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The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Beginning of Scientific Revolution

    Beginning of Scientific Revolution
    Scholars published works that challenged old ideas (ancient thinkers, church) thus starting the scientific revolution. The scientific revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world which was based on observation and ability to question the natural world.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    The Scientific Revolution

    New discoveries, ideas, inventions, and improvements where created
  • Jan 9, 1543

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory

    Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory
    Copernicus reasoned that the planets revolve around the sun. His Heliocentric theory rationed that the sun was in the center of the universe He published his findings in 1543 and recieved his book "On the Revolutions of the heavenly Bodies" on his deathbed.
  • Jun 10, 1543

    Vesallius Publishes human anatomy textbook

    Vesallius Publishes human anatomy textbook
    Vesallius dissected human corpses and published his observations in his book called, "On the Structure of the Human Body". It was filled with detailed drawings of human organs, muscles, and bones.
  • Jansen invents Microscope

    Jansen invents Microscope
    Jansen worked with an optical scientisct to make the microscope; The microscope consisted of three draw tubes with lenses inserted into the ends of the flanking tubes
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.
  • Keplers Laws on Planetary Motion

    Keplers Laws on Planetary Motion
    Using the data that Tycho had collected, Kepler discovered that the orbit of Mars was an ellipse. In 1609 he published "Astronomia Nova", describing his discoveries, which are now called Kepler's first two laws of planetary motion. One of them stated that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits. These laws proved that Copernicus's basic ideas were true Johannes Kepler
  • Galileo's Discoveries

    Galileo's Discoveries
    He built his own telescope to study the "heavens". A year later he published a book called "Starry Messenger" which descibed his observations. He described that Jupiter has 4 moons, the sun had dark spots, and that the Earth's moon had a rough uneven surface which disproved Aristotle's theory. His findings also supported those of Copernicus.
  • Bacon and Descartes

    Bacon and Descartes
    Bacon urged scientists to exeriment then draw conclusions. Descartes developed analytical geometry. He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason. Scientific methods are based on the idea of Bacon and Descartes.
  • Harvey's discovery

    Harvey's discovery
    He published his theories in a book entitled 'Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus' ('An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals'), where he explained how the heart propelled the blood in a circular course through the body
  • Torricelli's Barometer

    Torricelli's Barometer
    Evangelista Torricelli was one of Galileo's sudents. He developed the first barometer, a tool for measuring atmosperic pressure and predicting weather. (Today we know the pressure unit as torr.)
  • Hobbes's "Leviathan"

    Hobbes's "Leviathan"
    The terror of the English Civil war made him believe that all humans were naturally selfish and evil. He was convinced that without government to keep order there would be disorder and life would be cruel. He published his beliefs in a book called the "Leviathan". He believed that the people had to give their rights to a strong ruler and in exchange, gain law and order (the social contract)
  • Boyle's Law

    Boyle's Law
    Robert Boyle is considered the founder of modern chemistry. In "The Sceptical Chymist", Boyle challenged Aristotle's idea that the physical world consisted of four elements.(Fire, water, earth, and air). Boyles insisted that matter was made up of small particles joined together by different ways. His most famous contribution to chemistry was Boyles Law. It explains how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other.
  • Leeuwenhoek's Findings

    Leeuwenhoek's Findings
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to observe bacteria swimming in tooth scrapings. He also examined red blod cells for the first time
  • Newtons Laws of gravity

    Newtons Laws of gravity
    He believed that the key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on the earth was the law of universal gravitation. This law said that every object in the universe attracts every other object; The degree of attraction depends on the mass of the object and the distance between them. He published his works in "The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".
  • Astell's "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies"

    Astell's "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies"
    Mary Astell was one of the few women writers whom tried to improve the status of women. In her book "A Serious Proposal to Women," she adressed the lack of educational opportunities for women. She later criticized the unequal relationship between men and women in marriage.
  • Fahrenheit and the thermometer

    Fahrenheit and the thermometer
    Gabriel Fahrenheit made the first thermometer to use mercury in glass. It showed that water freezes at 32 degrees.
  • Celsius's Thermometer

    Celsius's Thermometer
    Anders Celsius created another scale for the mercury thermometer. Celsius's scale showed freezing at 0 degrees
  • Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws"

    Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws"
    Montesquieu admired the order and balance in Britain. He called the division of power among different branches separation of powers. In his book "The Spirit of Laws" Montesquieu proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government. He came up with the idea of checks and balances.
  • Rousseau's "The Social Contract"

    Rousseau's "The Social Contract"
    Rousseau believed that the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the general will of society (Direct democracy). Under this government, people give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good. He explained his political pholosophy in "The social contract". Rosseau's view of the social contract was that it was an agreement among free individuals to create a society and government
  • Wollstonecraft's "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"

    Wollstonecraft's "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
    In Mary Wollstonecraft's "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman," she disagreed with Rousseau that women's education should be secondary to men's. She argued that women need education to become smart and useful.She also urged women to enter the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics.
  • Jenner's vaccine

    Jenner's vaccine
    Jenner discovered that inoculation with germs from a cattle disease (cowpox) gave permanent protection from smallpox for humans. At first, his findings were rejected for being too revolutionary but was later published in 1798. He used cowpox to produce the world's first vaccination