The average lifetime school attendance less than 82 days.
Proposed a Bill that would require all non-slave students to attend school for 3 years.
Created the Blue backed speller. It was designed to teach the students about the United States.
Advocated higher education for woman
Believed education was important for democracy and that teachers should be considered professionals.
Wanted city funds for Catholic schools. Led to the great school debates.
Published "A Treatise on Domestic Economy". Believed a woman's proper role was at home.
Believed that education could bring freedom to all.
Became archbishop and founded Catholic schools.
In Massachusetts schools became integrated after a law was passed banning segregation.
Only 6% of 17 year old graduated high school. 50% of children were in school an average of 5 years.
William A. Wirt
Wanted students to move around and have a rich school experience. He helped found The Gary Plan/Work-Study.
Over 2 million children were working across America.
John Purroy MItchel
put The Gary plan into action in 30 New York schools, which drove to violent controversy.
former President, called for English only curriculum.
35 states required instruction in English only.
Ellwood P. Cubberley
pioneered the use of the school survey as an instrument to improve education.
Scopes Monkey Trial
John Scopes was accused of teaching evolution in violation of Tennessee law.
Pierce v. Society of sisters
Established legitimacy of parochial and private schools.
Law banned child labor and made it mandatory for children to attend school until at least age 16.
Popularized IQ testing in the classroom. Believed that intelligence test could help better America.
West Virginia State Board of Eduation V Barnette
Ruled that students can not be forced to recite the Pledge of Allegiance due to the first Amendment.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Court declared separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Central High school called for the National Guard to escort students to class after huge controversy over desegregation.
Led fight to ban IQ test in Los Angeles.
Engel Vs Vitale
Public schools are no longer allowed to have prayer services during school hours
Believed education an equal chance at education meant an equal chance at life.
Abiington v Schemp
Ruled that the Bible could not be read in schools unless used as a piece of literature.
Civil Rights Act
Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Set to strengthen education resources and increase federal funds.
Bilingual Eduation Act
Provided funding for language Iinstruction
Jose Angel Gutierrez
Helped empower Chicano students draw a list of demands to the school board demanding equal rights.
Tinker V Des Moines Indendent School District
Students have the right to express their opinion on controversial issues as long as it does not disrupt the educational process.
Became a lawful remedy for segregation.
Test used to determine whether or not we are entangled in religion.
91% of Southern black children attended integrated schools.
Modeled after the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It prohibited federal grants to schools or programs that discriminated on basis of gender.
Teaching materials were printed in nearly 70 different languages.
Filed law suit charging the government with failure to enforce Title IX.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act is passed
Junior High students in East Harlem were allowed to choose students whether alternative or regular school.
A Nation at Risk
Report of President Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education. It contributed to the assertion that American schools were failing.
Standardized test adopted for each grade level.
Bethel v. Fraser
Allowed for schools to reprimand and punish students for lewd or indecent behavior if it disrupted the learning environment.
Hazelwood v Kuhlemier
States that administrators are to monitor and control the content of all school sponsored publications and activities.
George Bush allowed vouchers for low income students to attend private schools at tax paying expense.
Flores v Aizona
Students claimed that the state failed to adequately fund programs for English language learners.
Vouchers Part 2
It was declared that vouchers for religious schools violated the separation of Church & State.
Charter schools in Arizona become a new form of public education.
I started kindergarten at Avondale elementary school.
Columbine High school
Two Columbine High School students go on a killing spree that leaves 15 dead and 23 wounded at the Littleton, Colorado school, making it the nations' deadliest school shooting incident. Schools tighten safety procedures as a result of the Columbine massacre.
Santa Fe school district v. Doe
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the district's policy of allowing student-led prayer prior to football games violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
No Child Left Behind Act
Mandates high-stakes student testing, holds schools accountable for student achievement levels, and provides penalties for schools that do not make adequate yearly progress toward meeting the goals of NCLB.
American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009
Provides more than 90-billion dollars for education, nearly half of which goes to local school districts to prevent layoffs and for school modernization and repair.
I graduated from Trevor Browne high school.
The Minnesota State High School League votes on December 4 to adopt a policy allowing transgender students to join female sports teams.
The federal government tells school districts "to allow transgender students to use the bathroom that matches their gender identity." Though the directive is not a law, districts that do not comply could face lawsuits or lose federal aid.