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CTE 302

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    Educational Evolution & The Roots of Career and Technical Education

    · Vocational/Employment-based education finds its roots in the U.S. strongly grounded in a movement for manual education after the Civil War (1861-1865)
    o Societal and economic changes were tied to industrialization
    o The country and its leaders were expecting and preparing for an “advanced industrial society”
    o Education necessary for newly freed slaves
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    Booker T. Washington

    Learn all you can, but learn to do something, or your learning will be useless.
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    James Buchanan, 1857-1861

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    John Dewey

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    Abraham Lincoln, 1861-1865

  • 1865 - The Morill Act

    1865 - The Morill Act
    The Morill Act of 1862 granted 30,000 acres of land to each state. The sale of the land to used for the creation and maintenance of land-grant agricultural and mechanical arts colleges. Washington State University is among the 49 land-grant institutions.
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    Andrew Johnson, 1865-1869

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    David Snedden

    "Schools should prepare individuals for the occupations at which they excelled.” Snedden was an advocate of what was called “social efficiency.”
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    W.E.B. Dubois

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    Ulysses S. Grant, 1869-1877

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    Charles Prosser

  • Philidelphia Manual Training

    Philidelphia Manual Training
    Philadelphia introduces manual training to its high schools. Schools of this kind offered training in skills such as carpentry, architectural drawing, and printing.
    Continuing this trend, the late 1800s sees a notable rise in manual training/trade schools throughout the colonies
    o Contextual info: around this time, after aggressive Westward expansion had ended,, it was declared that there was no frontier left in the country
    o Contextual info: 1889 Washington becomes the 42nd state
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    Rutherford Birchard Hayes, 1877-1881

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    James Abram Garfield, 1881

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    Chester Alan Arthur, 1881-1885

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    Grover Cleveland, 1893-1897

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    Benjamin Harrison, 1889-1893

  • 1890 Morrill Maintenance Act

    1890 Morrill Maintenance Act
    The Morrill Maintenance Act of 1890 provided for additional funding for educational programs through the sale or lease of public lands. Additionally, the Morrill Act of 1890 provided for the establishment of an institutiion that served African Americans.
  • Jewish Manual Training School

    Jewish Manual Training School
    The School’s curriculum was based upon corrective measures and training in handwork. From its founding the Jewish Training School accepted boys and girls, and one goal was to place before these children as many elementary trade activities as possible, in order to find out their bent, and then encourage and direct them along lines which their natural abilities seemed to trend.
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    William McKinley, 1897-1901

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    Emergence of Vocational Education

    · At the turn of the 20th century, responding to the working world’s need for skilled laborers, vocational education emerged
    o Also, at this time, larger numbers of working-class students were entering high school
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    Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1909

  • 1907 Nelson Amendments to the Morrill Act

    1907 Nelson Amendments to the Morrill Act
    The Nelson Amendment to the Morrill Act of of 1907 increased the amount of funds used to support land grant colleges and a portion of those funds were designated for teacher education.
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    William Howard Taft, 1909-1913

  • 1911 WTCS - Racine opens School

    1911 WTCS - Racine opens School
    Racine becomes first Wisconsin city to open continuation school with 325 students studying papermaking, cabinet making, cooking, dressmaking and drafting.
  • 1911 WTCS - State Board of Industrial Education

    1911 WTCS - State Board of Industrial Education
    Wisconsin legislature crate State Board of Industrial Education which was the first of its kind in the nation. The bord eventually became the Wisconsin Technical College System. The first U.S. apprenticeship program was established.
  • U. S. Department of Labor Created

    U. S. Department of Labor Created
    Congress creates U.S. Department of Labor.
  • Assembly Line

    Assembly Line
    Henry Ford creates the assembly line; intiating the need for production workers.
  • 1913 WTCS - 12,000 students

    1913 WTCS - 12,000 students
    Wisconsin continuation schools enroll mor than 12,000 students. Enrollments double in 1914.
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    Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921

  • 1914 - Smith-Lever Act

    1914 - Smith-Lever Act
    The Smith-Lever Act established a national Cooperative Extension Service that extended outreach programs through land-grant universities to educate rural Americans about advances in agricultural practices and technology. These advances helped increase American agricultural productivity dramatically throughout the 20th century.
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    World War I

    the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. Over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication.
  • Panama Canal Opens

    Panama Canal Opens
    Following the failure of a French construction team in the 1880s, the United States commenced building a canal across a 50-mile stretch of the Panama isthmus in 1904. The project was helped by the elimination of disease-carrying mosquitoes, while chief engineer John Stevens devised innovative techniques and spurred the crucial redesign from a sea-level to a lock canal.
  • Camden Manual Training High School

    Camden Manual Training High School
    Camden High School opened in Camden in 1918 on the corner of Park Boulevard and Baird Avenue on land that was part of Forest Hill Park, renamed Farnham Park in 1927. The rapid growth in population necessitated the building of the new school, which replaced the earlier Camden Manual Training and High School that was located at Haddon and Newton Avenues. This school had opened up less than twenty years before. Camden continued to grow throughout the 1920s and early 1930s.
  • 1916 National Defense Act

    1916 National Defense Act
    This act provided an opportunity for soldiers to receive instruction to facilitate their return to civilian life; for the first time legislatively the country recognized its obligation to persons injured in service to their country. This sweeping revision to the organization of the Army reflected the country's anxieties about maintaining neutrality from World War I, overall military preparedness, and border skirmishes
  • 1917 WTCS - War Effort

    1917 WTCS - War Effort
    Wisconsin's vocational schools begin training for jobs most needed to support the war effort such as telegraphers, truck drivers and typists.
  • 1917 WTCS - State Board of Vocational Education

    1917 WTCS - State Board of Vocational Education
    The State Board of Industrial Education becomes State Board of Vocational Education. Continuation schools now called vocational schools.
  • 1917 - Smith Hughes Act

    1917 - Smith Hughes Act
    The Smith Hughes Act was the first federal vocational legislation. It recognized the disaplines of agricultural education, home economics and industrial education in public high schools. It allotted $7,161,455 to vocational education. States who wished to receive funding for vocational education were required to establish a state board for vocational education.
  • 1918 - The Smith-Sears Act

    1918 - The Smith-Sears Act
    The Smith-Sears Act provides federal funds for establishing retraining programs for World War I veterans. That same year the Commission on Reorganization of Secondary Ed issues its “Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education”: health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, development of a vocation, civic education, worthy use of leisure time, and ethical character.
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    Through The Decades: Focused Federal CTE Aid

  • 1920 Civilian Rehabilitation Act

    1920 Civilian Rehabilitation Act
    The rehabilitation program for all Americans with disabilities patterned after the Soldiers Rehabilitation Act; established the Federal-State program in rehabilitation and provided funds to state (50/50 match) for primarily vocational services: vocational guidance, training, occupational adjustment, prosthetics, and placement services; only for persons with physical disabilities; it did not include physical restoration or social orientation rehabilitation.
  • 1920 - 19th Amendment

    1920 - 19th Amendment
    Amendment grants women the right to vote. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
  • 1921 WTCS - 47 VTE Schools

    1921 WTCS - 47 VTE Schools
    47 vocational schools can be found statewide.
  • 1921 Vocational School enrolls 300,000

    1921 Vocational School enrolls 300,000
    Vocational schools enrollment exceeds 300,000 nationally.
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    Warren Gamaliel Harding, 1921-1923

  • 1921 Compulsory School Attendance Act

    1921 Compulsory School Attendance Act
    The act made school attendance compulsory for all children between the ages of seven and 13. As a practical implication, the primary school network expanded even to the smallest and most remote locations.
  • 1922 Discoveries

    1922 Discoveries
    Insulin discovered. Reader's Digest first published. Archaeologists enter tomb of King Tut - Nov 26, 1922.
  • 1923 Talking Movies

    1923 Talking Movies
    Talking movies were invented. 1927 brought the first full feature.
  • 1923 WTCS - Nursing Offered

    1923 WTCS - Nursing Offered
    Milaukee vocational school begins offering nursing-related courses.
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    Calvin Coolidge, 1923-1929

  • 1924 WTCS - Director's Association

    1924 WTCS - Director's Association
    Director's Association formed to represent vocational schools.
  • 1924 WTCS - Milwaukee Engineering

    1924 WTCS - Milwaukee Engineering
    Milwaukee starts Technical Engineering program as a precursor to two-year degree programs.
  • 1926 American Vocational Association

    1926 American Vocational Association
    AVA was created from the National Society for Vocational Education and the Vocational Education Association of the Middle West.
  • 1927 Lindbergh Solo Flight

    1927 Lindbergh Solo Flight
    Charles A. Lindbergh makes solo flight across the Atlantic.
  • 1928 Discoveries

    1928 Discoveries
    Invention of sliced bread modernizes food production. Discovery of penicillin advances medical science.
  • 1929 - George-Reed Act

    1929 - George-Reed Act
    The George-Reed Act focused only on agriculture and home economics. It removed home economics from the trade and industrial sections of the Smith Hughes Act. It allotted no funding, and had a five year term limit. It did however authorize annual appropriations.
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    Herbert Clark Hoover, 1929-1933

  • 1929 Stock Market Crash

    1929 Stock Market Crash
    The Wall Street Crash of 1929 was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its aftereffects. The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of September, signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries.
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    Focus on Unemployment Reduction

    1930s and 40s sees a focus on unemployment reduction in response to the country’s recent depression and large numbers of unemployed citizens.
  • 1931 WTCS - 87,000 students

    1931 WTCS - 87,000 students
    Wisconsin vocational school enrollment succeeds 87,000 day and evening students.
  • 1931 Empire State Building Dedicted

    1931 Empire State Building Dedicted
    President Herbert Hoover officially dedicates New York City’s Empire State Building, pressing a button from the White House that turns on the building’s lights. Hoover’s gesture, of course, was symbolic; while the president remained in Washington, D.C., someone else flicked the switches in New York.
  • 1933 New Deal

    1933 New Deal
    New Deal funding establishes hundreds of new "emergency" schools.
    CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps. ...
    CWA - Civil Works Administration. ...
    FHA - Federal Housing Administration. ...
    FSA - Federal Security Agency. ...
    HOLC - Home Owner's Loan Corporation. ...
    NIRA - National Industrial Recovery Act. ...
    PWA - Public Works Administration.
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    Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933-1945

  • 1935 National Labor Relations Act

    1935 National Labor Relations Act
    Congress enacted the National Labor Relations Act ("NLRA") in 1935 to protect the rights of employees and employers, to encourage collective bargaining, and to curtail certain private sector labor and management practices, which can harm the general welfare of workers, businesses and the U.S. economy.
  • 1935 Social Security Act

    1935 Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically handicapped.
  • 1936 - George-Deen Act

    1936 - George-Deen Act
    The George Deen Act allotted $12 million for agriculture, home economics, and trade and industrial education. It added distributive occupations which are referred to today as marketing programs. Of the $12 million, $1.2 million were allotted to vocational guidance and occupational information. For the first time, it included funding for supervisor travel. It was the beginning of a trend towards making vocational education more flexible.
  • 1937 WTCS - Board of Vocational and Adult Schools

    1937 WTCS - Board of Vocational and Adult Schools
    The State Board of Vocational Education becomes the Board of Vocational an Adult Schools.
  • 1937 Golden Gate Bridge

    1937 Golden Gate Bridge
    The dream of connecting the city of San Francisco to its neighbors across the Golden Gate Strait became a reality after WWI with the hiring of Chicago engineer Joseph Strauss. Given the chance for steady employment amid the Great Depression, the crew braved treacherous conditions as the roadway and towers took shape over the open ocean. Opened to the public in 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge has endured as an iconic landmark and a marvel of modern engineering.
  • 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act

    1938 Fair Labor Standards Act
    The Act established minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and youth employment standards affecting full-time and part-time workers in the private sector and in Federal, State, and local governments.
  • 1939 WTCS - Area Vocational Bill

    1939 WTCS - Area Vocational Bill
    Area Vocational Bill broadens economic base for schools struggling to educate Depression era students.
  • 1939 First Commercial Flight

    1939 First Commercial Flight
    First commercial flight over the Atlantic.
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    World War 2

    Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries.
  • 1941 WTCS - Enrollment at 127,000

    1941 WTCS - Enrollment at 127,000
    Enrollments explode to over 127,000 day and evening students.
  • 1941 Attach on Pearl Harbor

    1941 Attach on Pearl Harbor
    Just before 8 a.m. on December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii. The barrage lasted just two hours, but it was devastating: The Japanese managed to destroy nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, and more than 300 airplanes. More than 2,000 Americans soldiers and sailors died in the attack, and another 1,000 were wounded.
  • 1942 WTCS - 43 Schools

    1942 WTCS - 43 Schools
    Wisconsin has 43 vocational schools which became critical to the war effort; teaching 565 national defense-related programs.
  • 1943 Barden-LaFollette Act

    1943 Barden-LaFollette Act
    Act did substantial changes in the federal/state program of rehabilitation; broadened the program's financial provisions, offered a comprehensive definition of vocational rehabilitation, expanded services to include physical restoration, and each state had to submit a written plan for approval by the federal agency as to how federal/state dollars would be used; expansion of services included on a limited basis person who were mentally handicapped and mentally ill.
  • 1944 - Serviceman’s Readjustment Act

    1944 - Serviceman’s Readjustment Act
    1944 – Serviceman’s Readjustment Act provides vocational education opportunities for veterans
    o Contextual info: WWII ends 1945
  • 1944 WTCS - On The Farm

    1944 WTCS - On The Farm
    Wisconsin becomes first state to offer "on-the-farm" veteran training program. This educated more than 15,000 veterans by 1963.
  • 1945 WTCS - Practical Nursing

    1945 WTCS - Practical Nursing
    Kenosha/Gateway offers first one year practical nursing program with Milwaukee to closely follow.
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    Harry S. Truman, 1945-1953

  • 1945 Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    1945 Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    An American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people.
  • 1946 - George-Barden Act

    1946 - George-Barden Act
    The George Barden Act amended the George-Deen Act, and allotted $34 million towards the programs specified in the George-Deen Act. It was even more flexible than the George Deen act, and could be distributed by the state boards of vocational education in four specific fields. It allowed for funds to be used for state director salary and expenses; vocational counselor salary and expenses; training and work experience programs.
  • 1947 Computer

    1947 Computer
    Invention of firs general use computer paves way for business and technology courses.
  • 1948 WTCS - 31,000 Veterans

    1948 WTCS - 31,000 Veterans
    More than 31,000 WWII veterans gain new skills through trade and industrial training.
  • 1948 Economic Cooperation Act

    1948 Economic Cooperation Act
    The act was “to promote world peace and the general welfare, national interest, and foreign policy of the United States through economic, financial, and other measures necessary to the maintenance of conditions abroad in which free institutions may survive and consistent with the maintenance of the strength and stability of the United States.”
  • 1949 First Occupational Outlook Handbook

    1949 First Occupational Outlook Handbook
    The Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH), is a career resource offering information on the hundreds of occupations that provide the overwhelming majority of jobs in the United States. Each occupational profile describes the duties required by the occupation, the work environment of that occupation, the typical education and training needed to enter the occupation, the median pay for workers in the occupation, and the job outlook into the next 10 years for that occupation.
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    Korean War

    Korean War, conflict between North Korea and South Korea in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People’s Republic of China came to North Korea’s aid.
  • 1951 WTCS - Culinary Training

    1951 WTCS - Culinary Training
    Federal funds enabled inception of popular Culinary and Hotel Management programs.
  • 1951 Television

    1951 Television
    Introduction of the television creates a demand for training electronics and communications.
  • 1953 WTCS - Aviation Program

    1953 WTCS - Aviation Program
    Blackhawk Technical College offers first Aviation Mechanics program.
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    Dwight David Eisenhower, 1953-1961

  • 1654 Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments

    1654 Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments
    Reshaped the roles of the federal and state government in the rehabilitation program; established the basis for a working relationship between public and private rehabilitation and expanded the role of the state agency; established funding sources for (1) college and university training of rehabilitation professionals; (2) improvement and remodeling of rehabilitation facilities; and (3) research and demonstration grants; increased federal funding to states.
  • 1954 Segregation Ruled Illegal

    1954 Segregation Ruled Illegal
    The Supreme Court issued its landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling, which declared that racially segregated public schools were inherently unequal.
  • 1955 WTCS - Funding Issues

    1955 WTCS - Funding Issues
    The vocational schools face challenges in funding and support.
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    Vietnam War

    A protracted conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam, known as the Viet Cong, against the government of South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The war was also part of a larger regional conflict (see Indochina wars) and a manifestation of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
  • 1956 - Health Amendments Act

    1956 - Health Amendments Act
    The health Amendments Act of 1956 added Title II to the Vocational Education Act of 1946. It authorized an appropriation not to exceed $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1957, and for each of the next four fiscal years, for the purpose of extending and improving practical nurse training. P.L. 87-22 extended this appropriation authorization an additional four years, to June 30, 1965, and deleted the phrase requiring extension and improvement.
  • 1956 WTCS - Development of Programs

    1956 WTCS - Development of Programs
    State Board standards lead to development of programs such as Electronics, Automotive Technology an Mechanical Technology.
  • 1956 Federal-Aid Highway Act

    1956 Federal-Aid Highway Act
    The law authorized the construction of a 41,000-mile network of interstate highways that would span the nation.
  • 1957 WTCS - Fire Fighting

    1957 WTCS - Fire Fighting
    Curriculum includes firefighting, fire protection an fie prevention.
  • 1957 WTCS - Enrollments at 132,000

    1957 WTCS - Enrollments at 132,000
    The vocational school enrollments are nearly 132,000.
  • 1957 WTCS - Area Development Act

    1957 WTCS - Area Development Act
    Area Development Act expands vocational districts to cover the state.
  • 1967 First Super Bowl

    1967 First Super Bowl
    Green Bay Packers of the National Football League (NFL) smash the American Football League (AFL)’s Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10, in the first-ever AFL-NFL World Championship, later known as Super Bowl I, at Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles.
  • 1958 - National Defense Education Act

    1958 - National Defense Education Act
    The National Defense Education Act was enacted to assist state and local school systems in boosting instruction in science, mathematics and foreign languages, as well as to improve state statistical services. Data processing training was also included as it was considered a technical occupation necessary to national defense.
  • 1958 Integrated Circuits

    1958 Integrated Circuits
    An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip resulted in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. This shuffled in a new era of technology.
  • 1961 - Area Redevelopment Act

    1961 - Area Redevelopment Act
    The Area Redevelopment Act was passed to assist in occupational training programs for the unemployed persons, and it appropriated10 million in DOL subsistence payments to unemployed workers that were in jobs training programs to that they could get a new job. These jobs had to in categories within vocational training programs, in order to receive the subsistence payments.
  • 1961 WTCS - Wisconsin Board of VTAE

    1961 WTCS - Wisconsin Board of VTAE
    State Board becomes Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical an Adult Education.
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    John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 1961-1963

  • 1961 Peace Corps

    1961 Peace Corps
    One of the signature achievements of President John F. Kennedy was creating the Peace Corps, a new agency and a new opportunity for Americans to serve their country and their world. The Peace Corps is a service opportunity for motivated changemakers to immerse themselves in a community abroad, working side by side with local leaders to tackle the most pressing challenges of our generation.
  • 1961 Soviet in Space

    1961 Soviet in Space
    Soviets launch firs person into space. Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was the first human to journey into outer space, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth.
  • 1961 WTCS - Mobile Broadcast

    1961 WTCS - Mobile Broadcast
    Milwaukee Vocational and Adult School does first mobile television broadcast from State Fair.
  • 1961 Berlin Wall Construction

    1961 Berlin Wall Construction
    the Communist government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) began to build a barbed wire and concrete “Antifascistischer Schutzwall,” or “antifascist bulwark,” between East and West Berlin. The official purpose of this Berlin Wall was to keep Western “fascists” from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state, but it primarily served the objective of stemming mass defections from East to West.
  • 1962 - Manpower Development and Training Act

    1962 - Manpower Development and Training Act
    The Manpower Development and Training Act is considered the first major federal jobs training program, and it focused on providing training in that taught new and improved skills that were useful to unemployed and underemployed persons needed a job.
  • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

    1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
    During the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff in October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores.
  • 1963 - Vocational Education Act

    1963 - Vocational Education Act
    The Vocational Education Act was implemented by then President John F. Kennedy. It took the place of the Smith Hughes Act, and an advisory panel was formed to evaluate current vocational educational programs, and make recommendations for major changes. It also increased funding to $225 million, introduced work study programs, reduced federal control, promoted gender equity.
  • 1963 Martin Luther King Speech - March on Washington

    1963 Martin Luther King Speech - March on Washington
    In his iconic speech at the Lincoln Memorial for the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, King urged America to "make real the promises of democracy." King synthesized portions of his earlier speeches to capture both the necessity for change and the potential for hope in American society. The march is widely credited with helping to pass the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965).
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    Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1963-1969

  • 1964 WTCS - Dental Programs

    1964 WTCS - Dental Programs
    One year Dental an Medical Assistant programs approved which paved the way for more than 40 healthcare related programs by 2011.
  • 1964 Civil Rights Act

    1964 Civil Rights Act
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ensured basic human rights and responsibilities in the workplace. Developed assurances that everyone, regardless of race, gender, national origin or handicap, would receive fair treatment and consideration for employment.
  • 1964 Food Stamp Act

    1964 Food Stamp Act
    The Food Stamp Act was part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society Program. The Great Society Programs substantially expanded social welfare programs within the national government. Designed to "safe-guard the health and well-being of the Nation's population and raise levels of nutrition among low-income households," the Food Stamp Act received strong support from legislators as well as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Farmers Union, and poverty groups.
  • 1965 WTCS - Higher Education Act

    1965 WTCS - Higher Education Act
    HEA authorized significant financial aid funding an dramatically increased the size and diversity of enrollments. Wisconsin requires a statewide system of area vocational education districts by 1970.
  • 1965 WTCS - College Transfer

    1965 WTCS - College Transfer
    Madison Vocational School approves a college transfer program.
  • 1965 Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments

    1965 Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments
    Expanded services to include person with socially handicapping conditions, such as alcoholism, lack of education, and prison records; expanded evaluation to determine individual eligibility for services where feasibility was not easily determined; allowed rehabilitation counselors to take more risks in serving persons with vocational handicaps, serving more people with severe disabilities; deleted economic need as a general requirement for services; and increased federal match to 75%.
  • 1966 Child Nutrition Act

    1966 Child Nutrition Act
    The Act was created as a result of the "years of cumulative successful experience under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) to help meet the nutritional needs of children."
  • 1967 WTCS - Enrollment at 187,000

    1967 WTCS - Enrollment at 187,000
    Enrollments exceed 187,000.
  • 1968 - Vocational Education Amendments

    1968 - Vocational Education Amendments
    These amendments arthe first vocational legislation to officially reference postsecondary students. It extended set-aside funding for students from specific populations.
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    Richard Milhous Nixon, 1969-1974

  • 1969 Man on the Moon

    1969 Man on the Moon
    Neil Alden Armstrong was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon.
  • 1969 Woodstock

    1969 Woodstock
    The grooviest event in music history–the Woodstock Music Festival–draws to a close after three days of peace, love and rock ‘n’ roll in upstate New York. Conceived as “Three Days of Peace and Music,” Woodstock was a product of a partnership. The idea was to make enough money from the event to build a recording studio near Woodstock. When they couldn’t find an appropriate venue in the town itself, the promoters decided to hold the festival on a 600-acre dairy farm in Bethel.
  • 1970 WTCS - Expands Programs

    1970 WTCS - Expands Programs
    State Board expands programs to include Childcare, Architectural Design, Mechanical Production an Law Enforcement.
  • 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act

    1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act
    The Occupational Safety and Health Act is the primary federal law which governs occupational health and safety in the private sector and federal government in the United States. Its main goal is to ensure that employers provide employees with an environment free from recognized hazards, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions. The Act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
  • 1971 WTCS - District Boards Formed

    1971 WTCS - District Boards Formed
    District Boards Association formed to facilitate collaboration and communication between districts.
  • 1972 Pocket Calculator

    1972 Pocket Calculator
    Innovations include pocket calculators and electric automobile ignition.
  • 1973 - Comprehensive Employment and Training Act

    1973 - Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
    The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act consolidate federal job training programs and provided block grants on the state and local levels. It was designed to assist persons that were unemployed, underemployed and considered "economically disadvantaged." This was the first time that job training was delegate to states and localities. This act supported youth summer employment and the job corps programs, as was as both public and private job training.
  • 1973 First Cellular Telephone

    1973 First Cellular Telephone
    Motorola develops the first cellular telephone. This offered more ways to connect with students.
  • 1973 Federal Hazardous Substances Act

    1973 Federal Hazardous Substances Act
    Products used or stored in a garage, shed, carport, or other building that is part of the household are also covered. ... To require labeling, a product must first be toxic, corrosive, flammable or combustible, an irritant, or a strong sensitizer, or it must generate pressure through decomposition, heat, or other means.
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    Gerald Rudolph Ford, 1974-1977

  • 1975 WTCS - Financial Aid

    1975 WTCS - Financial Aid
    Students begin paying tuition to attend and are also eligible for state and federal financial aid
  • 1975 Microsoft is Founded

    1975 Microsoft is Founded
    The history of Microsoft began on April 4, 1975, when it was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque. Microsoft, a company that makes computer software. Microsoft relocated to Washington State in 1979 and eventually grew into a major multinational technology corporation. In 1987, the year after Microsoft went public, 31-year-old Gates became the world’s youngest billionaire.
  • 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    Ensured a free, appropriate, public education for all students with handicapping conditions; established that students have a right to receive related services that are developmental, corrective, or other supportive services including, but not limited to, speech pathology, audiology, psychological services, physical therapy, occupational therapy, counseling, and medical services (for diagnostic and evaluation purposes only).
  • 1976 - Vocational Education Amendments

    1976 - Vocational Education Amendments
    Equal opportunities for women and girls were promoted in this legislation.
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    James Earl Carter, Jr., 1977-1981

  • 1977 Test Tube Baby

    1977 Test Tube Baby
    First test tube baby is born, a major advancement in bio-medical science.
  • 1978 - Career Education Act

    1978 - Career Education Act
    The Career Education Act focused on career development and career awareness at an early age.
  • 1979 Three Mile Island Disaster

    1979 Three Mile Island Disaster
    For an unknown reason, the feed pump (in the turbine water loop; see the schematic below) stopped operating. Without this pump, the turbine water could not remove heat from the steam generator. When this happened, the control rods automatically dropped into the reactor stopping the fission process.
  • 1867 U.S. Department of Education is Established

    1867 U.S. Department of Education is Established
    The United States Department of Education, also referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
  • 1980 WTCS - 16 Districts Accredited

    1980 WTCS - 16 Districts Accredited
    All 16 districts accredited by North Central Higher Leaning Commission.
  • Period: to

    Dismantling of Vocational Programs

    · 1980s – In response to a call for greater academic rigor and an increase in the number of courses required to graduate high school, enrollment numbers in vocational education declined. A general call for college for all as the only option in the 80s and 90s, the nation experienced a dismantling of many vocational programs
  • 1980 Mount St. Helens Eruption

    1980 Mount St. Helens Eruption
    Mount St. Helens in Washington erupts, causing a massive avalanche and killing 57 people on this day in 1980. Ash from the volcanic eruption fell as far away as Minnesota.
  • Period: to

    Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1981-1989

  • 1981 IBM Personal Computer

    1981 IBM Personal Computer
    IMB unveil the first personal computer (PC); transforming knowledge transfer.
  • 1982 - Job Training Partnership Act

    1982 - Job Training Partnership Act
    The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) replaced the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. It established yet more programs for youth, and expanded to unskilled adult workers. Once again, workforce development was overseen by states and localities. It included work experience and remedial education for youth ages 14 to 21 years old.
  • 1983 Minivan Introduced

    1983 Minivan Introduced
    Launched in 1983, the 1984 Dodge Caravan and Plymouth Voyager were the result of over a decade of work. The minivans had been rejected at least once, and even after they were approved, were put on hold for the Y-body Imperial.
  • 1984 - Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act (Perkins I)

    1984 - Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act (Perkins I)
    The Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act, also called the Perkins I, appropriated $950 million dollars to support vocational education for four years. 57% of that was dedicated to special populations, such as handicapped individuals and disadvantaged individuals; adults needed training or retraining; single parents and homemakers; and criminals. It also allotted 3.5% for the elimination of sex bias and stereotyping.
  • 1989 WTCS - Change of Name

    1989 WTCS - Change of Name
    All 16 technical institutes change their names to "technical college."
  • Period: to

    George Herbert Walker Bush, 1989-1993

  • 1989 Berlin Wall Comes Down

    1989 Berlin Wall Comes Down
    The Berlin Wall: The Fall of the Wall. On November 9, 1989, as the Cold War began to thaw across Eastern Europe, the spokesman for East Berlin's Communist Party announced a change in his city's relations with the West. Starting at midnight that day, he said, citizens of the GDR were free to cross the country's borders.
  • 1990 - Perkins Act (Perkins II)

    1990 - Perkins Act (Perkins II)
    The Perkins II reauthorized the Perkins I for five years and increased funding by $600 million. It provided a new federal definition of vocational education, "organized educational programs offering a sequence of courses which are directly related to the preparation of individuals in paid or unpaid employment in current or emerging occupations requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree." It allotted $125 million for tech prep programs.
  • 1990 WTCS - Tech Prep

    1990 WTCS - Tech Prep
    Tech Prep programs establish by Perkins Act allow for seamless transition from K12 to post-secondary education.
  • Period: to

    Perkins Acts

    · 1990s – Perkins Acts of 1990 and 1998 focus on program improvement, standards and academics, moving toward employment training for all and not just at-risk and special populations. It is recommended that Vocational Education be referred to as Career and Technical Education.
  • 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act

    1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
    The ADA is one of America's most comprehensive pieces of civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination and guarantees that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else to participate in the mainstream of American life -- to enjoy employment opportunities, to purchase goods and services, and to participate in State and local government programs and services.
  • Period: to

    William Jefferson Clinton, 1993-2001

  • 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act

    1993 Family and Medical Leave Act
    The FMLA entitles eligible employees of covered employers to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave.
  • 1994 - School-to-Work Opportunities Act

    1994 - School-to-Work Opportunities Act
    The School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA), was introduced by the Clinton Administration, and provided money to states in the form of grants. Some of this money came from venture capital and seed money from the federal government. It was established as an incentive to get states and localities to implement an education system that prepared students to transition from school to work, advanced training or post-secondary education.
  • 1994 WTCS - Board Change

    1994 WTCS - Board Change
    VTAE System an Board merge to become the Wisconsin Technical College System.
  • 1995 WTCS - Publication to Raise Awareness

    1995 WTCS - Publication to Raise Awareness
    Research suggests that more than half of high school graduates are not academically prepared for college, yet they do not have significant learning disabilities preventing them from succeeding in a traditional classroom setting. The publication raises awareness of community and technical colleges.
  • 1995 Oklahoma Bombing

    1995 Oklahoma Bombing
    A truck-bomb explosion outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, left 168 people dead and hundreds more injured. The blast was set off by anti-government militant Timothy McVeigh, who in 2001 was executed for his crimes. His co-conspirator Terry Nichols received life in prison.
  • 1998 - Education Amendment Act (Perkins III)

    1998 - Education Amendment Act (Perkins III)
    The Education Amendment Act amended the 1990 Perkins Act. It provided a finely detailed definition of vocational education, and received funding separate from Tech-Prep. This act focused on improving student achievement and preparing students for post-secondary education, further learning, and careers.
  • 1998 - The Workforce Investment Act (Replaced the JTPA)

    1998 - The Workforce Investment Act (Replaced the JTPA)
    The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) was used to create a nationwide system of career one stop centers for youth and adults. Rather than focusing on individuals, it focused on businesses. The WIA was used for economic development, and rather than concentrating on jobs training, it concentrated on growing companies and increasing job availability.
  • 1998 MP3 Player

    1998 MP3 Player
    First MP3 player individualizes personal electronics.
  • 1999 Y2K

    1999 Y2K
    Technology fears from loom of worldwide growth of technology and the dependence of the technology to run every day tasks.
  • 2000 WTCS - New Science

    2000 WTCS - New Science
    First mapping of the human genome leads to new opportunities in science and biotechnology programs.
  • Period: to

    George Walker Bush, 2001-2009

  • 2001 9/11 Attacks

    2001 9/11 Attacks
    19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States. Two of the planes were flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.
  • 2001 Enron Scandal

    2001 Enron Scandal
    Most of the top executives were tried for fraud after it was revealed in November 2001 that Enron's earnings had been overstated by several hundred million dollars. Enron was once ranked the sixth-largest energy company in the world. Enron shares were worth $90.75 at their peak in August 2000 and dropped to $0.67 in January 2002. Top Enron executives sold their company stock prior to the company's downfall.
  • 2002 Euro Currency

    2002 Euro Currency
    The name euro was officially adopted on 16 December 1995. The euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit (ECU) at a ratio of 1:1
  • 2002 No Child Left Behind Act

    2002 No Child Left Behind Act
    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students. ... The bill passed in the Congress with bipartisan support.
  • 2003 Columbia Disaster

    2003 Columbia Disaster
    Space shuttle Columbia broke up as it returned to Earth, killing the seven astronauts on board. NASA suspended space shuttle flights for more than two years as it investigated the disaster.
  • Period: to

    Iraq War

    Iraq War, also called Second Persian Gulf War, (2003–11), conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. The first of these was a brief, conventionally fought war in March–April 2003, in which a combined force of troops from the United States and Great Britain (with smaller contingents from several other countries) invaded Iraq and rapidly defeated Iraqi military and paramilitary forces. It was followed by a longer second phase in which a U.S.-led occupation of Iraq was opposed by an insurgency.
  • 2004 - National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) Final Report

    2004 - National Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) Final Report
    Postsecondary vocational education proved an effective means to higher income, as, even without attaining a credential, a single year of study brought 5 to 8 percent more earnings to postsecondary CTE students than to high school graduates with similar characteristics. Secondary students who graduate with a career and technical education concentration are 2 ½ times more likely to be employed while pursuing postsecondary education than are “college prep” students.
  • 2004 X Prize Privat Funded Space Travel

    2004 X Prize Privat Funded Space Travel
    SpaceShipOne is a three-place, high-altitude research rocket, designed for sub-orbital flights to 100 km altitude. The unique configuration allows aircraft-like qualities for boost, glide, and landing. The ship converts (via pneumatic-actuated feather) to a stable, high-drag shape for atmospheric entry. This “care-free” configuration allows a “hands-off” re-entry and greatly reduces aero/thermal loads.
  • 2005 WTCS - Credit Transfer

    2005 WTCS - Credit Transfer
    WTCS and UW System work to increase credit transfer opportunities.
  • 2005 Hurricane Katrina

    2005 Hurricane Katrina
    Early in the morning on August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States. When the storm made landfall, it had a Category 3; it brought sustained winds of 100–140 miles per hour–and stretched some 400 miles across. The aftermath was catastrophic. Many people charged that the federal government was slow to meet the needs of the people affected. Thousands of people in LA, MS and AL were displaced and experts estimate $100 billion in damage.
  • 2006 - Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act (Perkins IV)

    2006 - Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act (Perkins IV)
    Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act also replaces vocational education with career and technical education as the federal definition. It mandates that tech prep must be funded and measured separately from post-secondary programs. Both tech prep and post-secondary programs must meet performance targets. Local programs must meet a 90% target, and if it does not, it must implement an improvement plan.
  • New Job requirements

    New Job requirements
    2006 Bureau of Labor and Statistics
    • 1/3 of the fastest growing occupations will require an associate’s degree or a postsecondary vocational certificate.
    • Between 2008 and 2018, new jobs that require training and education beyond a high school diploma are expected to grow by at least 250,000 in Washington State.
  • 2007 - America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Reauthorization Act

    2007 - America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Reauthorization Act
    An act to invest in innovation through research and development, to improve the competitiveness of the United States, and for other purposes.
  • 2007 WTCS - Federal GI Bill

    2007 WTCS - Federal GI Bill
    WI expands on GI Bill making higher education more accessible to thousands.
  • 2008 Green Jobs

    2008 Green Jobs
    According to the American Solar Energy Society, CTE is responding to the needs of this growing industry by increasing the number of career pathways and providing early introduction to career options and cutting edge training. Secondary and postsecondary programs offer sustainability curriculum and training as well as information on how schools are building state-of-the-art “green” facilities that are energy sustainable, cost-effective and valuable learning environments.
  • 2008 WTCS - New Programs

    2008 WTCS - New Programs
    Colleges launch new high tech programs in bio-refinery and renewable wind, solar an thermal energy.
  • Period: to

    Barack Hussein Obama, 2009-2017

  • 2009 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    2009 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama. Developed in response to the Great Recession, the ARRA's primary objective was to save existing jobs and create new ones as soon as possible. Other objectives were to provide temporary relief programs for those most affected by the recession and invest in infrastructure, education, health, and renewable energy.
  • 2010 WTCS - Community College Summit

    2010 WTCS - Community College Summit
    White House hosts first Community College Summit; recognizing increased importance of career and technical education.
  • Tech Prep Terminated

    Tech Prep Terminated
    While still written into legislation, federal funding for Tech Prep was terminated.
  • 2011 WTCS - Enrollments near 400,000

    2011 WTCS - Enrollments near 400,000
    Record annual enrollments more than 400,000 students.
  • 2014 Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act

    2014 Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act
    WIOA seeks to more fully integrate states' workforce and talent development systems to better serve employers and job seekers.
  • 2015 Creating Quality Technical Educators Act

    2015 Creating Quality Technical Educators Act
    Act that would create a CTE teacher-training grant partnership to recruit and train high-quality CTE teachers. The Creating Quality Technical Educators Act grant would foster partnerships between high-needs secondary schools and post-secondary institutions to create one-year teacher residencies for CTE teachers.
  • 2015 Every Student Succeeds Act

    2015 Every Student Succeeds Act
    The Act governs the United States K–12 public education policy. The law replaced its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and modified but did not eliminate provisions relating to the periodic standardized tests given to students.[2][3] Like the No Child Left Behind Act, ESSA is a reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which established the federal government's expanded role in public education.
  • 2016 Technical Education and Career Help Act Referred

    2016 Technical Education and Career Help Act Referred
    To provide for the preparation of career and technical education teachers.
  • 2016 - Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Centuary Act

    2016 - Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Centuary Act
    This is a reauthorization of the Perkins Act, by a vote of 405 to 5. The proposed bill would afford states and local recipients flexibility while promoting innovation and program alignment within a framework of streamlined administrative requirements and a more intentional focus on local needs. Senate negotiations on Perkins reauthorization have stalled.
  • Period: to

    Donald Trump, 2017

  • 2017 Youth Access to American Jobs Act Referred

    2017 Youth Access to American Jobs Act Referred
    To establish a pilot program to promote public-private partnerships among apprenticeships or other job training programs, local educational agencies, and community colleges, and for other purposes.
  • 1967 Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments

    1967 Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments
    Provided rehabilitation services for migratory workers, eliminated the state residency requirement, and supported the construction and operation of the National Center for Deaf/Blind Youth and Adults.