The American Revolution

  • Battle at Lexington and Concord

    Battle at Lexington and Concord
    ● General Gage sends British militia to Massachusetts
    ● Met by Patriots and Minute Men
    ● "shot heard round the world" - the shot that started the war between the Britsh and the American colonies
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    ● Creation of Continental army
    ● Appoints George Washington to lead army
  • Battle at Bunkerhill

    Battle at Bunkerhill
    ● Americans were winning at first against the British
    ● Continental Army defeats the first two lines of British soldiers
    ● Americans run out of ammunition and supplies
    ● British eventually beats them
    ● Battle shows America's army's lack of supplies
  • Dunmore gains Loyalists

    Dunmore gains Loyalists
    ● Governor Dunmore enlists both white and black people for British cause
    ● Proclaims freedom to slaves and indentured servants who join the Loyalists
  • Thomas Paine: Common Sense

    Thomas Paine: Common Sense
    ● Publishes a pamphlet that spreads quickly though the colonies
    ● Calls for independence and a republican government
    ● Attacks the oppressive rule of traditional monarchy
  • Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge

    Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge
    ● Josiah Martin, North Carolina's royal governor, has 1,500 Loyalist soldiers
    ● Patriots create a militia and defeat Governor Martin's army
    ● Inspires radical Patriots to try and persuade the Continental Congress to declare independence
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    ● Written by Thomas Jefferson
    Section I: Statements of philosophy; national statement of belief
    Section II: Indictments against King George III's oppresive actions
    Section III: Resolution - the colonies have the right to be free of the crown and independent states
  • Battle of Long Island

    Battle of Long Island
    ● Prime Minister Lord North appoints William Howe to lead British troops to capture New York City
    ●Strategy: Seize Hudson River to cut off connection between New England and the southern colonies
    ● General Washington leads Continental Army
    ● British defeat the Americans at Long Island and force them to retreat all the way to Pennsylvania
    ● Battle shows British war advantages and American weakness
    ● Battle represents Washington's first two years of defeats as the leader
  • Pennsylvania Constitution

    Pennsylvania Constitution
    ● Property ownership is taken out of the voting qualications
    ● All taxpaying men can vote and hold office
    ● Creates a unicameral legislature with complete power
  • John Adams: Thoughts on Government

    John Adams: Thoughts on Government
    ● Response to Pennsylvania constitution
    ● Creates an idea that joined the mimxed government theory with a republican society
    ● Legislatures make laws, the executive would administer laws, and the judiciary would evforce the laws
    ● Demands a bicameral legislature with a upper and lower house with substantial men in the upper house
    ● Says the elected governor should have veto power and the judiciary should be appointed
  • Valley Forge

    Valley Forge
    ● Washington's army facesdisaster in Valley Forge during the winter
    ● Desertion, starvation, and disease strike soldiers
    ● Baron von Steuben, a foreign officer, trains the Continental army
    ● By spring, the Continental army become professional soldiers
  • Battle of New Jersey

    Battle of New Jersey
    ● Washington leads his Continental army to Trenton, New Jersey
    ● Surprised attacks British and beats 1,000 Hessian soldiers
    ● Small victory against the British
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    ● Lord North launches a military campaign:
    ● solate New England by surrounding it with troops from all fronts
    ● General Burgoyne leads a group of British troops and wins against the Americans at Fort Ticonderoga
    ● Gerneral Horatio Gates leads the Americans and slows down the British troops' campaign
    ● Eventually Americans overwhelm Burgoyne's forces and he surrenders
    ● Turning point of the war because of America's great feat
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    ● Based on the idea of a central government with limited powers
    ● Each state has its own freedom
    ● Important laws need 13 states' approval
    ● Ratified in 1781 due to problems with fulfilling individual state desires
  • Treaty of Alliance

    Treaty of Alliance
    ● France and America join in alliance
    ● Neither partner would sign a serparate peace without the freedom of the United States
    ● Congress would recognize French claims of the West Indies
    ● Alliace boosted Patriotic morale
    ● Repeals Tea and Prohibitory (Intolerable) Acts and renounce its power to tax the colonies in hopes of negotiation with the Americans
  • British take coastal Georgia

    British take coastal Georgia
    ● Sir Henry Clinton, Governor of New York, sends Colonel Cambell and his British troops to take Savannah, Georgia
    ● In early 1779, the British take Augusta, Georgia
  • Philipsburg Proclamation

    Philipsburg Proclamation
    ● Declares that any slave who deserted a revel master would receive protection, freedom, and land from Great Britain
    ● Helps further Britiain's southern strategy:
    ● Defend the West Indies and capture the successful cultivating southern colonies
    ● Results in about 30,000 slaves to join British side
  • British take South Carolina

    British take South Carolina
    ● British wins victory at Charleston, South Carolina
    ● Takes the Carolinian garrison of 5,000 troops
    ● Lord Charles Cornwalis takes control of British army
    ● British defeats General Horatio Gates's American force at Camden, South Carolina
  • Battle at Cowpens

    Battle at Cowpens
    ● General Morgen of the American force won a bloody victory at Cowpens
    ● Battle stops the consistent wins of the British
  • Battle at Guilford Court House

    Battle at Guilford Court House
    ● Washington sends General Nathaniel Greene to stop the British southern campaign
    ● Greene lures Cornwalis's troops into the Guilford Court House
    ● Battle ends in a draw
    ● Cornwalis beats the Americans at the courthouse, but Greene only uses this battle as a trap
    ● Cornwalis gives up the Carolinas to the Americans
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    ● Lord Cornwallis and his troops move to Yorktown, Virginia
    ● Joined by Benedict Arnold, a Patriot traitor, and his men
    ● Washington's strategy:
    ● Fake an attack on New York City to draw British forces
    ● March the new huge French militia and send the French fleet south towards Yorktown
    ● The French join Greene's army and surround Cornwallis
    ● Cornwallis surrenders
    ● Battle ends all battles in the American Revolution against the British
  • The Ordinance of 1784

    The Ordinance of 1784
    ● Written by Thomas Jefferson
    ● Territories could become states as their populations grew
  • The Land Ordinance of 1785

    The Land Ordinance of 1785
    ● Mandatated a grid system of surveying and placed the minimal price of $1 per acre
    ● Required that half of the townships would be sold in single blocks of acres that benefited large-scale speculators and small amounts of land acres for well-to-do-farmers
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    ● Farmers are heavily in debt, but the legislature increases taxes
    ● Farmers respond by revolting against taxes imposed by an unresponsive government
    ● Rebellion displays that farming families felt oppressed even under American rule
    ● The government was not playing to the citizen's interests
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    ● Proprosed at the Philadelphia Convention
    ● Devised by James Madison who supported a strong central government
    ● Rejects state sovereignty
    ● Calls for the national government to be established by the people and for national laws be enforced on citizens
    ● Proposes a three-tier election system
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    ● Devised by William Paterson
    ● Gives the Confederation various powers
    ● Gives states the control of their own laws and guarantees their equality in the legislature
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    ● Creates territories that are now the Midwestern states
    ● Prohibits slavery and earmarks funds from land sals for schools
    ● Says Congress would appoint a governor and judges for the new territory until the population reached 5,000 adult men
    ● As population grows, the citizens could elct a territorial legislature and then the legislature could create a republican constitution and apply for a position in the Confederation
  • The Great Compromise

    The Great Compromise
    ● Proposed by the Conneticut delegates
    ● Says the Senate have two members from each state
    ● Says the House of Representatives have their seats distributed by population
  • The Federalist

    The Federalist
    ● A series of essays written by Federalists James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamiltion
    ● A response to Antifederalists disagreement of the constitution
    ● Becomes a treatise of practical republicanism
    ● Points out that power among the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary would "check and balance" and so preserve liberty
  • Federalists in Massachusetts

    Federalists in Massachusetts
    ● Antifederalists argue with Bostonian Federalists
    ● The Federalists calm down the Antifederalists by assuring them that they would consider a national bill of rights
  • Constitution is Ratified

    Constitution is Ratified
    ● 9th state ratifies Constitution meeting the qualifications that 9 out of 13 states need to approve the document
    ● Includes the idea of a Supreme Court and state courts
    ● Includes the rule that slaves count as 3/5 of a free person
    ● Foundation for the laws of the United States of America