Scott Key was famous for writing the Star-Spangled Banner (1814). Key was a poet in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries who watched the all-night battle at Fort McHenry and started writing what became the national anthem and is still used today. Key was inspired by the words," The Star-Spangled Banner", because on the battle field the sight of a lone U.S. flag still flying over Fort McHenry at daybreak, as reflected in the now-famous words of the “Star-Spangled Banner”.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    In January 1815, a large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson was given the details of the British army's battle plans by, Jean Laffite. Once Jackson knew their battle plans he took advantage during the battle. After the battle many British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only a few were killed. Though the Treaty of Ghent was already signed this victory was still an inspired America nationalism.
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland

    McCulloch vs. Maryland
    In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) the SCOTUS ruled that Congress had implied powers under the Constitution to create the Second Bank of the U.S. and that the state of Maryland didn't have the power to tax the Bank. This court case gave strength to federal authority and supported the constitutionality the bank of the U.S. by establishing that the state of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank. This case was represented as a balance of power between the federal and state government.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement (1820's) was a reform movement that begun in the 1800's that fought to ban alcohol in the United States. This movement became very significant because at the time people would consume so much alcohol that it would effect their work, daily lives etc. It sometimes became dangerous for some people because they would drink so much. This led to the passage of the 18th Amendment. This was by far the largest reform movement in the early 1800s, and one of the most successful.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman was an U.S. abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913); she led slaves to freedom before the Civil War, all while carrying a bounty on her head. Tubman was also a nurse, a Union spy and a women’s suffrage supporter. Tubman is one of the most recognized icons in American history and her legacy has inspired countless people from every race and background.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820) was created by Henry Clay. This compromise allowed for the border line of slavery to be set. This line divided the United States in half, with all states south of Missouri were to be slave states, while northern states could ban slavery. This compromise was set to try to solve the Missouri Crisis by admitting Maine into the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. This compromise only solved the slave issue for a little bit of time.
  • Conscription Act

    Conscription Act
    During the Civil War, Congress passed a conscription act that produces the first wartime draft of U.S. citizens in American history. The act was called for registration of all males between the ages of 20 and 45, including non-American citizens with the intention of becoming citizens. Exemptions from the draft could be bought for $300 or by finding a substitute draftee. This led to bloody draft riots, where protesters were angry that exemptions were granted only to the wealthiest U.S. citizens.
  • Stephen F. Austin

    Stephen F. Austin
    Stephen F. Austin (1793-1836) was famously known as the Father of Texas. In 1822, Austin led settlements and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan independence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas he became the commander of the settlers' army in the Texas Revolution. He made a huge contribution for the state of Texas.
  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    The Spoils System was a method of hiring officials to the government of the U.S. based on political connections.The name came from the phrase "to the victor go the spoils". The Spoils System began during the Election of 1824 when Adams became president from help from Henry Clay through the Spoils System. Although Jackson later became president in 1828, this system was based on rotation in office and rewarding loyal supporters. In which, he had good intentions in placing importance on loyalty.
  • John C. Calhoun

    John C. Calhoun
    John C. Calhoun (March 18, 1782 - March 31, 1850) was the Vice President under Andrew Jackson, (1825-1832) and a leading politician as apart of the Whig Party. He began his political career as a nationalist and an advocate of protective tariffs, later he became an advocate of free trade, states' rights, limited government, and nullification. He believed South Carolina had the right to "nullify", or ignore, federal laws that they thought were wrong. He was an important member of the Whig Party.
  • Presidency of John Q. Adams

    Presidency of John Q. Adams
    John Q. Adams won the election of 1824 against Andrew Jackson. This election became very important being that Adams only won after having help from Henry Clay in which put a good word in for him through the House of Representatives, from what is now called the Spoils System. He served only one term during his presidency, and was outspoken in his opposition to slavery and in his support of Freedom of Speech, he was elected into the House of Representatives in 1830, and served until his death.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The Election of 1828 featured a rematch between John Quincy Adams, and Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson fought hard to become president after the injustice from the Spoils System during the Election of 1824. Vice President John C. Calhoun had sided with Andrew Jackson and the Jacksonians. Jackson also had the motto of the "Common Man", because he believed he was a common man, this helped him win votes from the people. After his fight, Jackson became the President in the Election of 1828.
  • Telegraph

    The Telegraph was developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse. The telegraph revolutionized communication. Rather than sending letters the telegraph made it possible for long-distance communication across the whole United States. The Telegraph worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. It became very significant because it changed communication for the U.S. and made it more beneficial than how communication was before the Telegraph.
  • Anti-slavery Movement

    Anti-slavery Movement
    The Anti-slavery Movement (1830's and 1840's) was a movement to end all types of slavery and the abuse they go through. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historical movement in effort to end slave trade and set slaves free. Being that the issue of slavery became severe, some individuals felt that they should stand up for those who can't. This was a social and political push for the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation.
  • Mormons

    A religious and cultural group related to Mormonism. This was a religious movement beginning with the visions of Joseph Smith. Joseph Smith was an American religious leader that organized the Church of Latter Day Saints. He claimed he saw a angel named “Moroni” that showed him the book golden tablet (book) of Mormon and to bury it and bring Christ to earth. This religious group emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking. Joseph Smith played a huge role with the Mormon religion.
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830

    Indian Removal Act of 1830
    The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson, allowing the U.S. to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within state borders. Jackson didn’t like Indians, therefore he proposed the Indian removal act and didn’t care what would happen to them. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy, because some refused, Jackson encouraged Congress to adopt the act so that Indian tribes would agree to give up their homelands.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nathanial “Nat” Turner was a black American slave who led the only effective, slave rebellion in U.S. history. Nat Turner's Rebellion (August 1831) was a group of slaves who made an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families that owned them and treated them badly. Although it wasn’t successful, Nat Turners rebellions made a lasting impact on whites. This made white people fear another slave rebellion could happen again, because of this white people tightened the grip on slavery.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was led by Henry Clay; this was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. Congress raised imported taxes on textiles in which hurt the South and its agriculture. South Carolina was affected by the tariffs and adopted the law to nullify the tariff acts and label them unconstitutional. When the Nullification Crisis continued, South Carolina held a convention and the crisis eventually ended. Clay made a deal with congress and they scaled back on tariffs.
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

    Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
    Santa Anna was a Mexican political leader and general. He was very popular in Mexico and was elected president in 1833. Although he was President of Mexico, he ruled more like a dictator. He greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government. He fought against the Americans for Texas. Once he was captured and defeated he signed the Treaty of Ghent in which ended all conflicts from the Mexican American War. Doing this he had to give up all right of Texas to the Americans.
  • Whig Party

    Whig Party
    The Whig Party was formally organized in 1834, this party would bring together an alliance of supporters that viewed their beliefs as the executive tyranny of “King Andrew”, meaning that they believed Jackson had too much power in office and was like a king. This party was formed to go against Jackson; they were also against the executive branch having too much power. Overall they feared in the government having too much power. Later in the Election of 1836, the Whig party had a candidate run.
  • Henry Clay

    Henry Clay
    Henry Clay (1777-1852) was the leader of the Whig party(1834) and was an unsuccessful presidential candidate, he played a central role in national politics for over forty years. He was secretary of state under John Q. Adams, Speaker of the House of Representatives longer than anyone else, and the most influential member of the Senate during its golden age. He was known as "The Great Compromiser." (responsible for the Missouri Compromise). He outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points.
  • Davy Crockett

    Davy Crockett
    Crockett (August 17, 1786 – March 6, 1836) was an American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician. He was commonly known as “king of the wild frontier”. He was a Tennessee politician who died at the siege of the Alamo. He was loved by the people and the result of the Alamo made people very angry because he was so loved. He was an example of a "common man,". He had fought Indians under Jackson and served as a congressman, he was thoroughly expert at killing, and was an American legend.
  • Sam Houston

    Sam Houston
    Sam Houston was a key figure in the creation of the state of Texas, he was a war general chosen by the government planners to lead the Texas army into victory against Mexico. He trained the Texans and on April 21, 1836, Houston and his men defeated Mexican General Santa Anna at San Jacinto. He was known as the famous military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States. He later became the president of Texas before it became a state.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
    On April 21, 1836, during Texans war for independence from Mexico, the Texas military launched a surprise attack against the Mexican forces at the Battle of San Jacinto. This was the final defeat of a Mexican army of about 1,200–1,300 men under Antonio López de Santa Anna. This battle was fought along the San Jacinto River. The battle ensured the success of American settlers in the Texas Revolution. This battle ends the Mexican American War, finally gaining independence for Texas.
  • Iron Plow

    Iron Plow
    The Iron Plow was invented by John Deere in 1837 and is a tool mostly used in farming. It’s primary use was to loosen or turn the soil to prepare it before putting seeds in. The plow was mainly created out of wood, iron, or a steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the soil and loosen it. This tool became beneficial for the South being that the South is mostly consisted of farm lands, rather than the North that is mostly consisted of factories.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was marked the first U.S. armed conflict fought on foreign property. Mexico fought against the army of U.S. President James K. Polk, who believed the U.S. had a “manifest destiny” to spread across the continent. This was a border conflict along the Rio Grande, started off the fighting and was followed by a series of U.S. victories. When the ear ended Mexico had lost about one-third of its territory including California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.
  • Fredrick Douglas

    Fredrick Douglas
    Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave who became a activist, author and public speaker. He became a leader in the abolitionist movement, which sought to end the practice of slavery, before and during the Civil War. In 1847, Douglas became involved in the movement for women’s rights. He was the only African American to attend the Seneca Falls Convention. After that conflict and the Emancipation Proclamation of 1862, he continued to push for equality and human rights until his death in 1895.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The discovery of gold nuggets in the Sacramento Valley in early 1848 sparked the California Gold Rush, this was arguably one of the most significant events to shape American history during the first half of the 19th century. As news spread of the discovery, thousands of prospective gold miners traveled by sea or over land to San Francisco and the surrounding area. A total of $2 billion worth of precious metal was extracted from the area during the Gold Rush, which peaked in 1852.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, was signed on February 2, 1848. This treaty ended the Mexican-American War in favor of the United States. The war had begun over a territorial dispute involving Texas. The treaty added an additional 525,000 square miles to U.S. territory, including the land that makes up all parts of present-day Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Mexico also gave up all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as America’s southern boundary.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention (July 19th and 20th 1848) was the first women’s rights convention in the U.S., this convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. The meeting launched the women’s suffrage movement, in which ensured women the right to vote. 300 Women and 40 men went to discuss the rights of women. They wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which tried to get women the right to vote. Fredrick Douglas was also apart of this convention helping the women get the rights that they deserve.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a network of people, of African Americans as well as whites. People offered shelter and aid to escaped slaves from the South. It was not an actual railroad, it was a network of houses and buildings that were used to help slaves escape to freedom in the Northern states. This was ultimately a network of abolitionists that secretly helped slaves escape to freedom by setting up hiding places and routes to the North. Harriet Tubman is a key person to its success.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Acts were a pair of federal laws that allowed for the capture and return of runaway slaves within a territory of the U.S. The first Fugitive Slave Act was authorized in local governments to seize and return escaped slaves to their owners and forced penalties on anyone who aided in their flight. The resistance of the first act led to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which added more provisions regarding runaways and made even harsher punishments for interfering in their capture.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether to allow slavery within their borders. The act didn't help the situation because many people had different opinions being that slavery was the biggest issue during this time. This act wasn't really successful because many individuals had several disputes about whether the states should be slave states or free states.
  • Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln, was elected the 16th president of the U.S. in November 1860, shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. His Emancipation Proclamation paved the way for slavery’s abolition, while his Gettysburg Address stands as one of the most famous pieces in American history. In April 1865, with the Union on the brink of victory, Lincoln was shot by a Confederate. His death made him a martyr to the cause of liberty, and he is widely known as one of the greatest presidents in U.S. history.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The Battle of Shiloh took place on April 6, 1862 and was one of the major early engagements of the Civil War. The battle began when the Confederates launched a surprise attack on Union forces under General Grant in southwestern Tennessee. After initial successes, the Confederates were unable to hold their positions and were forced back, resulting in a Union victory. Both sides suffered heavy losses, with more than 23,000 total casualties, and the level of violence shocked North and South alike.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    When the Civil War began, President Lincoln carefully framed the conflict as concerning the preservation of the Union rather than the abolition of slavery. On September 22, soon after the Union victory at Antietam, he issued a initial Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that as of January 1, 1863, all slaves in the rebellious states “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” While the Emancipation Proclamation did not free a single slave, it was an important turning point in the war.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    On December 8, 1863, the Ten-Percent Plan, was Lincoln's blueprint for Reconstruction. This plan specified that a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters (from the voter rolls for the election of 1860) swore an oath of allegiance to the Union. This plan was originated for the South to be apart of the Union again but only under the Union's conditions. This was mandatory for the South in order to be apart of the Union again.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses Grant (1822-1885) commanded the Union army. He led the Union into a victory during the Civil War and served as the 18th U.S. president from 1869 to 1877. During the Civil War, Grant, was aggressive and determined, he was given command of all the U.S. armies. After the war he became a war hero, and the Republicans nominated him for president. Grant’s primary focus was Reconstruction, and he wanted to bring the North and South together while also attempting to protect the civil rights .
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    Clara Barton is one of the most-recognized heroes of the Civil War. She began her memorable career as an educator but found her true calling by treating wounded soldiers on and off bloody battlefields. When the war ended, Barton worked to identify missing and deceased soldiers, and eventually founded the American Red Cross. Her life was dedicated to the care of others, and Barton had a crucial and long-lasting impact on care giving and disaster relief in America and throughout the world.
  • 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendment

    13th, 14th, & 15th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment (1865) officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery to this day.
    The Fourteenth Amendment (1868) declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens including African Americans.
    The Fifteenth Amendment (1870) prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    On April 9, 1865, near the town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his Army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Days earlier, Lee had abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond. Lee went to Appomattox to try to fight the union again but ended up being greatly defeated and this resulted into being the end of all the battles between the two. This was very significant being that it was the surrender of the confederacy and the end of the Civil War.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert E. Lee (01/19/1807 – 10/12/1870) was the General of the Confederate troops, he was a very successful leader and won many battles, but after he was defeated at Antietam in 1862 he gained no respect from the South. Lee led the Confederate army into many successful battles but throughout the war Lee couldn’t keep up with the advantages of the North. After many good battles during the Civil War, he was defeated and surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
  • KKK

    The KKK was a secret domestic militant organizations in the United States, originating in the southern states and eventually having national scope, that are best known for advocating white supremacy and acting as terrorists while hidden behind conical hats, masks and white robes. The KKK has a record of terrorism, violence, and lynching to intimidate, murder, and oppress African Americans, Jews and other minorities and to intimidate and oppose Roman Catholics and labor unions.
  • Railroads

    Railroads were one of the main and most important transportation during the Industrial Revolution. They not only provided transportation, but they also provided transportation of products; this became big in the U.S. because transporting products on trains made it more cheaper than shipping products overseas. Railroads increased population and improved the lives of many people by transporting food and other goods.On May 10, 1869, the rails of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" were joined.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
  • Whiskey Ring Scandal

    Whiskey Ring Scandal
    During the Grant administration in 1875 the Whiskey Ring Scandal, was a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars. This scandal involved the diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors. Uncovered in Grant's Administration this scandal hurt the United States economically.
  • Jim Crow

    Jim Crow
    Jim Crow era was filled with segregation and laws that restricted blacks. The Jim Crow system followed the beliefs that whites were superior to blacks. Crow’s laws were created to restrict blacks; they were promised equality and a better life after the Civil war, which turned out to not necessarily be true. These laws were passed from the end of Reconstruction in 1877. By which white southerners resisted giving Africans basic social, economic, and civil rights, such as the right to vote.
  • Mississippi Plan

    Mississippi Plan
    In 1890, Mississippi instituted policies that led to a near-total loss of voting rights for blacks and many poor whites. To vote, the state required that citizens pay all their taxes first, be literate, and have been residents of the state for two years and one year in an electoral district. Convicts were banned from voting. Seven other states followed this strategy of disenfranchisement. This made it possible for poor whites to vote and not African Americans.
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    Beginnings To Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America To 1763

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    The Revolutionary War

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    New Republic

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    The Constitution

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    Cultural Changes

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    The Age of Jackson

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    Westward Expansion

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    The Civil War

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