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History of Education Brianna Fulton

  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Wrote the book called, "Some Thoughts Concerning Education."
    Some Thoughts Concerning Education explains how to educate that mind using three distinct methods: the development of a healthy body; the formation of a virtuous character; and the choice of an appropriate academic curriculum.
  • Christian von Wolff

    Christian von Wolff
    He was called as professor of mathematics and natural philosophy to the University of Halle. Christian Wolff redefined philosophy as the science of the possible, and applied it in a comprehensive survey of human knowledge to the disciplines of his time. Wolffian philosophy has a marked insistence everywhere on a clear and methodic exposition, holding confidence in the power of reason to reduce all subjects to this form.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    In 1747, Franklin organized a proposal for education of youth in Pennsylvania. His efforts led to the opening of the Academy and College of Philadelphia in 1751. Forty years later, the school would combine with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to become the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin was not necessarily in favor of a traditional education and hoped that his academy could serve as a leader in new methods of student-led experiments and learning through individual experience.
  • Johan Pestalozzi

    Johan Pestalozzi
    Pestalozzi was a Romantic who felt that education must be broken down to its elements in order to have a complete understanding of it. He emphasized that every aspect of the child's life contributed to the formation of personality, character, and reason based on what he learned by operating schools at Neuhof, Stans, Burgdorf and Yverdon. Pestalozzi's educational methods were child-centered and based on individual differences, sense perception, and the student's self-activity.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    Before the war, the thirteen colonies had found almost no common ground and they coexisted in mutual distrust. But now they had seen that together they could be a power to be reckoned with. And the next common foe would be Britain. Learning was put on the back burner because the colonies needed people to fight.
  • Noah Webster

    Noah Webster
    An American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". His blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read, secularizing their education. According to Ellis (1979), he gave Americans "a secular catechism to the nation-state." Name synonymous with dictionary.
  • Friedrich Froebel

    Friedrich Froebel
    The German educator, Friedrich Froebel, was one of these pioneers of early childhood educational reform. As an idealist, he believed that every child possessed, at birth, his full educational potential, and that an appropriate educational environment was necessary to encourage the child to grow and develop in an optimal manner. Was the creator of kindergarten.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Drafted November 30, 1782
    Signed September 3, 1783
    The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War. The concession of the vast trans-Appalachian region was designed to facilitate the growth of the American population.
  • The Constitutional Convention

    The Constitutional Convention
    May 25 to September 17 1787
    Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. Changed the branches of government. Changed/gave people more rights.
  • Horace Mann

    Horace Mann
    Mann said pub. schools had problems. 6 main:The public should no longer remain ignorant; that such education should be paid for, controlled, and sustained by an interested public; that this education will be best provided in schools that embrace children from a variety of backgrounds; that this education must be non-sectarian; that this education must be taught by the spirit, methods, and discipline of a free society; and that education should be provided by well-trained, professional teachers.
  • Catherine Beecher

    Catherine Beecher
    Beecher recognized public schools' responsibility to teach moral, physical, and intellectual development of children. She promoted the expansion and development of teacher training programs, deducting that teaching was more important to society than lawyers or doctors. Beecher believed that women have inherent qualities that make them the preferred sex as teachers.Beecher was a strong advocate of the inclusion of Physical Education daily. She also firmly believed in the benefits of read-aloud.
  • William Holmes McGuffey

    William Holmes McGuffey
    He created the most important contribution of his life: The McGuffey Readers. His books sold millions of copies. He was very fond of teaching and children as he geared the books toward a younger audience. McGuffey Readers were a series of graded primers for grade levels 1-6. They were widely used as textbooks in American schools from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, and are still used today in some private schools and in homeschooling. He was also pres. of many universities.
  • Elizabeth Palmer Peabody

    Elizabeth Palmer Peabody
    When Peabody opened her kindergarten in 1860, the practice of providing formal schooling for children younger than six was largely confined to Germany. She had a particular interest in the educational methods of Friedrich Fröbel. She also opened a book store, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody's West Street Bookstore, at her home in Boston (ca.1840-1852). She was also one of the first female book publishers.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    June 18, 1812 – February 18, 1815
    A military conflict that lasted from June 1812 to February 1815, fought between the USA and the United Kingdom. In the United States, late victories over invading British armies at the battles of Plattsburgh, Baltimore and New Orleans produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain. This brought an "Era of Good Feelings" in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism.
  • Elizabeth Blackwell

    Elizabeth Blackwell
    In 1874, Blackwell established a women's medical school in London with Sophia Jex-Blake, who had been a student at the New York Infirmary years earlier. Blackwell became deeply involved with the school, it opened in 1874 as the London School of Medicine for Women, with the goal of preparing women for the licensing exam of Apothecaries Hall. Blackwell viewed medicine as a part of social and moral reform. Blackwell felt that women would succeed in medicine because of their humane female values.
  • Booker T. Washington

    Booker T. Washington
    Booker T. Washington put himself through school and became a teacher after the Civil War. In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama (now known as Tuskegee University), which grew immensely and focused on training African Americans in agricultural pursuits.The schools which Washington supported were founded primarily to produce teachers, as education was critical for the black community following emancipation. The local schools were a source of communal pride
  • The National Teachers Association

    The National Teachers Association
    The National Education Association has been ahead of its time, crusading for the rights of all educators and children. Over the years, NEA has played a vital role in improving the conditions under which teachers work and children learn. State education associations existed in 15 of the 31 states in the Union, but there was no national organization to be a single clear voice for America’s teachers. Until one day in 1857, when 10 state associations sent out an invitation to the nation’s educators.
  • Alfred Binet

    Alfred Binet
    Binet found the impetus for the development of his mental scale. Binet and Simon, in creating what historically is known as the Binet-Simon Scale, comprised a variety of tasks they thought were representative of typical children's abilities at various ages. This task-selection process was based on their many years of observing children in natural settings. For the practical use of determining educational placement, the score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age.
  • John Dewey

    John Dewey
    Dewey continually argues that education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. All students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning. Dewey makes a strong case for the importance of education not only as a place to gain content knowledge, but also as a place to learn how to live. Hands on learning.
  • US Civil War

    US Civil War
    April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865
    The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America. The Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U.S. history. Many young men were the people fighting.
  • Maria Montessori

    Maria Montessori
    In 1906 Montessori was invited to oversee the care and education of a group of children of working parents in a new apartment building for low-income families in Rome. The children were also shown the use of the materials Montessori had developed.[28] Montessori herself, occupied with teaching, research, and other professional activities, oversaw and observed the classroom work, but did not teach the children directly.
  • Committee of Ten

    Committee of Ten
    In the United States, by the late 1800s, the want for educational standardization manifested across the country. One philosophy favored rote memorization, another favored critical thinking. One designated American high schools as institutions that would divide students into college-bound and working-trades groups from the start; these institutions sometimes further divided students based on race or ethnic background. Another philosophy attempted to provide standardized courses for all students.
  • Jean Piaget

    Jean Piaget
    Piaget wanted to revolutionize the way researches were conducted. Although he started researching with his colleagues using a traditional method of data collection, he was not fully satisfied with the results and wanted to keep trying to find new ways of researching using a combination of data, which included naturalistic observation, psychometrics, and the psychiatric clinical examination, in order to have a less guided form of research that would produce more genuine results.
  • Spanish American War

    Spanish American War
    April 21, 1898 – August 13, 1898
    A conflict fought between Spain and the United States in 1898. The war marked American entry into world affairs. Since then, the U.S. has had a significant hand in various conflicts around the world, and entered many treaties and agreements. The Panic of 1893 was over by this point, and the U.S. entered a long and prosperous period of economic and population growth, and technological innovation that lasted through the 1920s.
  • Benjamin Bloom

    Benjamin Bloom
    He was an American educational psychologist who made contributions to the classification of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning. Directed a research team which conducted a major investigation into the development of exceptional talent whose results are relevant to the question of eminence, exceptional achievement, and greatness. Edited Taxonomy of educational objectives: classification of educational goals, outlined a classification of learning objectives-Bloom's taxonomy
  • World War I

    World War I
    A global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. The war drew in all the world's economic great powers. By 1922, there were between 4.5 million and 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I.
  • American Federation of Teachers

    American Federation of Teachers
    An American labor union that primarily represents teachers. The union was founded in Chicago in 1916, with Margaret Haley credited as its founder and first leader. A precursor to the group, the American Federation of Teachers and Students, was founded in 1900. 60 percent of AFT's members work in education, with the rest of the members as paraprofessionals, school-related personnel, local, state and fed. employees; higher education faculty and staff, and nurses and other healthcare professionals.
  • Gestalt Theory

    Gestalt Theory
    A philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology. Gestalt psychology is an attempt to understand the laws behind the ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. original famous phrase of Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts,"
  • Tennessee Vs. John Scopes

    Tennessee Vs. John Scopes
    An American case in May 1925 where a substitute hs teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school. The trial was staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, where it was held. Scopes was found guilty but the verdict was overturned on a technicality. It was seen as both a theological contest and a trial on whether "modern science" should be taught in schools.
  • Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)
    a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States. Introduced in 1926, its name and scoring have changed several times; originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, it was later called the Scholastic Assessment Test, then the SAT I: Reasoning Test, then the SAT Reasoning Test, and now, simply the SAT. The SAT is owned and published by the College Board. he test is intended to assess students' readiness for college.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    Lasted 10 years
    The deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. In the United States, the Great Depression began soon after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors. Karl Marx saw recession and depression as unavoidable under free-market capitalism as there are no restrictions on accumulations of capital other than the market itself. Women=housewives. Children postponed.
  • World War II

    World War II
    1939 to 1945
    In Europe, before the outbreak of the war, the Allies had significant advantages in both population and economics. In 1938, the Western Allies had a 30% larger population and a 30% higher gross domestic product than the European Axis. Germany and Japan used millions of slave labor (often young people). Children were also in Nazi concentration camps as well as labor camps.
  • Truman Commission Report

    Truman Commission Report
    Higher Education for American Democracy was a report to U.S. President Harry S. Truman on the condition of higher education in the United States. The commission to write this report was established on July 13, 1946, and it was chaired by George F. Zook. marks the first time in United States history that a President establishes a commission for the purposes of analyzing the country's system of education.
  • Ruby Bridges

    Ruby Bridges
    In spring of 1960, Bridges was one of six black children in New Orleans to pass the test that determined whether they could go to the all-white school, William Frantz Elementary. Bridges went to a school by herself, and three children were transferred to McDonogh No. 19. s soon as Bridges entered the school, white parents pulled their own children out; all the teachers refused to teach while a black child was enrolled. Only one person agreed to teach her.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    In 1692, children were expected to behave under the same strict code as the adults—doing chores, attending church services, and repressing individual differences. Many children learned to read, but most households owned only the Bible and other religious works—including a few that described evil spirits and witchcraft in great detail. Young girls were forbidden to act out or express feelings, this could be why they were so encaptured by the attention they received when they became “bewitched.”
  • Project Head Start

    Project Head Start
    A program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. The transition from preschool to elementary school includes diverse developmental challenges that require the children to engage with their peers outside of the family network, adjust to the space of a classroom, and meet the expectations the school setting provides.
  • California Proposition 227

    California Proposition 227
    The bill's intention was to educate Limited English proficiency students in a rapid, one-year program. It was sponsored by Ron Unz, the runner-up candidate in the 1994 Republican gubernatorial primary. The proposition was controversial because of its close proximity to heated political issues including race, immigration, and poverty.
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    It supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states had to give standardized assessments. The act requires states to provide "highly qualified" teachers to all students. Total federal education funding increased from $42.2 billion to $55.7 billion from 2001 to 2004.
  • The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
    oldest professional association concerned with intellectual and developmental disabilities. AAIDD advocates for the equality, dignity, and human rights of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and for their full inclusion and participation in society.The AAIDD promotes progressive policies, sound research, effective practices, and universal human rights for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.