The development of scientific education

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    scientific education before 1880

    • "A New and Complete System of Arithmetic"
    • 1870's - 1899'a
  • "A New and Complete System of Arithmetic"

    Nicholas Pike wrote the New and Complete System of Arithmetic". It was the first book published for teaching math in the United States.
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    the roots of modern scientific education, 1880 to 1930

    The Committee of Seven
    Incidental Learning
    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
  • 1870's - 1899'a

    Science curriculum was shaped by the Industrial Revolution. This shifted education from the agrarian society to a technical or industrial society.Faculty at the Colleges and Universities required physics and chemistry for college admission. In 1872, Harvard required physics for admission. High School texts were abbreviated college texts.Physics was most important.Chemistry. Biology was added, composed of Botany, Zoology, and Physiology. Labs were introduced, but were usually dull and st
  • The Committee of Seven

    This committee was a strong impact on the sequencing of the curriculum for years. They recommended to teach math according to the developmental age of the students.
  • Incidental Learning

    The Progressive movement adovacated incidental learning. Let the students learn arithmetic when there was a chance. The students will learn it without systematic teaching.
  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

    This organization is the major organization of math educators in the United States. The NCTM now has more than 80,000 members. The work of the NCTM and its leaders has been influential in influencing policy, writing text books, providing resources and professional development for teachers, and the writing of standards. (
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    Curricula of Science and Progressive Education 1930-1950

  • The Gestalt Theory

    Focus on a plan program that wants the development of insight and the understanding of relationships, structures, patterns, interpretations, and principles. Learning goes toward meaning and understanding. The drill gets less importance and the understanding is more used for instruction.
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    The golden age of scientific education 1950 - 1970

  • National Science Foundation (NSF)

    Upgrading the teaching of science . Laid the foundation for next reasearch and reform in science. Modernization of science courses.
  • College Level Courses for High Schoolers

    The College Board create courrses for advanced high schoolrs: Chemistry, biology and physics.
  • Jean Piaget The Child's Conception of Number

    Jean Piaget publishesThe Child's Conception of Number (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1952)This classic of mathematical cognition is considered by many to be the beginning of developmental psychology as it relates to mathematics. It has been influential on math text books, math assessment, and the way we teach math. (
  • The College Board introduces college-level science courses for advanced high-school students: AP Chemistry, AP Biology, AP Physics B/C (which become AP Physics B and AP Physics C in 1969).

  • The Soviet Union launches the first satellite, Sputnik I, into orbit.

  • Sputnik 1/ Space Race

    Launching of the Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union marks the start of the space age and a race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Lots of reforms where created because math and science where failing in the country. There is more enphasis on teaching the talented students.
  • Congress passes the National Defense Education Act, which provides $887 million to boost science education, including doubling funding for the National Science Foundation (NSF)

  • With NSF backing, curriculum development projects that produce the new textbooks and teaching methods take off, including the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, CHEM Study, the Physical Science Studyand Harvard Project Physics.

  • NSF funds its first summer training institutes for elementary educators and increases the number of institutes for high school teachers.

  • National Difense Education Act 1960's

    United States was worried about "losing ground to Soviet science". For that reason they saw the need of having well- prepared high school students. There was a goal for making people understand science knowledge, inquiry and institutions.
  • New Math

    After Sputnik one of the new reforms of the 1960' and the 1970's was the creation of "New Math". With an enphasis on set anguage, properties, proof and abstraction. Some say that this created confusion for the nation.
  • Teaching the disadvantaged

    After the 1950's space race and teaching more the talented, there was a concern in the 1960's about teaching those in disadvantage. There were efforts to equality of opportunity.
  • Curriculum Development in k-12 Science

    The NSF sponsored 20 innovative large scale curriculum development projects with early explosure to science to think and act like sceintists with hands on activites.
    Interactive science classes.
    Federal money for building labs for teaching students.
    First effort to influence curriculum nationally.
  • Supreme Court rules in Epperson v. Arkansas that barring the teaching of evolution is unconstitutional, striking down an Arkansas state law.

  • Apollo 11 lands on the moon, ending the Space Race and inspiring many to pursue careers in science.

  • National Assessment of Education Progress

    The first National Assessment of Education Progress tests in science and other areas. They do it at the state level i 1996.
  • The first National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) exam tests what American students nationwide know about science and other subjects. NAEP begins testing science knowledge at the state level in 1996.

  • Physics for Poets, a college textbook that explains physics to non-science majors without using math, is published.

  • President Nixon signs the National Environmental Education Act, which creates the Office of Environmental Education to provide grants for curriculum development and teacher training.

  • The office is eliminated by Congress in the 1980s, but revived and relocated to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1990.

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    The reaction to the revolution that took place in the curriculum - 1970-1983

  • Back to Basics

    After the confusion created by New Math, the "Back to Basics" trend appreared in 1970's and 1980's. The enphasis was arithmetic computation of memorization of algorithms and basic arithmetic facts.
  • Existing Curriculum Evaluation

    The results of an evaluation ot the curriculm from the 60's makes a lot of teachers go back to teach with text books, because the impact wasn't that big on science education.
  • Freudenthal Institute for Science and Mathematics Education

    The Freudenthal Institute for Science and Mathematics Education (FI), Utrecht University in the Netherlands, was founded in 1971.
    The Fruedenthal Institute is an organization that has had increasing influence on textbook writers and math educators in the US. The Math in the City Project was started as a result of a collaboration between the FI and the City College of New York in 1995. (
  • Congress creates the U.S. Metric Board to promote voluntary adoption of the metric system of measurement, used in science classrooms but not in daily American life. an opportunity to demystify science slips away when the board disbands in 1982.

  • “321 Contact,” the first science television show for kids funded by the federal government, airs on PBS, featuring a disco theme song and cameo appearances by a young Sarah Jessica Parker.

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    A nation's report is in danger

  • President Reagan’s fiscal year 1982 budget slashes funding for the National Science Foundation by 70 percent, eliminating all NSF support for K-12 science initiatives, including teacher institutes and curriculum development.

  • The National Commission on Excellence in Education issues a wake-up call to the American public with its Nation at Risk report, charging that U.S. schools are failing to prepare students to compete globally.

  • President Reagan restores some NSF funding for K-12 science programs and creates the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching

  • 1980's US Economic Competitveness: A Nation at Risk

    The National Commission for Excellence in Education, and other political and mathematicians leaders were concerned about the low expectations and discipline effort in education. Reagan talked about 20-year decline in k-12 and this will be harmful to the economy in the USA.
    Creation of higher expectations on course content and graduation requirements.
    More opportunities for students to learn science in Summer and after school.
  • A Nation at Risk

    A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform is the 1983 report of American President Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education. Its publication is considered a landmark event in modern American educational history.
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science launches Project 2061, a math and science reform group that defines scientific literacy in its reports “Science for All Americans” and “Benchmarks for Science Literacy.”

  • Florida passes a law allowing students to opt out of dissecting animals in science class. Fourteen more states have since passed similar laws, board of education policies or state resolutions, spawning a cottage industry in virtual dissection technology.

  • NASA suspends its “Teacher in Space” program after high school teacher Christa McAuliffe, a crewmember on the Space Shuttle Challenger, dies when the craft explodes shortly after launch.

  • The Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP), inquiry-based curricula that explore societal issues like food safety and water pollution to make science more engaging.

  • Science Education for Public Understanding Program

    This program develops hands on activities, inquiry based curricula giving opportunity for students to study society issues lik pullution.
  • NCTM Standards Creation

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics created the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. (NCTM Standards) stresses problem solving, communication, connections, and reasoning.“The study of mathematics should emphasize reasoning so that students can believe that mathematics makes sense”.
  • The “Physics First” movement begins to grow, as teachers and scientists push to teach physics rather than biology in ninth grade to allow more advanced study of biology and chemistry in subsequent years.

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    Science for all 1990-2000 and beyond

  • Systemic Strategies 1990's

    There was a common goal of offering students knowledge and skills across the core academic subjects.
    Creation of a coordinated policy system with state and local decisions named Benchmarks for Sicencie Literacy and The National Scence Education Standards which were the guiding frameworks.
  • The National Research Council produces the National Science Education Standards, a set of goals for teaching, student knowledge and assessment.

  • Fun in the lab becomes more lucrative when Intel Corp. begins sponsoring the Science Talent Search, the United States’ oldest pre-college science competition, offering $1.25 million in awards

  • The College Board introduces AP Environmental Science.

  • U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley creates the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, led by former U.S. Senator and astronaut John Glenn, to look into strategies to improve mathematics and science teaching.

  • "Before is Too Late"

    The National Commission for Mathematics and Science teaching for the 21st Century was created. They talked about the need of bonuses and salary improvement need to exist to atract more people to teach science.
  • CBS television series “CSI: Crime Scene Investigation” sparks interest in forensic science careers and DNA testing.

  • The No Child Left Behind Act takes the focus off science education as teachers scramble to boost scores on math and reading tests.

  • A federal district court rules that the Dover, Pa., school board cannot require teachers to present “intelligent design” as an alternative to Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution in high school biology classes

  • NCTM Curriculum Focal Points

    In 2006 NCTM published its Curriculum Focal Points
    The Focal Points documents sought to provide clarity for teachers and curriculum writers about what are the most important topics of each grade. The writers of the Focal Points sought to quiet detractors by emphasizing the importance of using algorithms with understanding. The Focal Points are considered to have been highly influential on the Common Core State Standards (
  • The National Academies’ report “Rising Above the Gathering Storm” argues that strengthening science and math education is essential if the U.S. is to remain prosperous in the 21st century.

  • Congress responds to the National Academies’ report with the America COMPETES Act, which authorizes funding for a variety of new programs to improve K-12 science and math education. However, many of the programs go unfunded, in whole or in part.

  • Nationwide Science Testing

    In this year the legislation decides for te first time to create a nationwide science test.
  • Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

    "The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Achieve were the lead partners in the two-part process to develop the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).