Socrates' ParadoxAn individual will commit moral evil if he/she lacks moral understanding. Frequently, even though a person is fully aware of his /her actions and has full knowledge, he/she will still continue to commit wrong doings to further secret intentions.
Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE
His views contrasted with the state of Athenian politics and society.
Since he was convicted of corrupting the youth and disbelieving in the gods, he was condemned to death with poison.
PlatoPlato questioned most people's perceptions of goodness, and that they may be horribly wrong in their attempts to live happy lives. Furthermore, Plato recognizes the value of virtue because, as he states, it is an impediment to living a happy life.
Period: 428 BCE to 348 BCE
Ranks among the world's greatest philosophers.
Many scholars consider him to be the most influential philosopher in Western civilization.
Aristotle's The Golden Mean PrincipleFor an individual to behave morally, he or she must find a middle ground between the two extremes of excess and deficiency.
Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE
known as “The First Teacher" in Arabic Philosophy.
known as “The Philosopher” in the West.
Thomas Hobbes' Moral PositivismHobbes recognizes the value of sticking by the laws enacted by those in positions of authority. Humans, he described, are self-centered creatures who will go to any length to better their status. As a result, they should refrain from making independent decisions and instead continue to follow the government's lead in order to keep the peace.
Thomas HobbesEnglish philosopher.
One of the founding fathers of modern political philosophy.
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart's UtilitarianismSimply put, an action is considered correct if it tends to promote enjoyment or pleasure, and it is considered unacceptable if it tends to produce sadness or suffering.
Jeremy BenthamEnglish philosopher.
He is recognized by being the father of modern utilitarianism.
John Stuart MillFormer Member of the United Kingdom Parliament.
Also known as the "Father of Modern Utilitarianism".