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Alaska Alive Roy Thomas

  • Period: to

    Alaska History

  • Pre-Contact History

    Prior to contact with western nations the region of Alaska was occupied by numerous and diverse aboriginal people. Going further back in history archaeologist currently hold to the following: 5000-3000 Years ago- Humans inhabit the Bering Sea Coast
    6000 years ago- The most "recent" migration across the Land Bridge. Earliest migrations may have taken place 20,000 years ago.
    11000-6000 Years ago- The first people groups inhabit Southeastern, Aleutians, Interior, and Northwestern, Arctic of Alaska
  • Vitus Bering Commissioned

    Vitus Bering sent by Peter the Great to explore the North Pacific.
  • First Europeans set foot in Alaska

    Vitus Bering and Alexei Chirikov traveling separately see Alaska. George Steller goes ashore on Kayak Island.
  • Commercial Fur Hunting Begins

    Russians begin harvesting sea otters for their valuable fur pelts.
  • First Russian Settlement

    A permanent Russian settlement is established at Unalaska.
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    Other European Exploration

    During this time-period the water of Alaska were explored by Spanish and British explorers including: Juan Perez, James Cook and George Vancouver.
  • First Russian Settlement on Kodiak Island.

    The Russians built their first Kodiak Island settlement at Three Saint's Bay.
  • Denali Spotted

    George Vancouver sights Denali and make the first record of its existence.
  • Russian American Company

    A post is established in Sitka. The sight is now referred to as "Old Sitka". Its original name was New Archangel. The Russian-American Company is established.
  • New Archangel Destroyed

    Tlingit Indians living near the Russian post of New Archangel destroy the Russian Settlement. The Russians will return in 1804 and establish their presence in Sitka by defeating the Tlingit Indians.
  • Sitka established

    After being driven from the island in 1802 the Russians return and established Sitka as a permanent settlement.
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    Russian Exploration

    Russians explre the state and discover the following rivers: Kuskokwim, Nushagak, Yukon and Koyukuk.
  • Father Herman Dies

  • Missionary School opens in Sitka

    Missionary School opens in Sitka
    The school offers the study of Aleut, Tlingit and Eskimo languages.
  • Fort Yukon Established

    Fort Yukon is established by the Hudson Bay Company.
  • Whalers Arrive

    American Whalers enter the Arctic Ocean
  • Saint Michael's Cathedral Established in Sitka.

    The First Orthodox Cathedral in the western hemisphere.
  • Oil!

    Russian explorers find the fist oil seeps in Cook Inlet.
  • US Exploration

    The US Nave explores the North Pacific around the Aleutian Island and Bering Sea.
  • Orthodox Success

    Russians estimate Native Alaskan Christian at 12,000 individuals. The Russian Orthodox Church has established 35 Chapels, 9 Churches, 17 Schools, and 3 Orphanages in 43 communities.
  • Russians Leave

    Russians Leave
    Russians closed the schools they had operated in Alaska when they left in 1867 http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Alaska SOLD

    Alaska is purchased by the United States from Prussians for 7.3 million dollars, about $.02 and acre. The transfer takes place in Sitka on October 18, 1867.
  • The Beginnings of Education under US control

    The Beginnings of Education under US control
    Sitka formed a civil government in 1868, they purchased a building for a school and hired a teacher http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Alaska's First Newspaper

    The Alaska Times is printed in Sitka.
  • Pribilof Schools

    Pribilof Schools
    In 1870, the U.S. government's 20-year lease to exclusive hunting rights for fur seals on the Pribilof Islands included the provision that the company maintain schools on St. Paul and St. George islands for at least eight months of the year. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • School Materials

    School Materials
    The Alaska Commercial Company hired Agapius Honchareko, a Russian living in San Francisco, in 1871 to write a primer to be used in the Pribilof schools. The content of the 48-page book, The School and Family Russo-American Primer, was to instill American values in the children and to teach the English language. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Gold

    Gold is discovered near Sitka
  • Wrangel Mission School

    Wrangel Mission School
    In August 1877, Amanda McFarland, a Presbyterian missionary, arrived at Wrangell to open a mission and school. In 1878, it became a girls' school and home that operated at least until 1889. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Salmon

    Fist canneries established at Klawock and Old Sitka.
  • Mission School in Sitka

    Mission School in Sitka
    At Sitka, a Presbyterian mission school opened by John G. Brady in 1878 in an old army barracks became the Sitka Industrial Training School around 1884 http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Sitka Schools

    Sitka Schools
    In 1880, Sitka had two public schools, one for Natives and one for non-Natives. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Mandatory Schooling

    Mandatory Schooling
    Commander Henry A. Glass, the senior navy officer in Alaska in 1881, required the Native children at Sitka to attend school http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Angoon Shelled

    The Tlingit village of Angoon was shelled by the US Navy.
  • Yukon River Surveyed

  • Organic Act

    Organic Act
    The Organic Act, passed by Congress in 1884, directed the Secretary of the Interior to provide education for children in Alaska without regard to race. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
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    Sheldon Jackson

    Sheldon Jackson, a Presbyterian leader who was interested in Alaska, was appointed to the position (general agent over school openings and operations) and served until 1908. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Alaska's first government under US control

    The Organic act establishes Alaska's first civil government.
  • Copper river explored

    Lt Henry Allen explores the Copper River
  • Early Government Schools

    Early Government Schools
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    Klondike Gold Rush

    The Klondike Gold rush takes place in the Yukon Territory. Many prospectors race through Alaska on their way north.
  • Gold in Nome

    Gold is discovered on the beaches of Nome.
  • Harriman Expedition

    This two month expedition explores the Inside Passage of Southeast Alaska, Cook Inlet, Kodiak, the Aleutians and the Bering Sea.
  • Organic Act Revision

    Organic Act Revision
    Revising the Organic Act of 1884, Congress passed legislation in 1900 providing for the incorporation of towns in Alaska. The legislation allowed local control of the schools and financing of operations through local funds. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Nelson Act

    Nelson Act
    In 1905, Congress passed the Nelson Act. It provided for the education of "white children and children of mixed blood who lead a civilized life"http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Important Government changes

    In 1906 the Governor's office was moved from Sitka to Juneau. Alaska also is allowed a non-voting delegate to Congress.
  • Orah D Clark

    Orah D Clark
    In 1906, Clark began her 50-year-long Alaska teaching career at Kodiak. Clark organized the first school at Anchorage in 1915. Later, she helped establish schools along the Alaska Railroad between Anchorage and Wasilla. Before she retired, Clark had taught from the Arctic to the Aleutian Islands. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • National Forests

    President Roosevelt establishes the Tongass and Chugach National Forests.
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    Expanding Vocational Education

    During the 1910s and 1920s, other vocational boarding schools for Alaska Natives opened around Alaska. One, at White Mountain on the Seward Peninsula, opened in 1926http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Copper

    Copper production begins at Kennicott.
  • Territorial Status

    Alaska gains status as a US territory.
  • Firsts

    1913 was a year of firsts:
    First Territorial Legislature
    First law passed allowing women to vote
    Firsts airplane flight at Fairbanks
    First automobile trip from Fairbanks to Valdez
  • Alaska Railroad

    President Wilson authorizes construction of the Alaska Railroad.
  • Railroad construction begins

    Construction of the Alaska Railroad begins in Anchorage.
  • Territorial Board of Education

    Territorial Board of Education
    In 1915, a Territorial Board of Education, composed of the governor and four senators, one from each judicial division, was created. They became responsible for the education of non-Natives in Alaska. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Mount McKinley National Park is created.

  • Territorial Commissioner of Education,

    Territorial Commissioner of Education,
    The board appointed the first territorial commissioner of education, Lester D. Henderson, in 1917. Henderson organized a two-week annual teacher’s institute that was held from 1917 to 1925. The second year of the institute the teachers formed the Alaska Education Association
  • Spanish Flu

    This worldwide pandemic was devastating for some Alaska Villages.
  • Timber

    First pulp mill opens near Juneau.
  • Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines

    Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines
    In 1922, the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines opened. It was located six miles northwest of Fairbanks. Judge Charles E. Bunnell became the first president. The first year 13 students enrolled. The faculty helped develop better methods of farming and mineral exploration and recovery. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Alaska Railroad complete

    President Harding drives the final spike.
  • Alaska Flag

    Alaska Flag
    Benny Benson's design for the Alaska Flag is adopted by the Territorial Legislature.
    Benny's Poem which would become the inspiration for the Alaska State Song:
    “The blue field is for the Alaska sky and the forget-me-not, an Alaska flower. The North Star is for the future of the state of Alaska, the most northerly in the Union. The dipper is for the Great Bear – symbolizing strenth (sic).”
  • Alaska Education Association

    Alaska Education Association
    Alaska Education Association. In 1930, the organization affiliated with the National Education Association. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • BIA

    In 1931, the Bureau of Indian Affairs took over the operation of rural schools from the Bureau of Education. Alaska's program was combined with the other programs to educate American Indians http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Territorial Board of Education

    Territorial Board of Education
    In 1933, the Territorial Board of Education was reorganized. A member from each judicial division and one member at-large were appointed to six-year terms by the governor with the consent of the legislature. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Matanuska Valley Project

    Matanuska Valley Project begins families move north during the depression to establish farms.
  • University of Alaska

    University of Alaska
    In 1935, the institution became the University of Alaska. Residents were not charged tuition and non-residents paid $20 per semester. By the 1940s, the university offered four-year degree programs in agriculture, arts and letters, business , chemistry, civil engineering, education, general science, home economics, mining , and pre-medicine. A five-year program in engineering was also available. . http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Another first

    Nell Scott is the first woman appointed to the Alaska Legislature.
  • A Growing State

    1940 marked a growth in the military presence in Alaska with Fort Richardson and Elmendorf bases being established. The stat population climbs over 70,000 including about 32,000 Alaska Natives and 40,000 non Natives. Pan American Airways starts service between Seattle, Ketchikan and Juneau.
  • War

    War comes to Alaska.
    Dutch Harbor is bombed and Attu and Kiska Islands are occupied by the Japanese.
    The Alaska Highway is constructed.
  • Japanese occupation ended

    US forces defeat Japanese forces at Attu and Kiska.
  • Moount Edgecumbe

    Moount Edgecumbe
    A boarding school at Mount Edgecumbe, near Sitka, opened in 1947. The first year nearly 500 students enrolled. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Oil drilled near Eureka

  • Community Colleges

    Community Colleges
    The Territorial Legislature passed legislation creating a community college system in 1953. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • Oil discovered at Kenai

  • We're In

    Congress passes the statehood measure.
  • It's Official

    Eisenhower signs the statehood measure making Alaska the 49th state.
  • Ferry Service

    Alaska State Ferry service begins in Southeast Alaska.
  • Earthquake and Tsunami

    The 1964 Good Friday earthquake alters Alaska's landscape and communities.
  • Saint Michael's Cathedral destroyed by fire.

    Saint Michael's Cathedral destroyed by fire.
  • Thomas Family drives the Alcan.

    Bernard Thomas Packs up his family, including his wife three kids and two dogs in a 1965 pick up with a camper on the back, and drives to Alaska. Unable to find work in the interior, Anchorage, or Seward the family was headed back to Washington State aboard the Alaska Marine Highway. While visiting Sitka he was able to find work at the Alaska Lumber and Pulp Corporation.
  • Oil Oil Oil

    Oil and gas discoveries are made at Prudhoe Bay
  • Roy Thomas Born

    Roy Thomas Born
    Roy Thomas was born in Sitka, Alaska
  • Iditarod

    An annual race from Central Alaska to Nome begins commemorating the diphtheria serum run.
  • Pipe Line

    The pipeline is approved and construction is prepared form
  • Capital move

    The voters choose Willow as a new capital site. A vote that will not come to fruition.
  • Pipeline complete

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline is completed
  • Reconstructed Saint Michael's Cathedral reopens.

    Reconstructed Saint Michael's Cathedral reopens.
  • Dividend time

    The first PFD is paid to Alaskans.
  • Molly Hootch

    Molly Hootch
    Alaska Legal Services sued the State on behalf of Molly Hootch. The suit charged that boarding schools and correspondence courses didn't provide the same opportunities as attending high school in the student's home community. In 1976, the State of Alaska agreed that villages that had an elementary school should have high schools. The State of Alaska began a program to construct schools in compliance. http://www.akhistorycourse.org/americas-territory/alaskas-heritage/chapter-4-20-education
  • BIA hands over education in the state

    BIA hands over education in the state
    In late 1984, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was turning over most of its responsibilities for educating Alaska Natives to the State of Alaska
  • Exxon Valdez

    An Exxon Tanker rips a hole in its side by running into a charted reef. The environmental impact is horrendous.
  • Sitka Pulp mill closes

    After over 40 years of operation the pulp mill in Sitka is closed.
  • SB64

    This Bill stopped all bond reimbursement for local school bonds passed Between January 1, 2015 and July 1, 2020.