Timeline #4 - Romantic Era (1810-1890)

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    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    German writer and statesman
    His writings were incredibly influential on our Romantic composers
    Already a celebrity by age 25
    Wrote: poetry, dramas, an autobiography, books about literature, 4 novels, and scientific books on anatomy, botany, and color
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    Luigi Cherubini

    Italian composer who composed French opera titled Lodoïska in 1791
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    Ludwig van Beethoven

    He is the transitional figure from the Classical to the Romantic style, composed all genres, began loosing his hearing as a young man
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    The French Revolution

    Did not occur within the Romantic Era timespan but it did effect the composers of this time.
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    Gioacchino Rossini

    The most important opera composer in the early 19th century
    In fact, the most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century
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    Franz Schubert

    Composed in all genres, over 600 Lieder
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    Hector Berlioz

    One of the most important early innovators of new orchestration and genres; French
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    Felix Mendelssohn

    Composer of most genres, revived of J.S. Bach’s music in Leipzig
  • Important Points for Romanticism

    Poets and musicians focused on trying to create moments during which ‘inexpressible longing’ could be felt, This was the ultimate issue of the romantic aesthetic
  • Rescue Operas

    The public loved this topic as they imagined good triumphing over wrong, the freeing of the oppressed, and most importantly, heroism, Beethoven only composed one opera which was a rescue opera called Fidelio in 1805
  • Orchestral changes in the 19th century

    New combinations of instruments
    More instruments were added to the orchestra: orchestras increased in size
    More brass and percussion were included
  • Lieder

    Composers created poetry settings and emotional expression and they were cheap to perform or share with others
    Lieder are re-envisioned in the 19th century
  • Character Pieces

    One-movement piano pieces: equally cheap to perform
    Composers usually performed their own
    They could be performed anywhere with a piano
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    Musical Manifestations of the new Romantic style

    More minor keys, larger orchestras and choirs, longer pieces, more percussion and brass, phrasing less symmetrical and more expansive, ascending sixths favored in melodies
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    Romantic Nostalgia

    A focus on the past and the romanticizing of it, medieval topics, palestrina was revived, studied, and imitated
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    Robert Schumann

    More important as an editor and promoter of music
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    Frédéric Chopin

    Pianist (delicate style) and composer
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    Franz Liszt

    Piano virtuoso, writer, conductor, composer, innovator, supporter of Wagner
  • Erlkönig

    Based on the legend that whoever is touched by the king of the elves must die
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    Clara Schumann (Wieck)

    Virtuoso pianist, composer, wife of Robert
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    Bedřich Smetana

    Best known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called Má vlast (My Country)
    Considered the founded of Czech music
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    Louis Moreau Gottschalk

    American Nationalist
    Born in New Orleans
    His mother was from the Caribbean, and his father was of British Jewish heritage
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    Johannes Brahms

    German romantic composer
    Continued the classical traditions, especially in form
    A scholar; one of the first editors of J. S. Bach’s music
    In 1850 when certain composers in Germany wanted to honor Bach, they began a collected edition
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    Antonin Dvořák

    From Bohemia (Czechoslovakia)
    Eight years younger than Brahms; they were friends
    Czechoslovakian nationalist composer
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    Ignacy Jan Paderewski

    Polish pianist and composer
    Prime minister and foreign minister of Poland in 1919
    Made a piano roll recording of this piece