STEM 185- The History and Context of STEM Timeline

  • Period: 900 BCE to 1300

    Ancient Sciences

  • 500 BCE

    Encryption in Spartan Times

    Spartans used a tool called scytale which was able to encrypt and decrypted secret messages.The tool was able to create ciphers and was able to remain a secret to people who wanted to intercept these messages. Today, we use more of a digital version of a scytale, but the premise is still the same.
  • 500 BCE

    Women of Sparta

    During the Sparta times women were treated almost the same as men. Aristotle would often criticize Sparta for having women so independent and claimed this was the downfall of Sparta. Spartan women were often encouraged to join and train events such as wrestling, javelin and Olympic type events. Gorgo Queen of Sparta was often thought by leading by example and no women should be weak in the eyes of Spartan men.
  • 499 BCE


    Mark, J. J. (2023, February 5). Gorgo of Sparta. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from Shadinger, J., Smith, A., Todd, S., … Eickhoff, C. (2020, July 29). Science, Technology and society in ancient Sparta. Science Technology Society A StudentLed Exploration. Retrieved January 6, 2023, from
  • 875

    First Flight

    Abbas Ibn Firnas was an Andalusian Polymath and engineer who was the first to fly a a air machine and live. This flight would be only to stay for at the least of ten minutes. Also, he developed water powered clocks and process for cutting rock crystals. Firnas is also know as Hakim Al-Andalus the wiseman of Al-andalus
  • 931

    Medicine and Science in Medieval Islam

    Medieval Islam used medicine to help get science into Islam society and created a type of pharmacy. Which lead to the invention of monographs to use as a well organized list and study the usage of drugs. Figures such as Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi translated Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works into Arabic. Which helped with transcribing monographs.
  • 932


    Bertoloni, M. D. E. I., Dorn, H., & McClellan, J. E. I. (2006). Science and technology in
    world history : An introduction. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Zunic, L., Karcic, E., & Masic, I. (2014). Medical ethics in the medieval Islamic
    sciences. Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice, 3(3), 75–76.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Scientific Revolution

  • 1521


    Girolamo Fracastoro was the first to write about Syphilis in 1521. The Syphilis outbreak overtook European populations by storm. Girolamo Fracatro did not know this at the time of writing about Syphilis but it would be used over a hundred different languages. Also, changing the field of microbiology from describing transmission of this disease.
  • 1543

    Human Body Details

    Andreas vesalius publishes "on the fabric of the human body." Details the human body and anatomy. Thus, helps the medical field and science. Through a more elaborate detailing of human body and anatomy.
  • 1564

    Pascal's Triangle

    Blaise Pascal made the base layer for the probability Theory and rules of combinatorics in a gambling game problem. For a simple things such as a six in the roll of dice. Now, led to the understanding of probability.
  • Telescope to see the stars

    The first of telescopes were created by Hans Lipperhey in 1608. The first telescope magnified objects 3-4 times. In 1609, he created a improvements to the telescope could magnify objects by 30 times. He discover many things with this telescope such as Jupiter's moons. Thus, leading the telescopes to be one of the greatest inventions to science of this time.
  • Modern research

    Francis Bacon created the many treaties on empiricist natural philosophy. Also, created an idea of modern research institute. Thus, studying many practices of science and helping the understanding towards science.
  • References

    Simpson, D. (n.d.). Blaise Pascal (1623–1662). Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Zampieri, F., ElMaghawry, M., Zanatta, A., & Thiene, G. (2015, December 22). Andreas Vesalius: Celebrating 500 years of dissecting nature. Global cardiology science & practice. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • References

    Detlefsen, K. (2014, June 13). Émilie Du Châtelet. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Hans Lippershey - inventor of first refracting telescope. Hans Lippershey - Inventor of Refracting Telescope. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • References

    Klein, J., & Giglioni, G. (2012, December 7). Francis Bacon. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Pesapane, F., Marcelli, S., & Nazzaro, G. (2015). Hieronymi fracastorii: The Italian scientist who described the "French disease". Anais brasileiros de dermatologia. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • Women in Science

    Emilie Du Chatelet was a self taught mathematician and physicist. She published the Foundations of Physics and made improvements to Galileo's hypotheses. Emilie Du Chatelet was a very unrepresented woman of her time and made science for the better. Famous for elucidation of the concepts of energy and energy conservation.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

  • Steam Power

    James Watt was a Scottish inventor in 1765, he improved the efficiency of steam power engines by adding a different and separate condenser. Which allowed the haft of the machine to rotate and generate vertically movement of the pump. This invention made way for better travel and trade across the world.
  • Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney was U.S born inventor in 1765-1825. Eli Whitney is know for patenting the cotton gin. Which was a machine that made the production of cotton faster and easier. However, even though cotton was the America's leading trade. . . cotton gin was not taken to successfully due to southern planters slavery.
  • Businesswomen in the Industrial Revolution

    Eleanor Coade lived from 1733-1821. She was manufacturer and businesswomen. Eleanor Coade invented high quality stone of ceramic material which the recipe is still a secret. Now, this ceramic material would be resistant to erosion and weathering. Further, it is used on furniture and architectural details.
  • Women in engineering

    Sarah Guppy was an English inventor from 1770 to 1852. In this time period women could not patent inventions. The only way around this is waiting till 1811. . . where Sarah patented, " New Mode of Constructing and Erecting Bridges and Railroads without Arches." Which was used for piling for suspension bridges. She was a women in the future and helped the engineering field out to change the world.
  • Sewing Machine

    The sewing machine was patented in 1846 by Elias Howe. However, the sewing machine was first created fifty years prior by Thomas Saint. Also, this sewing machine was not as successful as the one invented by Elias Howe due to people not trusting this invention. Now, Howe's invention of the sewing machine used a different method of stitching called lock stitch rather than chain stitching. The lock stitch method made Howe's sewing machine more successful than the one's year prior.
  • References

    1846 - Elias Howe Jr.'s Sewing Machine Patent Model. National Museum of American History. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Cotton Gin and Eli Whitney - History. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • References

    Eleanor Coade. English Heritage. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    James Watt (1736-1819). James Watt biography - Science Hall of Fame - National Library of Scotland. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • References

    Sarah Guppy an English inventor. Intriguing History. (2019, February 22). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • Period: to

    Rise of Universities

  • Grant Morrill

    Justin Morrill was the longest serving member in Congress. He helped advocate for higher education and rights to freed slaves. Justin Morrill was self taught and studied architecture on his own. He is responsible for sponsoring land grant acts in public universities which have equal protection to freed slaves.
  • Hallie Quinn Brown Educator

    Hallie Quinn Brown is know for role in Harlem Renaissance, dramatic elocutionist, preservation of Frederick Douglass home and Black American Educator. Hallie would serve as a professor of elocution at Wilberforce University. She helped promote the colored woman's league which is part of the National Association of colored women. Also, she spoke for temperance groups cause of woman suffrage and spoke for full citizenship for women. Hallie Brown is one of the most influential women in education.
  • Booker T. Washington

    Booker T. Washington from 1856-1915 was only allowed to go to school after working 4-9 AM before class. When Booker T. Washington got a second job at a coal mine he heard of a school of Hampton Institute for formerly enslaved people in Virginia. Booker T. Washington is responsible for the early development and success of Tuskegee University.
  • Founder of North Carolina College

    James Edward Shepard founded North Carolina college for negroes in Durham North Carolina. Also, became one of the wealthiest and most successful African American businessmen in the U.S. He advocated profoundly for education and helping small colleges for African Americans. Further he was given a section land in Durham and created the National Religious Training School.
  • G.I Bill

    The Servicemen's Readjustment Act 1944 was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22, 1944. Thus, the bill would provide for world war II veterans for college education, unemployment insurance, and housing. The bill passed into law just days after the D-day invasion of Normandy. Over two million veterans attended college and universities; with the help of this bill. This bill help education for many people and is still in use today.
  • References

    Booker T. Washington - biography, W.E.B. Dubois & Facts - History. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Lewis, J. J. (2020, November 1). What role did Hallie Quinn Brown play in the Harlem Renaissance? ThoughtCo. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • References

    Peterson, contributed by: H. (2020, July 25). James Edward Shepard (1875-1947) •. •. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Senator Justin Morrill. State Historic Sites. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • References

    National Archives and Records Administration. (n.d.). Servicemen's Readjustment Act (1944). National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
    Peterson, contributed by: H. (2020, July 25). James Edward Shepard (1875-1947) •. •. Retrieved February 6, 2023, from
  • Period: to

    Space and Information

  • First Computers/ Artificial intelligence

    First computer was created by Charles Babbage in 1822, but was used for different ways than present time computer. The computer was able to approximate polynomials. The first computer with a program and stored memory was delivered to the U.S in 1950. Alan Turing a person of mathematics and computing published the Turing test. Which was to test the computer to demonstrate human intelligence. Thus, made the ground guide to artificial intelligence.
  • Gertrude Belle Elion

    Gertrude is highly praised women in medicine and successful. Gertrude created a way to successful treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. She did this by making a compound 6-marcaptopurin. Which made the survival rate of leukemia in children 20% to 80%. Further, she continued her work and improved methods for chemotherapy.
  • Grace Murray Hopper

    Grace Murray Hopper is an inventor of the 1950s and Naval Officer Hopper of high ranking status. She created some of the first Electronic Payroll system. Thus, evolving many computer and compilers for commercial use. Another fun fact is Grace got her name attached to a ship after she retired called the U.S.S Hopper.
  • Bullet Proof Woman

    Stephanie Kwolek's started working in a Dupont Textile chemistry Lab in 1946. In her eighteen years of research in polymers. . .she found a special type of polymer which she should call Kevlar. Afterwards, Kevlar would make bullet Proof vests, airplane parts and other safety equipment. With her invention of Kevlar this would save a lot of lives and is interesting because she wanted to pursue a career in the medical fields.
  • Moon landing

    In this timeline one cannot mention the moon landing on July 20, 1969. With that said, several inventions came from the moon landing such as Thermal blankets, Dustbuster, Bridge shock absorbers, Fireproof fire fighter uniforms, and vacuum sealed food invented by NASA.
  • References

    Mayor, D. (2022, December 16). Computers in the 1950s. History. Retrieved February 9, 2023, from
    When was the first computer invented? Computer Hope. (2022, October 18). Retrieved February 9, 2023, from
  • References

    1950's to present. Famous Women Inventors. (n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2023, from
    Bowden, E. (2019, July 8). Seven inventions from the Apollo Space Program We still use Today. New York Post. Retrieved February 9, 2023, from