The Modern Age

  • Period: 1301 to


    The Renaissance originated in Italy during the 14th and 15th centuries. In this period, there was tremendous economic power. The Renaissance was a culturally, artistically, and scientifically significant period in European history. It encouraged cultural renewal (art, literature, philosophy), artistic advancements (Da Vinci and others), and geographical discoveries.This also marked the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity.
  • 1420

    Florence Cathedral´s dome,by Brunelleschi

    Florence Cathedral´s dome,by Brunelleschi
    The dome of the Florence Cathedral, designed by Filippo Brunelleschi in the 15th century, is a very beautiful and immensely large architectural marvel. During the Renaissance, it was the largest of its kind and is now the largest cathedral made of bricks. It has become an iconic symbol of Italy.With all of Brunelleschi's innovative techniques, it took 16 years to build.
  • 1498

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Pietá, by Michelangelo Buonarroti
    The Pietà is a sculpture created between 1498 and 1499. This sculpture depicts the body of Jesus Christ in the arms of Mary after being crucified by the Romans. The Pietà is currently located in St. Peter's Basilica, in the Vatican City. The term "Pieta" comes from Latin, meaning to show emotion through compassion and devotion. It is a symbol of compassion and maternal love. This is one of the Sixth Sorrow
  • 1509

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio

    The school of Athens, by Raphael Sanzio
    The School of Athens" is a famous artwork created by the Italian artist Raphael Sanzio. Painted between the years 1509 and 1511, it is considered one of the masterpieces of High Renaissance art. It is located in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City, in a room that Raphael Sanzio had decorated for Pope Julius II. The artwork represents a gathering.
  • Period: 1516 to 1556

    The reign of Carlos I

    Carlos I was also known as Carlos V after being selected as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in the year 1520 in Achen. This was an important period in European history as it underwent political and religious changes. During Carlos I's reign, he had to face the Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther
  • Period: 1520 to 1521

    The revolt of the Comuneros in Castilla

    The revolt of the Comuneros occurred in the Kingdom of Castile between 1520 and 1521, during the reign of Charles I, who was already known as Charles V by that time. It was a rebellion against the government, its policies, particularly the high taxes imposed at that time. Eventually, the Comuneros were defeated by the army of Charles I. Many recognized Comuneros were executed as punishment for the damages caused. Finally, Charles I consolidated complete control over Castile.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    The Peace of Augsburg was an agreement signed in 1555 in Augsburg, Germany. This ended the ongoing conflicts between Catholic princes and Protestants. It allowed princes to choose the religion for their territories between Catholicism and Lutheranism. This meant that each region could have its own religion, leading to the formula 'cuius regio, eius religio,' which mean to whose realm, his religion.
  • Period: 1556 to

    The reign of Felipe II

    Felipe II reigned from 1556 until 1598, the year of his death. This was a highly significant period not only for Spain but also for the entire world. Felipe II succeeded in making Spain one of the wealthiest and most powerful nations. Throughout his reign, Spain expanded its influence across Europe, experiencing the Golden Age characterized by magnificent artistic and cultural achievements.This period was also marked by religious conflicts, such as the struggle against Protestantism in Europe.
  • Period: 1568 to 1571

    The rebellion of Alpujarras

    The rebellion of Alpujarras was a conflict caused by the Moriscos between 1568 and 1571 in the region of Alpujarras, located in the south of Spain. The cause was that the Moriscos (Muslims who were obliged to be Christians) were tired of so much discrimination and restrictions imposed by the Spanish authorities, so the Moriscos erupted and decided to start the conflict. In the end, the forces of King Felipe II ended up winning and defeated the Moriscos.
  • Period: 1568 to

    The Eighty Years War

    The Eighty Years' War, as its name suggests, lasted for eighty years, from 1568 to 1648. This war was triggered by the Netherlands, which were under Spanish rule at the time, seeking independence due to religious and political reasons as they aimed for freedom. The conflict involved numerous confrontations until it concluded with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which recognized the independence of the Netherlands.
  • 1579

    The signment of the Union of Arras

    The signment of the Union of Arras
    The Union of Arras was a political agreement that took place in Arras in 1579 during the Eighty Years' War. This agreement was signed by several territories of the Low Countries, which were tired of the war and aimed to pursue everything peacefully. What they did was pledge allegiance to King Philip II and the Catholic religion. These territories sought an understanding with the crown.
  • 1579

    The signment of the Union Utrecht

    The signment of the Union Utrecht
    The Union of Utrecht was an agreement signed in 1579 by the rebellious territories of the Low Countries that were fighting for their independence. This alliance committed them to jointly fighting against Spanish rule and supporting each other in defending their interests, aiming to achieve religious and political freedom in case of victory. This definitively separated them from Spanish dominion.
  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England

    The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England
    In 1588, King Felipe II of Spain sent a maritime fleet towards England, which stemmed from England's agreement to assist the Netherlands against Spanish rule. King Felipe decided to dispatch 30,000 veteran soldiers to fight. Ultimately, the forces of Queen Elizabeth I (who was the reigning queen of England at that time) emerged victorious.
  • Period: to

    Baroque art

    The Baroque art was an artistic movement that developed in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries. It was characterized by its focus on drama, emotion, and movement, primarily represented in paintings and sculptures. Baroque sculpture showed a tendency towards the emotive representation of human and religious figures.
  • Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini

    Apollo and Daphne, by Bernini
    This is a work created by Bernini in the Baroque period. This work portrays Apollo, the Greek god of the sun, and Daphne, a nymph. Apollo falls in love with Daphne, but she rejects his advances and asks her father for help to escape Apollo's love. Her father transforms her into a laurel tree. In this artwork, Daphne is being transformed into a tree, while Apollo is attempting to prevent it.
  • Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini

    Saint Peter´s square project by Bernini
    Saint Peter's Square is a large square located directly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City. It was created in 1656 during the papacy of Pope Alexander VII. Both the square and the basilica are named after Saint Peter, as Catholics recognize him as the first pope. At the center of the square stands a large Egyptian obelisk.This square was positioned so that Catholics could receive the Pope's blessing.
  • The Spinners, by Velázquez

    The Spinners, by Velázquez
    This is a work created by Diego Velázquez, a Spanish artist also renowned for the painting "Las Meninas." This piece was created in 1657 and is currently at the Prado Museum. Initially believed to represent working women, it's now interpreted as an expression of Ovid's fable of Arachne. She was a mortal woman who dared to challenge Athena to a weaving contest and won, but Athena, out of jealousy, transformed Arachne into a spider.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassical art

    Neoclassical art was a movement that originated in Europe between the XVII to the XVIII centuries, drawing from the ancient art of Rome and Greece. This art was expressed in sculpture and philosophy, often depicting heroic figures, mythological scenes, and portraits.
  • Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David

    Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David
    The Oath of the Horatii, is a work by Jacques-Louis David created in 1784 and is located in the Louvre Museum. It depicts the Roman salute with the arm extended and the palm facing downward. The individuals portrayed in this painting are the Horatii brothers.
  • Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya

    Carlos IV of Spain and his family, by Francisco de Goya
    The Family of Carlos IV is a painting by Francisco de Goya created in the year 1800. Goya had previously painted portraits of kings but had never executed a collective portrait until he was proposed and accepted the commission. By order of the queen, he had to make a sketch of each individual to avoid them having to spend many hours posing for the painting. It is now located in the Prado Museum and is one of Goya's most important works. During that time, Goya was a camara painter.