History in the making

ED 513 Historical and Social Foundations of Education

  • Period: 5000 BCE to 3000 BCE


    during the Paleo-Indian era, when indigenous people settled here and lived in harmony with the land.
  • 1600 BCE

    DIS22MH: North American Indigenous Signed Language

    Europeans documented use of signed language among North American indigenous peoples as early as the sixteenth century, and anthropologists and linguists generally agree that it was employed long before contact with Europeans.
  • 1500 BCE

    DIS26MH: European brought Western concepts of wellness to the Indigenous

    Western concepts of wellness and medicine directly and tragically conflicted with the indigenous embrace of body, mind, and spirit as one. Any sense of mutuality between European and Native cultures was extinguished by disease, greed, and notions of cultural superiority.
  • Period: 1300 BCE to 1000 BCE


    11-13th centuries with the Crusaders' attempt to Conquer North Africa and the Middle East. Wealth in the hands of a few "Profit Based Religion". Christianity justified colonization and stripping the inhabitants of their culture and wealth.
  • 1200 BCE


    (Dates back to Biblical Times) Music is equated with Freedom. Miriam and the women dancing along with her timbrel at the red sea.
  • 1020 BCE

    ME4MH: Universal Participation in Music

    Hebrew life centered on religion, anbd the Old Testament provides clues as to the role music played in it. By the tine of the prophet Samuel (c.1020 BC), poetry and singing had advanced to a high level. Samuel and David, Israel's second king, are thought to have organized the complex use of voices and instruments that became an integral part of the religious service.
  • Period: 1000 BCE to


  • Period: 1000 BCE to

    Timeline Instructions

    Plotting on Timeline: Plot atleast 3 additions from your readings to the Timetoast Timeline. Add the date or timeframe, Name/Tag your entry and add a sentence to support entry. Pictures are welcomed! Timetoast Tags for entries:
    Code + Page Number + Your Initials Eg: ME12MV:
  • 900 BCE

    ME7MH: Greeks Found a Highly Developed Musical System

    The Greeks came to the Mediterranean basin around 1000 BC, and Greek culture dates to about 900 BC. Among the conquered peoples of the Mediterranean area, the Greeks found a highly developed musical system that included poetry and dancing.
  • 850 BCE

    ME25MH: The Development of the Musical Staff

    Around the middle of the ninth century, neumes (signs) were placed above the text to indicate that a melody was to ascend (/), descend (), or both (8).
  • Period: 700 BCE to 500 BCE


    Sparta is the music capital of Greece.
  • 600 BCE

    ME24MH: Odo of Cluny Invented Music Notation

    Odo presented a systematic use of letters to represent musical pitches, running from A to G. It was the first time that letters had been used in this way, and the system became standard during the Middle Ages.
  • 582 BCE

    ME9MH: Pythagoras Found Connection Between Math & Music

    The Greek mathematician Pythagoras, who influenced the study of music throughout much of Western history, taught that music and arithmetic were intimately connected.
  • Period: 582 BCE to 507 BCE


    Acoustics: halving a vibrating string produces an octave.
    Pythagorean Theorem
  • 500 BCE

    ME7MKG:The Golden Age

    ME7MKG:The Golden Age
    Athen enters a Golden Age. Architecture, the arts, and education develop and grow into important aspects of society. There is a push towards praising every part of being human.
  • 500 BCE


    Musical performance became the province of specialist.
  • 500 BCE

    ME20MH: The Seven Liberal Arts

    The basis for the division of studies reaches back to the Greeks, whose various spiritual and intellectual endeavors were known as "disciplines" by the Romans. The disciplines were divided into many categories, which were reduced to seven in the fifth century AD.
  • 500 BCE


    A Greek Philosophy known as Sophistry did not believe in divinity, but believed through discipline and control can determine ones happiness. Sophistry is reasoning that seems plausible on a superficial level but is actually unsound, or reasoning that is used to deceive.
  • 470 BCE


    Greek Philosopher Pythagorous "Music and Math are integrally connected.
  • 384 BCE

    ME12RR Aristotle's curriculum

    ME12RR Aristotle's curriculum
    His scientific writings covered the theoretical sciences and incorporated the arts ( music and drawing)
  • Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE

    ME14LR: Aristotle's Thoughts on Education

    Aristotle believed that education needs to serve both the community and the individual.
  • Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE


    "Music... was included in education because nature herself... requires that we should be able to, not only work well, but to use leisure well."
  • Period: 380 BCE to 350 BCE


    Plato Writes The Republic and The Laws where he mentions that an ideal education system has two basic elements, Music and Gymnastics
  • 300 BCE


    School Examinations included a test in accompanied singing and a lyre solo.
  • 200 BCE


    The Aulos loses Popularity
  • 100 BCE

    ME15MKG: Literary Education

    By this time, gymnastics and music are seen as static and unnecessary to education. Aristotle thought everyone should learn musical taste, but it was being taught incorrectly in schools and wasn't serving its purpose. By the first century BC, schools were mostly literary.
  • 200


    An example of music education is shared in Athenaeus's Deipnosophisti where he mentions that in Arcadia, boys are required to be taught from infancy the art of singing hymns to heroes and to the gods.
  • 313


    Edict of Milan legalized Christianity
  • Period: 387 to 391

    ME19MKG: De Musica

    St. Augustine of Hippo write a treatise on merging music with Christianity. The work emphasizes Music as an important aspect of Christianity.
  • 396

    ME18MK - St. Augustine

    In his major work about music "De Musica," Augustine reviews Greek musical practices and theory to combine with Christian doctrine. "De Musica" forges the path for music to become a part of Christian life.
  • Period: 475 to 525

    ME18RR- Boethius-Roman scholar

    De Institutione musica= Greek Music Theory was studied for musicians over a Millenium. Music communicates on a lower level through emotions, on a higher level it communicates the truth
  • 510


    Boethius wrote De Institutione Musica which preserved Greek music theory and was studied by musicians for over a millennium.
  • 787

    ME23MK - Charlemagne's Letter on the Necessity of Studies

    Charlemagne establishes schools in monasteries and cathedrals. Boys are required to learn reading, singing, how to determine holidays on the calendar, and Latin. The musical notation of the time does not lend itself to accurate reading, so most music learning is done by memory. Students are also required to learn theory (aka, philosophy of music and aesthetics).
  • Period: 879 to 942

    ME24RR-Odo Cluny-Enchiridion musiche

    Odo Cluny was a choir singer who became the head of the Abbey of Clunny wrote on the theory of Music. Also known as Dialogos da musica.
  • Period: 900 to 950

    ME24MM - Odo de Cluny Letter System A-G

    Presented a systematic use of letters to represent musical pitches running from A to G. It was the first time letters had been used in this way. The system became standard in the Middle Ages.
  • Period: 990 to 1050

    ME25RR-Guido d'Arezzo

    The most important early music teacher. His development of the musical staff. Precise written notation helped revolutionize the study of music.
  • Period: 1100 to 1400

    ME28MM - 12th-14th Centuries, Universities

    In the 12th through the 14th Centuries, many of the greatest universities were built in Europe, including Oxford, Cambridge, and Bologna (12th century), but also Cologne, Prague, and Vienna (14th century
  • 1200


    Manus Musicalis was developed
  • Period: 1250 to 1400

    ME37MM - Conservatories

    Conservatories in Italy developed from asylums or ospedali, for orphaned and illegitimate girls. Two of the oldest are: "Ospedale dei Mendicanti, 1262 and Ospedale della Pieta 1346).
  • 1262

    ME37LR First Conservatory in the World

    ME37LR First Conservatory in the World
    Ospedale dei mendicanti is the first conservatory that was founded in 1262. In those times music training was associated with asylums and hospitals with a strong vocal emphasis
  • 1262

    ME37RR- Beginning of Music Conservatories

    ME37RR- Beginning of Music Conservatories
    Music education through the Western was considered a privilege. Ironically, the roots of the conservatory training for professional musicians were Italian charitable institutions for orphans and underprivileged children. The oldest institutions started in Venice in 1262
  • Period: 1400 to


    Black women were fighting for their rights, for their sense of belonging.
  • Period: 1483 to 1546

    ME31LR Martin Luther Advocates for the First Public School System in the Roman Empire

    Martin Luther develops a plan to create the first public school education system in the Roman Empire. He wanted a well-rounded curriculum for all the people and not necessarily the rich.
  • Period: 1483 to 1546

    MERR31-Martin Luther- Reformation

    Martin Luther recommended adding music, poetry and history, and the whole course of mathematics to the normal curriculum. Luther wanted children to study and enjoy music. He believed that teachers should be musicians.
  • 1492

    IND47MKG: European Settlers

    IND47MKG: European Settlers
    The first European settlers would not have survived a truly wild North America. The settlers survived because of the existing roads, water resources, domestic crops, and deep parks stolen from the Indigenous population that had already established a civilization there.
  • 1492


    Europeans landing on American shores in 1492 was devastating from a health perspective as disease was introduced to the Indigenous population with no Natural immunity.
  • 1494

    IND42MKG: The Treaty of Tordesillas

    IND42MKG: The Treaty of Tordesillas
    This treaty was used to divide the "New World" between Spain and Portugal. The line was drawn vertically through Greenland and Brazil. Everything west would be for Spain, and east would be for Portugal.
  • 1517

    ME31MKG: The Reformation

    ME31MKG: The Reformation
    The responsibility of education was passed from church to state. Enrollment continued to plummet during this time because governments did not have the funds to take on the education system.
  • 1521


    Searching for Treasure based on the idea that gold has "Inherent Value" when in fact the Ore itself has little.
  • 1526


    Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón founded the colony of San Miguel de Gualdape near the Pee Dee River in present-day Georgetown, South Carolina. Like Balboa, Ayllón brought approximately one hundred Africans with him to help set up the colony. These were the first African captives who arrived in the South as a group, and they rebelled shortly after their arrival.
  • 1528

    DIS28MH: Misunderstanding of the signed language between European & Indigenous

    When the Spanish expedition led by Panfilo de Narvaez embarked around what is now Tampa Bay, Florida, in 1528, his chronicler Cabeza de Vaca wrote of the people they encountered, "They made many signs and threateing gestures to us and it seemed that they were telling us to leave the land, and with this they departed from us."
  • 1535


    Hernán Cortés of Spain went on an expedition to present-day California, bringing with him three hundred enslaved people of African descent.
  • 1550


    John Marbecke, a theologian and Henry VIII’s organist at St. George’s chapel in Windsor Castle, wrote The Book of Common Prayer Noted, a musical setting of Bishop Thomas Cranmer’s 1544 Anglican Service
  • 1577


    while traveling the Pacific Ocean in his quest to circumnavigate the globe, Sir Francis Drake captured an enslaved woman named Maria off the coast of Guatemala. Described as a “proper negro wench,” Maria was raped or gang-raped and was impregnated by either the captain or one of his crew. Her experience is one of the most chilling stories in the history of women in the New World. Yet we have no written narrative of her experience, just scattered references to her existence.
  • MCS12MVW: Trial event Name

    MCS12MVW: Trial event Name
    Test: One or two sentences about event
  • ESC27MV: xxxxxxx

  • BW22AD

    Isabel de Olvera, a woman of African descent, petitioned the mayor of Querétaro, Mexico for protection of her rights before joining Juan de Oñate’s expedition to New Spain,
  • BW45AD

    there were one hundred enslaved people in Florida, many belonging to the Crown.
  • IND60MKG: Jamestown

    IND60MKG: Jamestown
    The first settlers in Jamestown could not or would not grow crops and sustain theirselves, so they forced the indigenous people (Powhatan Confederacy) to feed and clothe the settlers and provide land and labor. Wahunsonacock, the leader of the confederacy, questioned the settlers and said "Why should you take by force that from us which you can have by love?...You see us unarmed, and willing to supply your wants, if you come in a friendly manner"
  • DIS16MK

    1616-1619 First recorded epidemics sweep through New England, killing 90-95% of indigenous Algonquian people.
  • Period: to

    DIS15MM - Epidemics swept through New England

    Epidemics swept through New England killing an estimated 90-95% of the Algonquian peoples.
  • DIS41MM - First Africans arrive

    First Africans arrive in North America in 1619, nineteenth in number.
  • DIS16MK

    1630s and 1640s smallpox claims 50% of Huron and Iroquois people in Saint Lawrence River and Great Lakes regions.
  • BW46AD

    “black workers petitioned for wages,” representing one of the first organized labor actions in American history.
  • ESC51LR Harvard College was founded

    ESC51LR Harvard College was founded
    Relative to the colonies, Puritans in the Northeast had a strong emphasis on formal education. They founded Harvard which would educate young men and later women is the first college founded in the United States.
  • DIS21MK

    Puritans establish a male disabled veterans benefit, promising "any that shall goe returne maimed [and] hurt he shalbe mayntayned competenly by the Colony during his life.
  • BW47AD

    the Virginia Assembly allowed for African women to be taxed for their labor, while white women were not. Such legislation marked Black women’s bodies as property, and they were expected to work in the fields, a distinction from white women.
  • ESC52MK - Developing Schools in the New World

    "In 1647, Massachusetts enacted a law requiring towns of 50 families or more to establish a school, to confound the 'Old Deluder Satan' in his quest to lead Christians astray. Connecticut enacted a similar decree just a few years later."
  • ESC71MK - Anglican Church Missionaries

    The Society for the Propagation for the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) works to save Englishmen from drifting away from the church in the colonies, as well as sending ministers and teachers to save non-English peoples to the Anglican faith.
  • BW47AD

    Church stopped baptizing enslaved people.
  • ME34MJG

    John Amos Comenius wrote The Great Didactic, in which he discussed the teaching of music and art specifically in terms of curriculum and method.
  • ESC58MKG: Population to School Ratio

    ESC58MKG: Population to School Ratio
    In 1689, Virginia had a ratio of 1 school to 900 households and New York had a ratio of 1 school to 200 households. As religion became a less central focus, less children went to school to learn to read the bible.
  • DIS22MM - Poor Law

    Beginning in 1693, poor laws allowed local officials to use the estates of either idiots or the distracted to defer the cost of community support.
  • DIS25MM - Massachusetts Statue

    Statue guaranteed that each community has the effectual responsibility to take the effectual care and make the necessary provision for the relief support and safety of such impotent ot distracted person.
  • DIS25MK

    Massachusetts statute guarantees that each community had the responsibility "to take effectual care and make necessary provision for the relief, support, and safety of such impotent or distracted person."
  • DIS36MK

    People with disabilities were considered annoying, but not necessarily dangerous threats that needed to be isolated and ostracized at all times. This lead to some still contributing in roles such as school teacher.
  • ESC54MK - End of Puritan Theocracy

    "By the end of the 1600s, the original Puritan theocracy had virtually disappeared. Religion continued to be a preeminent factor in the cultural lives of most New Englanders, but church leaders did not command the same authority their forefathers had wielded (Rutman, 1970)."
  • DIS27MK

    Increased settlement forces colonies to increase regulations of who is allowed to embark on the journey to the New World. The laws were intended to stop those who were "poor, vicious, and infirm."
  • DIS46MM - Law passed to discourage importation of slaves

    In 1708, Rhode Island passed one of the first laws attempting to discourage the importation of refuse slaves
  • BW43AD

    a shipload of ninety-one African captives leaving Guinea for Rhode Island on the sloop Little George revolted and took control of the ship for nearly ten days. There were approximately sixty-one women and children among this group of captives and they participated in the rebellion that started one morning, a few hours before daybreak, at 4 a.m.,
  • DIS40MM - Smallpox hits Cherokee nation

    Nearly half of the Cherokee nation of Oklahoma died when smallpox hit in 1738
  • DIS40MM - Smallpox hits Cherokee nation

    Nearly half the Cherokee nation died when smallpox hit Oklahoma in 1728
  • DIS39MM - John Wesley's medical manual Primitive Physic (1747)

    Suggested treating 'lunacy' with a daily ounce of vinegar.
  • Period: to

    ESC4LR: Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution changed society and exacerbated social class and norms. This event helped shape the standardization of education and it's relationship with society
  • Period: to


    Industrialization first occurred in Great Britain, between 1750 and 1850. It appeared a little later in the United States, in the mid-19th century. And it developed even later in Japan and other countries. Wherever it happened, however, industrialization had a profound impact on the people who experienced it, and it has produced a lasting effect on the organization of society (Ashton, 1948; Brownlee, 1979).
  • Period: to

    IND53MKG: The Seven Years' War/ French and Indian War

    Originating in Europe, the conflict between England and France was seen under a different name in the British colonies as well. However, in the colonies, it was mainly British versus indigenous people who occasionally sided with the French.
  • DIS42MH: Samuel Coolidge Story

    Samuel Coolidge graduated from Harvard in 1738, but got banished from Massachusetts and sent home because of his mental illness and get locked down in a room till death in 1764
  • AAL13RR-South Carolina Gazette

    South Carolina Gazette: The pages of the Charleston-based in the 1770s reveal an interior world of racial capital and the degradation of labor. It was a type of commercial newspaper that promoted the breeding, tradition, recapture, and punishments of African Americans in order to sustain merchant profits.
  • AAL13RR

    The South Carolina Gazette reveal an interior world of racial capitalism and the degradation of labor. This gazette was typical of commercial newspapers that promoted the breeding, tradeng, recapture, and punishment of African Americans in order to sustain merchant profits.
  • Period: to

    AAL12RR-Age of Revolution in the Americas

    The Haitian Revolution
    Peru's anti-colonial insurgencies
    Greta Britain's thirteen North American colonies revolution
    Mexican's War of Independence
  • AAL12RR-Someset vs Stewart Case

    The English Court's Somerset v. Stewart case decided in the freeing of James Somerset, an enslaved African who had been brought by his master to England a few years earlier.
  • DIS37MM - Virginia's first asylum for people with mental and cognitive disabilities

    For description says for "ideots lunatics, and persons of unsound minds"
  • DIS37MK

    Institutions opening for those with disabilities exclusively, after the widespread use of almshouses at the end of the colonial period.
  • AAL15RR-African Slavery in America

    AAL15RR-African Slavery in America
    The revolutionary pamphleteer Thomas Paine published African Slavery in America, which included slavery in all levels: So monstrous is the making and keeping them slaves at all, abstracted from the Barbarous usage they suffer, and the many evils attending the practice: as selling husbands away from wives, children from parents, and from each other, in violation of sacred and natural ties.
  • Period: to

    IND11MKG: Indian Reservations

    During this time, the government offered Native Americans protection from settlers and provided other services in exchange for occupying a smaller amount of land.
  • BW60AD

    James Burton of Virginia requested that the Fifth Virginia Regiment return the eight enslaved people he had allowed to serve in the war. Berry, Daina Ramey; Gross, Kali Nicole. A Black Women's History of the United States (REVISIONING HISTORY) (p. 61). Beacon Press. Kindle Edition.
  • ME115MC

    American Academy of Arts and Sciences was founded in Boston
  • AAL12RR-Peru's anticolonial insurgencies

    AAL12RR-Peru's anticolonial insurgencies
    Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera, claiming the mantle of the last King of the Incan Empire, rechristened himself Tupac Amaru II, and with his African-Descent Wife, Micael Bastidas launched a rebellion against Spanish Rule.
  • ESC67-68MK - New York African Free School

    The Manumission Society opens the New York African Free School for free black children the same year the Constitutional Convention meets to discuss a charter for the newly born nation. The school was meant to instill "traditional morality [in] the children of ex-slaves."
  • ESC74MK - Northwest Ordinance

    Second Continental Congress passes the Northwest Ordinance, allowing federal land sales to support education. "National leaders believed an educated citizenry was essential to the future."
  • ME111MC

    Constitution was ratified

  • AAL20RR-Congress passed the Naturalization Act

    AAL20RR-Congress passed the Naturalization Act
    Congress passed the Naturalization Act which restricted the naturalization process toward citizenship in the United States to" any alien being free white person" The Naturalization act worked to exclude nonwhite people from the benefits of citizenship even and entrenched racism as the philosophy of westward expansion.
  • QUE27LR Queerness is protected by the French Goverment

    The French established The Declaration of the Rights of Man" included the right "to do anything that does not injure others" Sexual acts that were considered crimes were rape, child prostitution, and selling pornography.
  • IND83MKG: William Wells

    IND83MKG: William Wells
    William Wells was captured my the Miamis, lived with them for 9 years, and married Little Turtle's daughter. He meant to represent the Miamis Nation in 1792 with a negotiation with the US, but found his long lost family who convinced him to return to KY.
  • DIS40MM - George Vancouver reaches Puget Sound

    British explorer and navigator George Vancouver first reached Puget Sound in 1792, he met members of the southern Coast Salish nation who already had been scarred and lost vision due to smallpox.
  • IND83MKG:Fallen Timbers

    IND83MKG:Fallen Timbers
    The Shawnee were over powered by the US rangers. After the victory for the US, they devastated land for the next 3 days. This defeat was a large one for the people of the Ohio Country.
  • Period: to

    ESC35MM - 19th Century - Women's Education

    Early in American history women received little schooling, but after the Revolutionary War new attention was given to their education. Public schools were established during the 19th century. Most were coeducational, providing boys and girls with similar educational opportunities. Female enrollment grew, and, by mid-century, women’s literacy rates in northern states were almost equal to men’s. Women also began to attend academies, high schools, and colleges in greater numbers
  • QUE37LR Sampson Gannet

    Sampson Gannet gave public lectures about her time pretending to be a revolutionary soldier and being a woman. Discussed why she chose to crossdress.
  • AAL39MJG

    The revolutionaries won their independence and christened their new nation Haiti in honor of the original Indigenous inhabitants' name for the island, Ayiti. The Haitian revolution was a major impetus for the abolition of slavery and independence in the Americas
  • IND85GK

    Treaty of Fort Wayne. Indiana's territorial governor, William Henry Harrison badgered and bribed a few destitute individuals from the Delaware, Miami, and Potawatomi to sign. Meaning they would hand over their land that is now Southern Indiana.
  • AAL70MJG

    The Mexican War of Independence began. They were able to recruit a lot of slaves and people from other towns but they had issues with acquiring weapons. At the time, muskets were considered their most invaluable weapons. Of course, the uprising was seen as a battle against rich people to demoralize the group.
  • AAL34RR-Mexican War of Independence

    AAL34RR-Mexican War of Independence
    Morelos, Miguel Hidalgo, and Vicente Guerrero, and their comrades recruited fighters to the Mexican War of Independence by invoking the ideas of Civil Rights of Racial Equality.
  • BW18AD

    A 13 year old black girl named Grace Wisher was part of "group of women “helped design the flag” that would later “inspire Francis Scott Key to write the national anthem.”"
  • AAL75MJG

    During the War of 1812 in America, British commanders in Florida had given slaves the choice to join them instead of being enslaved in the US as claimed by John Quincy Adams. Unfortunately, he believed they needed to secure the US’ southern borders against the threat of a slave revolt due to rebellions of slaves in Florida.
  • AAL33RR-Sentimientos de la Nación-Feelings of the Nation

    AAL33RR-Sentimientos de la Nación-Feelings of the Nation
    Jose Maria Morelos leader of the Mexican Independence wrote a document to President James Madison requesting the support of the United States against Spanish Colonialism. Los Sentimientos de la Nacion called for the abolition of slavery and for an end to the dejure caste oppression of the indigenous as well as Independence from Spain.
  • AAL70MC

    Morelos, leader of the Mexican War of Independence, wrote to President James Madison, requesting the support of the United States in his people’s struggle against Spanish colonialism. He was fighting against Spain and demanding an end to slavery, the caste system of the indigenous, and Spanish rule over Mexico.
  • DIS51MM - The Connecticut Asylum for the Education nd Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons

    The Connecticut Asylum for the Education nd Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons is an example of institutional creation often experienced as empowering and liberating.
  • ME115MC

    Workingmen’s Association called for free public schools, which eventually developed into a unified nationwide effort to establish common schools
  • AAL22RR-Twenty first anniversary of Haitian Independence

    Free African Americans honor celebrated the twenty-first anniversary of Haitian Independence. Honoring the Haitian Revolution in Baltimore was especially meaningful in light of the grueling conditions that African Americans faced in Maryland.
  • ME128LR Hartford Experiement

    Ives implemented Pestalozzian principles in Hartford first implemented. Results are inconclusive
  • ME160LR Vocal Music in Boston

    Vocal Musci got approved to be a content area at the Boston Academy of Music
  • AAL119MJG

    To officially end the Mexican War, the US and Mexico negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In this exchange, the prevalent racism prevented most Latinx people from becoming actual US citizens. Instead, their title as US citizens were added with more regulations and laws.
  • DIS52MM - Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention

    The Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention was used by advocates for women to make claims for equal citizenship.
  • AAL114MC

    The Frederick Douglass’ Paper, originally known as North Star, set the amount from the nation’s coffers to be used to expand slavery at around $227.25 million. This would underline the racist and classist undertones in our system.
  • AAL44MJG

    Harriet Tubman escaped Eliza Ann Brodess's Eastern Shore estate to freedom in Philadelphia.
  • QUE46LR Samesex dancing in San Fransico

    Same-sex dancing is accepted in San Fransisco when in other parts of the country it was not at the time.
  • AAL110MC

    In the pursuit of the white purification in the West, California imposed a foreign miner’s tax to expel Chinese and Mexican miners. It was clearly an act of blatant racism especially when California joined the US as a “free” state but tolerated slavery.
  • ESC186MK

    Darwin's evolutionary theory appears for the first time.
  • Period: to

    AAL64RR-The Christian Recorder

    Exulted in the gallant Mexican defense at Puebla between 1862 and 1863 and marveled at the besieged garrison's ability to hold out against French artillery.
  • IND136MKG: Mass Hanging

    IND136MKG: Mass Hanging
    The Dakota Sioux revolted against the settlers, but the settlers fought back and took several hundred men captive, planning to kill 300. President Lincoln ordered them to select 38 at random to hang, resulting in the largest mass hanging in US history.
  • IND93GK

    1864 Sand Creek Massacre. Counterinsurgent Warfare targeting Indigenous Civilians. Seminoles.
  • DIS93MK

    A post Civil War report to the Union secretary of war states "helpless" former slaves keep working on plantations of former owners due to inability to leave and need to work for food - "scores of disabled slaves remained enslaved."
  • AAL59RR-State legislature abrogated the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution

    Persona non grata in the Pacific Northwest.
  • AAL140MC

    Robert Elliot, a black assemblyman and Union Army veteran, introduced resolutions in support of Cuban independence and military action against the Spanish before the South Carolina House of Representatives.
  • ESC15LR: African Americans Post Civil War

    An influx of African American students goes to school to receive formal education post-Civil War. This expanded opportunities to receive an education and have articulated leaders.
  • AAL137MJG

    Participants appeared at the Fifteenth Amendment ratification celebration in Nevada to draw up a list of resolutions to ensure African Americans abroad, specifically Cuba, also get government support for human rights.
  • ESC182MK

    Nation's rail system expands from 50k miles to more than 200k miles.
  • AAL142MJG

    At the Colored National Convention held in New Orleans, Frederick Douglass, Governor P. B. S. Pinchback, William Wells Brown, George L. Ruffin, and other luminaries were speakers who supported the changing resolution of the Cuban solidarity movement. They believed in receiving military support outside of US forces due to the belief that the US would impose US imperialism upon Cuba in a military operation there.
  • AAL143MC

    At the height of Reconstruction, the Reverend Henry Highland Garnet delivered the keynote address at the founding convention of the Cuban Anti-Slavery Committee held at Cooper Union in New York City, the epicenter of the national Cuban solidarity movement.
  • AAL308MC

    The Dawes Act was implemented by the US government which resulted in stealing about 90 million acres of land from Native Americans since it was so easy to quicken this theft of land.
  • IND93GK

    Wounded Knee Massacre, 1890. 300 Lakota People Murdered. Ethnic cleansing tactics targeting Indigenous Civilians.
  • AAL52MJG

    Frederick Douglas spoke about the Haitian Revolution at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. "...but we owe incomparably more to Haiti than to them all. [Prolonged Applause.] I regard her as the original pioneer emancipator of the nineteenth century."
  • DIS95MK

    Agatha Tiegel is the the first female graduate of DC's National Deaf-Mute College. As valedictorian, she delivers an address titled "The Intellect of Woman" to declare there is no inferiority in the intellect of women.
  • QUE137LR Physical Culture

    A popular monthly magazine that set tone for conventional thoughts on men and women.
  • AAL247MJG

    In “The Truth About the United States,” José Martí was making a critique about how the US was clearly greedy based on their efforts to absorb northern Mexico and control the currency of the Americas.
  • AAL312MC

    When Thomas A. Harris ignored Ku Klux Klan warnings against practicing law in Tuskegee, Alabama, he was shot and fled to sanctuary in Mexico. This is a prime example of how improvement in American culture expressed by African Americans and Latinx people was met with violence.
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    US colonies established between 1898 and 1919. Hawai'i
    Puerto Rico
    The Virgin Islands
    American Samoa
    The Marshall Islands
    Northern Mariana Many still colonies today and used for testing of bombs and military bases along many more islands in the Pacific, Indian oceans, and Caribbean.
  • ESC16MKG: Training

    ESC16MKG: Training
    By the beginning of the 20th century, teachers began receiving formal, professional training. Previously, they had little more knowledge than the students they taught.
  • DIS134MK

    National Association of the Deaf and National Fraternal Society of the Deaf works against discrimination.
  • IND166MKG: Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

    IND166MKG: Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    President Theodore Roosevelt added a Corollary that declared that "any nation engaged in 'chronic wrong-doing'--That is, did anything to threaten perceived US economic or political interests--would be disciplined militarily by the United States." This addition to the Monroe Doctrine allowed the US to rule as a global superpower over all other nations that didn't comply with the "rules" of the US.
  • AAL262MC

    W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter founded a national civil rights organization called Niagara Movement that issued a public manifesto explaining that racism and class oppression were intertwined in the US and outside of the US.
  • DIS90MK

    Lavinia Warren, a dwarf on display, wrote in her autobiography: It seemed impossible to make people understand at first that I was not a child; that, being a woman, I had the womanly instinct of shrinking from a form of familiarity which in the case of a child of my size would have been as natural as it was permissible."
  • ESC184MK

    Immigration surges to a peak of one million annually.
  • ME36MJG

    A law was passed in Germany requiring music teachers to pass a state examination after three or four terms of study
  • AAL304MJG

    According to the American Social History Project, the US was the world’s greatest industrial power at a clear cost of increasing inequality, consistent reinforcement of racism to keep up class oppression, and voter suppression to also repress labor rights.
  • AAL301MJG

    The idea of the US as a “classless society” wasn’t a thing anymore clearly considering the many labor conflicts, mass strikes, boycotts, etc. Workers were waking up to these injustices they faced in their workplaces combined with low wages or long work hours.
  • ESC193MK

    Dewey (alongside daughter Evelyn) publishes Schools of Tomorrow, describing ideal schools from around the country.
  • ESC218MK

    White public high schools outnumber Black public schools in the Deep South 10 to 1.
  • ESC206MK

    The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education reports the comprehensive high school, bringing together students from all backgrounds in a single institution, is the ideal model.
  • AAL131RR-Scores of workers were murdered

    In the Elaine Arkansas. massacre of 1919, which drove cotton wages back down
  • ESC201MK

    US schools use IQ tests for categorization of students in classes, curricula, etc.
  • DIS139MK

    FDR contracts polio and becomes paralyzed from the waist down.
  • IND169MKG: Indian Citizenship Act

    IND169MKG: Indian Citizenship Act
    This act led towards assimilation and dissolution of what is left of the Native American Tribes at this point. The US is making basic live necessities inaccessible for the Native Americans.
  • AAL122RR-The US border patrol

    AAL122RR-The US border patrol
    The US Border Patrol was created in 1924 ostensibly to provide border security
  • AAL309MJG

    The US Border Patrol was created to provide border security which was clearly a way to control labor through immigration enforcement. The US employers and politicians wanted to deny workers US citizenship and better wages to continue their rich way of living by reinforcing racist stereotypes of Mexican workers.
  • QUE133LR Buck V. Bell

    Ruled that compulsory sterilization was constitutional " for the protection of the state"
  • AAL131RR-The US congress passed the Immigration Act

    The previous enabled the US to target Mexicans for deportation.
  • BW13AD

    “We must have a glorified womanhood that can look any man in the face—white, red, yellow, brown, or black—and tell of the nobility of character within black womanhood,”-Nannie Helen Burroughs early black nationalist and feminist idealogies emerge.
  • DIS132MK

    Protest of Emergency Relief Bureau for city and federal policies that automatically rejected all people with disabilities from work relief programs due to being "unemployable." The League of the Physically Handicapped stated "The Handicapped still are discriminated against by Private Industry..."
  • AAL301MC

    There was a massacre of striking steelworkers in Chicago that the corporate media news portrayed these victims of police attack as specific races, Mexicans and Bolsheviks. It relates to today how corporate media news still tries to do this to divide the country using racism and blaming a group.
  • DIS136MK

    Deaf works become employable per WPA regulations in 1938. In 1939, this is reversed.
  • DIS140MK

    FDR and others affiliated with the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation found the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. NFIP later becomes the March of Dimes.
  • DIS142MK

    Parents are routinely encouraged to institutionalize their children with mental retardation in post-war America. They are further encouraged to never mention or acknowledge these children.
  • DIS148MK

    Government employment-agency placement of people with disabilities rise from 28k in 1940 to 300k in 1945. Between 1940 and 1950 the placements reached 2 million.
  • AAL335MJG

    The Act of Chapultepec was a domestic and foreign policy adopted by 20 republics, resolved to undertake joint action in repelling any aggression against an American state. This was vital in that a group of Mexican American parents were able to use this in court to challenge the inferior schooling their children were getting. They required signatory nations to outlaw discrimination and segregation.
  • QUE178LR Kinsey Report

    Kinsey report is a sexual study that focused on male sexual behaviour and how it discussed many facets of sexual orientation. It received a lot of media attention
  • BW190AD

    Brave Black women plaintiffs such as Ada Lois Sipuel, who sued to desegregate the University of Oklahoma Law School in 1948, helped make Brown v. Board of Education a reality.
  • QUE1LR Mattachine Society

    Harry Hary founded the Mattachine Society, the first public gay group in the United States.
  • Period: to


    During Civil Rights California Indigenous research of their history found that not a single mission went without uprising.
  • QUE202LR Multiple frames are presented in media

    A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry presented an openly gay character who focused on face, freedom, and responsibility. First time there was an openly gay character who handled racial issues in a play.
  • AAL340MC

    The NYT wrote in their article that communists may ultimately take over Guatemala and then invade other Latin nations. It’s incredible how what is now considered a legitimate, sophisticated source was then used as militarism and political manipulation to support US foreign policy in Latin America.
  • IND12MKG: Indigenous Land

    IND12MKG: Indigenous Land
    By this time, the Indigenous population of the U.S. lived on only 2.3% of the land they originally had.
  • BW187AD

    At age thirty-seven, in 1955, Aurelia was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. Though this act of defiance is most commonly associated with the brave action of Rosa Parks in December 1955, Rosa was not the first Black woman to protest such racist treatment in this way. In fact, she was not even the first Black woman to do so that year. Berry, Daina Ramey; Gross, Kali Nicole. A Black Women's History of the United States (REVISIONING HISTORY) (p. 187). Beacon Press. Kindle Edition.
  • BW191AD

    Mamie Till-Mobley (Emmett Till's mother) speaks out:“We remark about the Iron Curtain in Russia, but there’s a cotton curtain in Mississippi that must have a steel lining. When you make a telephone call, I don’t know who signals whom, but the person that you want to talk to doesn’t want to talk if the call is coming from Chicago. The people that you always knew as being great, wonderful leaders, suddenly had nothing whatsoever to say.”
  • AAL339MC

    Lorraine Hansberry wrote a play A Raisin in the Sun which portrays a glimpse into her dad’s dreams of not experiencing racism in practice in school or life and convinced him to move his family to Chapultepec instead of Chicago. Chapultepec, Mexico was one of the origins of the modern civil rights movement and Chicano movement.
  • BW205AD

    a pathological avowed white racist, bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham. The explosion claimed the lives of four Black girls: Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, and Carole Robertson.
  • AAL348MJG

    The government-sponsored Bracero Program was the temporary importation of workers from Mexico to aid the American agricultural economy. This shows an abandonment of more than 4 million Mexican workers who left their families behind and came to work in the fields of California.
  • QUE174LR Loving v. Virginia

    This 1967 Supreme Court rulling allowed interracial marriage.
  • ESC1GK

    Intro As historian Henry Perkinson noted,
    schooling has been an “imperfect panacea” for curing the nation’s
    ills, often promising changes it failed to deliver (Perkinson, 1968).
    But he also said little about what it could do.
  • Period: to

    IND225MKG: Chagos Archipelago

    The US and Britain removed the Chagossians from their homeland and killed and burned all their pets in order to establish a military facility near Russia, China, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
  • QUE1LR Stonewall Riots!

    QUE1LR Stonewall Riots!
    Stonewall Riots took place in New York's Greewich Village
  • AAL345MC

    There was a study of working-class Mexican American communities in the Southwest that echoed MLK’s observation on the intersections of class and race inequalities. MLK noticed capitalism leaves a huge gap between the rich and poor, the nonexistence of upward mobility, and encouragement of lacking emotions. The study showed the lack of equal rights workers had, the poor living conditions working families were in, etc.
  • IND179MKG: First Land Restitution to an Ind. Nation

    IND179MKG: First Land Restitution to an Ind. Nation
    Public law 91-550 was the first land restitution. President Nixon signed the bill and the Taos Pueblo Indians were returned 48,000 acres of land in NM that they have been fighting for for 64 years.
  • DIS00MM - 1975 - Congress passes the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)

    1975 - Congress passes the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA), which, for the first time, required all schools accepting federal funding to provide education to all students with disabilities. (taken from Special Education training)

    The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) applied for and received "UN nongovernmental consultative status." They organized a conference in 1977 to push the continued existence of Native peoples.
  • IND203GK

    The IITC (International Indian Treaty Council) organized the first conference to be held at the United Nations on Indigenous Peoples of the Americas in 1977
  • AAL343MJG

    The Black Women Writers in the Diaspora Conference was held. It was an example of how African Americans would keep expressing their dissent against coups and military interventions from Guatemala to Vietnam and US sponsored wars in Central America.
  • AAL394MC

    New York Post revealed that money designated to fight drug abuse and illiteracy in ghetto schools was going to wealthy schools instead. It was an example of how the advanced nation, US, was having schools serve already well-off children rather than poor students which makes students have a higher chance to stay in poverty.
  • DIS00MM - Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    1990 - Congress replaced the EAHCA with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (taken from Special Education training)
  • AAL387MC

    The presidential election which ended with the Supreme Court choosing George W Bush without giving care to obvious voter suppression towards Haitian American and Latinx voters showed the link between neoliberalism’s contempt for democracy and racial injustice.
  • AAL388MJG

    Hurricane Katrina showed how slow the US government’s response was and displayed how neoliberal corporate media from federal and state authorities portrayed once again working-class people to be prone to criminality and corruption. They especially targeted African Americans, immigrants, aliens, etc.
  • AAL383MJG

    During International Workers’ Day, the Great American Strike or el gran paro Estadounidense was started by Latinx workers that showed vehement disapproval of unfair labor exploitation by simply not showing up. It gave way to the immigration rights movement and legislation for a living wage.
  • BW193AD

    In 2017 the New York Times reported that Emmett Till’s accuser, Carolyn Bryant, confessed that she had lied about what happened that day.
  • ESC2GK

    People today often remark that change is occurring
    faster than ever, but the present is hardly unique in this respect