• Period: 1401 to Apr 6, 1520


  • 1420

    Florence Cathedral's dome, by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral's dome, by Brunelleschi
    The Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of Santa Maria de la Flor, is the work of Filippo Brunelleschi and, for many, is considered the work that started the Italian Renaissance. It was a symbol of the wealth and power of the Tuscan capital and the aim was to compete with the cathedrals of Pisa and Siena. On December 24, 1966, Pope Paul VI celebrated the Midnight Mass in this cathedral. In November, a flood had seriously affected the city and the aim was to pay tribute to the dead and victims.
  • Aug 11, 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    The famous Pietà is a white marble sculpture, designed and created by the Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarroti currently located in the Basilica of San Pietro. It depicts the Blessed Virgin Mary holding the lifeless body of her son Jesus, immediately after being crucified on Calvary for our salvation.
    This famous sculpture was commissioned from French Cardinal Jean de Bilhères, who was the French ambassador to Rome at the time. It is the only work of art that Michelangelo signed.
  • 1509

    The school of athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    The School of Athens is one of the most prominent paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael Sanzi. It was painted between 1510 and 1512 as part of a commission.
    The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens, depicting philosophy, was probably the third painting to be finished there, after The Disputation on the opposite wall, and Parnassus.
    The identity of some of the philosophers within the painting, such as Plato, is evident.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556


  • Period: 1520 to 1521


  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    Peace of Augsburg was a treaty signed by Ferdinand I of Habsburg, brother of Emperor Charles V, and the Imperial States, on September 25, 1555 in Augsburg, Germany, which resolved the religious conflict of the Protestant Reformation.
    It is an agreement that divides the Empire of Charles V into two Christian denominations and gives German princes the ability to choose the confession to practice in their states.
    This peace came despite the victory of Charles V at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547.
  • Period: 1556 to


  • Period: 1568 to 1571


  • Period: 1568 to


  • Jan 6, 1579

    The signment of the Union of Arras

    The signment of the Union of Arras
    The Union of Arras was an international agreement signed on 6 January 1579 in the city of Arras.
    Some provinces in the south of the Netherlands recognized the sovereignty of Philip II in the framework of the Eighty Years' War.
    Some of the territories that formed these provinces have been part of France since 1659, after the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1668 with the signing of the Treaty of Aachen and 1678 with the Treaties of Nijmegen.
  • Jan 23, 1579

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht

    The signment of the Union of Utrecht
    The Union of Utrecht was an agreement signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht on 23 January 1579 between the rebellious provinces of the Netherlands.
    It is considered to be the origin of the Republic of the United Provinces, although it was not officially recognized until the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
    The document included the right of each province to maintain its traditions, the military union of all of them and the freedom of religious worship.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    The Spanish Armada was the large fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England. England's attempts to repel this fleet and the failure of the Spanish enterprise saved England and the Netherlands from possible absorption by the Spanish Empire.
    England launched eight fire ships before the wind and tide attacked the Spanish fleet, forcing the Spanish ships to go out to sea to avoid catching fire. In this way, the formation of the Spanish ships left them bulnerabes.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    Apollo and Daphne is a sculpture made by the Italian Gian Lorenzo Bernini between the years 1622. It belongs to the Baroque style and is a life-size marble sculptural group exhibited in the Borghese Gallery, Rome. The myth of Apollo and Daphne tells that Apollo mocked Eros. Annoyed by Apollo's arrogance, he devised revenge on him and for this purpose he threw a golden arrow at him, which caused immediate love to whoever he wounded. The sculpture was inspired by Leocares' Apollo Belvedere.
  • Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini
    St. Peter's Square is the symbol of Vatican City, it was built by Bernini between 1656 under Pope Alexander VII, it is composed of two parts: a first trapezoidal space, delimited by two closed and converging straight arms that flank the cemetery, and a second elliptical space. Pope Nicholas V had planned to transform the shapeless clay space of the stalls into an arcaded square. Pope Pius II had a marble staircase built in front of the façade of the basilica
  • The Spinners, by velazquez

    The Spinners, by velazquez
    The Spinners is a canvas by Diego Velázquez, preserved in the Museo Nacional del Prado. This work is one of the greatest examples of Spanish Baroque painting. As one of the diplomatic representatives of the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia in the negotiations for the signing of a peace treaty between Spain and the Netherlands, Rubens was summoned to Madrid by King Philip IV to inquire about these negotiations. Sharing a workshop with him, Velázquez became well acquainted with the work of Rubens
  • Period: to


  • Period: to


  • Oath of the Horatii by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii by Jacques-Louis David
    This allowed him to stay in Rome for five years, as a student in charge of the French government. On his return to Paris he presented an exhibition, in which Diderot praised his painting, the success was so resounding that King Louis XVI of France allowed him to stay in the Louvre. The theme of the play is the fulfillment of duty above any personal feeling. It depicts the Roman Horatii who, according to Horace de Pierre, Corneille and Livy were male triplets destined for war against the Curiatii
  • Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    The Family of Charles IV is a group portrait painted by Francisco de Goya. The work is a compendium of Goya's extensive work as a portraitist, as well as one of his most complex compositions. A few months after being appointed first chamber painter, he was commissioned to paint a portrait of the entire royal family. Thanks to the letters of Queen Maria Luisa of Parma to Manuel Godoy, the process of creation and composition of the painting can be known step by step.
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