The Rise and Fall of New France

  • The Founding of New France

    The Founding of New France
    The founding of New France was a part of a vast wave of European exploration in the 16th century. Following England, Spain, and Portugal, France became interested in exploration as well. Giovanni and Cartier came first for France but Samuel de Champlain was considered the founder of New France and established a settlement in what is now Quebec City in 1608.
  • Fur Trading Companies

    Fur Trading Companies
    Samuel de Champlain set up fur trading companies between the Indigenous people of New France and various cities in France. In 1618, Champlain anticipated revenues of 5 million livres.
  • Missionaries in New France

    Missionaries in New France
    During the first half century of New France's existance, missionary activity reached epic proportions. In 1632, the Jesuits established the Ste Marie Among the Hurons mission and Ville Marie. However, the missionaries only succeeded in converting a very small number of Indigenous people.
  • New France is Thriving

    New France is Thriving
    King Louis XIV made populating the territory of New France a priority and by the 1700's New France was blossoming.
  • The Beginning of the End: The Seven Years' War

    The Beginning of the End: The Seven Years' War
    By the mid 1750's, Britian and France fought for supremacy in the Seven Years' War. In the decades preceding the war, France had flourished, both in Europe and in other colonies. Once war was declared, France's attention was focused on winning the war in Europe. When William Pitt became the British Prime Minister in 1757, his focus was on defeating France in North America.
  • Britian Wants Control of the Ohio Valley

    Britian Wants Control of the Ohio Valley
    Britian's focus when war was declared, was winning the war in North America. Their main area of concern was the region just south of the Great Lakes, known as the Ohio Valley. The French believed this was their domain because they had made a series of forts there and placed the French Coat of Arms through out the region. But the British colonists hope to develop land in the Ohio Valley and started building their own forts along there.
  • Britian Gains Control of the Ohio Valley

    Britian Gains Control of the Ohio Valley
    When the Seven Years' War broke out in Europe, the French troops in North America depended on supplies shipped from France. The British, however, could supply their troops with supplies from North America and used their naval superiority to block French supply lines. By 1758, most of the Ohio Valley was in British hands.
  • Fortress of Louisberg

    Fortress of Louisberg
    The Fortress of Louisberg was a French fortress in present day Nova Scotia and all French supplies had pass by the fort on their way to St. Lawrence River and the fortress cities of Quebec and Montreal. The British planned to capture Fort Louisberg, block supplies, corner French troops, and force them to surrender.
  • Defeat of Louisberg

    Defeat of Louisberg
    Two men, Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe, led the British attack on Louisberg. For seven weeks in the summer of 1758, Britian blasted Fort Louisberg, where stone walls crumbled and food and ammunition ran low. By mid July, French forces lost their will to fight and Augustin de Drucour surrendered on July 26, 1758.
  • The Plains of Abraham

    The Plains of Abraham
    In July of 1759, James Wolfe took 3000 soldiers to Point-Levis, across the river from Quebec. The seige of Quebec dragged on all summer with the French forces killing hundreds. The British suffered a terrible defeat.
  • The French Are Defeated at the the Plains of Abraham

    The French  Are Defeated at the the Plains of Abraham
    After suffering the terrible defeat in July of 1759, Wolfe and the British soldiers, chose a new site to attack the French from, which once belonged to Abraham Martin. It was here that Wolfe gave the most important command of his life: load two bullets rather than one. The battle had lasted just 15 minutes.
  • Wolfe and Montcalm Die on the Battlefield

    Wolfe and Montcalm Die on the Battlefield
    General James Wolfe of Britian and Louis-Joseph de Montcalm of France were both killed in the Plains of Abraham battle. Wolfe died on the battlefield and Montcalm died the next in the hospital.
  • British Flag was Raised in Quebec

    British Flag was Raised in Quebec
    The British Flag was waved in Quebec, at the top of Mountain Street, inside the walls of Quebec for the first time in the fall of 1759. Quebec was in ruins. In the fall and winter, British and French faced famine together. Soldiers were ordered to share their rations, to shelter with the enemy, and to work together to rebuild the city.
  • The Fall of New France

    The Fall of New France
    Both the French and English waited to see who would be the first to send fresh troops and supplies to New France. James Murray, the new British commander, waited in Quebec. Francois-Gaston de Levi, the new French General, waited in Montreal. The first supply ship to arrive in the spring was waving a British flag. Francois surrendered and New France had fallen.
  • Quebec's Surrender

    Quebec's Surrender
    Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, the governor of New France, had to arrange the conditions of Quebec's surrender and sign the Articles of Capitulation. He was able to win three important guarantees for the Canadians:
    1. the right to speak the French language
    2. the right to keep their land
    3. the right to practice their Catholic faith
    The terms of surrender were completed on Sept. 8, 1760. King George II of Britian now controlled most of North America.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris in 1763, ended the Seven Years' War. New France was now officially in the hands of the British, except two small islands off of Newfoundland.