Child learning

Milestones in American Education

  • Establishment of Harvard College

    Establishment of Harvard College
    Founded for, 'English and Indian youth of this country, in knowledge and godliness'
    “The Let every Student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the maine end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life (John 17:3) and therefore to lay Christ in the bottome, as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and Learning.”
    https://answersingenesis.org/blogs/georgia-purdom/2011/10/11/harvard-no-longer-truth-for-christ-and-the-church/
  • Period: to

    Milestones in American Education

    Major developments in American education from 1636 to 2017.
  • Massachusetts School Law

    Massachusetts School Law
    The General Court of Massachusetts creates a law (Gutek, p. 10) that orders parents to provide their children a basic education. The intent of the law was to ensure that children would be literate enough to read the Bible and function as informed citizens.

    Gutek, Gerald. An Historical Introduction to American Education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2012 or 2013.
  • Old Deluder Satan Law

    Old Deluder Satan Law
    Their intent was to avoid citizens who were religious in nature but gullible to non-scriptural religious and government traditions as were many illiterate Europeans of the past. They therefore revamped the law by enacting a requirement of all groups of 50 homes to fund a full time teacher of reading and writing. Towns of 100 had an additional requirement of supporting a teacher of Latin and Greek.

    1. http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/banned.htm
    2. Gutek, 2013
  • Influence of Pennsylvanian Thought

    Influence of Pennsylvanian Thought
    The establishment of the Colony of Pennsylvania creates a Haven for devout Protestants such as Lutherans, Quakers, and Amish. These groups bring a culture of education that is equally devout as the Puritans but with contrasting perspectives. The Pennsylvanians for instance encourage arts and refrain from corporal punishment which provides alternative and more pluralistic thought to northern American colonies.
    (Gutek, p. 23)
  • Expansion of Plantation Education System

    Expansion of Plantation Education System
    James Oglethorpe establishes the colony of Georgia which in turn spreads the plantation system. Unlike the colony of Massachusetts, Georgia, Virginia, and the Carolinas are chartered by England and established with the intent of supporting for profit farms. Plantation leadership fashion themselves after English aristocracy. Education is viewed as a tool to maintain supremacy of the ruling class. This is why the South lacks a counterpart to the Ivy League tradition of the North.
    (Gutek, p. 18)
  • American Philosophical Society

    American Philosophical Society
    The American Philosophical Society encouraged learning and research in matters beyond basic reading and math. Its founding members established a foundation from which the sciences were integrated into schools across the Country. It also facilitated the development of learning organizations that focused on singular subjects such as chemistry, agriculture, and astronomy. (Gutek, p. 40)
    https://www.amphilsoc.org/about
  • North-West Land Ordinance

    North-West Land Ordinance
    The North-West Land Ordinance created the precedent of allocating state revenue for the purpose of education. The justification of state sponsored education was for the establishment of, “good government and the happiness of mankind”. In contrast, the DOE espouses it’s mission, “to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access.”
    (Gutek, p. 37)
    https://ed.gov/about/overview/mission/mission.html
  • Thomas Jefferson's Act for Establishing Religious Freedom

    Thomas Jefferson's Act for Establishing Religious Freedom
    In response to sectarian discrimination. Jefferson's bill states, “all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of Religion.” In context, the “wall” of separation is intended to protect religious freedom by preventing the State from discriminating or favoring various Christian sects. Hence named, 'the act for establishing religious freedom' not, 'freedom from religion' www.encyclopediavirginia.org/An_Act_for_establishing_religious_Freedom_1786
  • The 10th Ammendment

    The 10th Ammendment
    The 10th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution indirectly delegates the power to govern education to the states. This act of decentralization has indefinite consequences. For instance, academic standards vary significantly from state to state which means that a measure of proficient performance in a given state may be significantly below standard in another.
    (Gutek, p. 38)
    http://www.air.org/news/press-release/education-performance-standards-vary-widely-among-states-some-cases-several-grade
  • Lancasterian Method Introduced

    Lancasterian Method Introduced
    Lancasterian method is introduced as an inexpensive system to educate large groups of children. Students were arranged groups by ability and then taught predetermined lessons with specific objectives. Each phase of the lesson followed a unit plan. Monitors directly taught students and were supervised by a curriculum expert. It has similarities to our current model.

    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • America's First High School

    America's First High School
    The first high school in the United States opens. In contrast to Latin Grammar schools and academies, high schools are an extension of the common school system and as such offer free tuition. Entrance however is restricted to only capable males. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education,
    3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Webster's Dictionary

    Webster's Dictionary
    Noah Webster culminates years of promoting English as the standard language for education by publishing the American Dictionary. His efforts help unite American schools by facilitating a common language. (Gutek, p. 60)
  • Sunday School Movement

    Sunday School Movement
    In the early 19th Century, American Christians establish Sunday schools following the English habit which began in 1780. As many youth worked six days a week, Sunday school was established as an opportunity for children gain a basic education. Sunday schools were popular and served as a pioneering model for common schools. Larsen, T. (2008, August). When Did Sunday Schools Start? Retrieved from: http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/2008/august/when-did-sunday-schools-start.html
  • Women as Educators

    Women as Educators
    Women integrated eventually came to hold the majority of teaching positions in common schools. Pioneers such as Catharine Beecher opened institutions that enabled and prepared women teachers. The Hartford Women’s Seminary for example trained teachers to educate children who were part of the Westward expansion.
    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Horace THE Mann

    Horace THE Mann
    Horace Mann is elected to serve as the first Secretary for the Massachusetts Board of Education. In his position of influence he successfully compels the state to adopt one of the first common school systems in the Nation. Litz, C. E. (1975). Horace Mann and the sectarian controversy.
    Education, 95, 280-285. Retrieved from http://lib-
    ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/login?
    url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
    direct=true&db=eir&AN=519653003&site=eds-live
  • McGuffey Reader

    McGuffey Reader
    William McGuffey introduces his set of reading books. They serve as a major aid to teach reading skills and popular American values. Over 120 million copies are sold and read throughout the nation. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American
    education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Kindergarten

    Kindergarten
    Friedrich Froebel builds upon lessons learned from Pestalozzi. Froebel establishes that children need emotional stability and a comfortable learning environment. He encourages physical activity, manipulatives, and play. He begins the kindergarten movement which eventually takes root in the United States.
    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Normal Schools for Teacher Training

    Normal Schools for Teacher Training
    Under the council of Horace Mann, Massachusetts establishes three normal schools for the purpose of training teacher training. First New York and other states follow the Mann’s model and normal schools emerge as a resource that improves educator standards.
    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Slavery Abolished

    Slavery Abolished
    The Confederate States of America surrenders and thus frees black Americans from slavery. Although not directly an educational event, the defeat of the South allows the Thirteenth Amendment which brings millions of Americans to the doorsteps of public education for the first time in the Nation’s history. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • The Assassination of President Lincoln

    The Assassination of President Lincoln
    The assassination of President Lincoln opened the doorway for harsh reconstruction tactics which lead to extreme levels of resentment towards the Federal Government and newly freed black Americans. Without the wise and reconciliatory leadership of Lincoln racism is stoked for generations which contributes to a continuation of inequality that many are dealing with today. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Kalamazoo Case

    Kalamazoo Case
    This case was a critical step towards the funding of high schools in the Nation. Justice Cooley opines that since the State supports elementary schools, it should also fund education that is required for transitioning into the work force or a university. You can’t have public school without public funds. Thanks Justice Cooley for my job!
  • The American Missionary Association

    The American Missionary Association
    The American Missionary Association (AMA) establishes 21 schools in the South to educate black Americans. By the late 19th Century they were credited with training almost half of all Black American teachers in the South. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Developments in Pedagogy

    Developments in Pedagogy
    Johann Herbert develops the idea that learning occurs in clusters and that students need a foundation of understanding to garner interest and build upon basic knowledge. His emphasis on moral education contributed to the expansion of Humanities education.
  • Morrill Act 1 & 2

    Morrill Act 1 & 2
    Grants each state at least 30,000 acres of land and a cash grant to establish colleges. One college in each state must have an emphasis on agriculture and mechanics (A&M). These acts also made provisions for African Americans and the support of ROTC programs.
    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education,
    3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Simplification

    Simplification
    The NEA creates a committee of ten to standardize high schools. Their aim was to determine the central goal of high schools. Should high school offer a vocational and a college track like academies or simply a college track like Latin schools? They committee determined that everyone needs to prepare for college regardless of their interest or ability. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education,
    3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Adolescence

    Adolescence
    Stanley Hall invents the concept of adolescence. Until this point, children transitioned into the adult world as soon as they were physically capable. The common twelve year old on a farm in a poor urban family would likely have a full time job. As attendance in secondary schools became viewed as an essential requirement the idea that children needed a few more years to learn and develop took shape.
  • CRSE

    CRSE
    Balances the Committee of ten by taking a more holistic view of high school students. They introduce seven pillars of focus for high schools including, ELA and Math, Citizenship, home membership, Leisure, health, and vocation. The CRSE’s requirements made high schools more comprehensive and practical for an increasingly diverse student population.
    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Progressive Developments

    Progressive Developments
    The Progressive movement ushers in protections and considerations for youth. Improvements include labor laws prohibiting youth from working, increases in school funding, and the establishment of juvenile court systems.
  • Teacher Unions

    Teacher Unions
    With the aim of improving standards and quality in education teachers unions such as the National Education Association (NEA) and the American Federation of Teachers expand during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Teacher’s unions have a tremendous amount of resources and influence that they leverage to support their agendas. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Immigration

    Immigration
    From the mid-19th Century on millions of non-North Europeans immigrate to the United States. The color, culture, and religion of the United States becomes steadily more diverse. Americans slowly adapt the education institutions to the changing population. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Child Labor Law

    Child Labor Law
    This law was established to ensure that the ability of youth to work is contingent on not interfering with their education. Regardless of need, parents are not allowed to keep their children home from school in order to work. This is a fundamental right not actualized in many nations today. This law does not protect children who work on farms.
  • National School Lunch Act

    National School Lunch Act
    Provides lunches to needy children across the Nation. After hundreds of thousands of young American men are too unfit to enter the military during WWII, the Department of Defense compels the government to ensure proper nutrition for children as a matter of National security. This results in improvement in the condition of students Author and date not available. Retrieved from: http://www.collinsblaha.com/pdfs/education-reform/Timeline-Moments-that-Changed-Public-Education.pdf
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    The SCOTUS rules that ‘separate but equal’ was unconstitutional which began the process of forced integration in Southern states. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Removal of School supported Prayer

    Removal of School supported Prayer
    Engel v. Vitale overturned New York’s Apellate court 1960 ruling that sustained state supported prayer. In 1962 the SCOTUS ruled that prayer approved and read to students in public school was inappropriate. https://casetext.com/case/matter-of-engel-v-vitale-4
  • Epperson v. Arkansas

    Epperson v. Arkansas
    The U.S. Supreme Court rules that earlier laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution in schools are unconstitutional. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Access for Disabled Students

    Access for Disabled Students
    The court ruled in ‘The Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Commonwealth’ that disabled students had a right to education.

    Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Language Support

    Language Support
    Lau v. Nichols SCOTUS ruled that districts were required to provide additional language instruction to ESL students.
  • A Nation at Risk

    A Nation at Risk
    This report brought to light startling under-performance of American youth in the realm of education. This reported highlights a continual decline in performance of youth from 1963 until the early 80s. This report lead to public concern and a continual evolution of laws aimed at raising student performance.
  • “Technology”

    “Technology”
    Advancements in media and communication such as the internet and personal computers allows immense changes and opporutnities in education. Vast amounts of information becomes accessible to individual students. Learning becomes possible at a distance :) Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • NCLB

    NCLB
    The No Child Left Behind Act is signed into law which solidifies a system of standardization and accountability. To a large degree, the requirements of this law become the hub around which schools are forced to rotate. Gutek, G. (2013). An historical introduction to American education, 3rd Ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.