Spain, restoration and civil war.

  • The Sandhurst manifiesto

    Manidiesto wrote by Antonio Cánovas and signed in Sandhurst where he promised a constitutional government.
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    The Bourbon Restoration

    thanks to:
    -Political manoeuvring of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, leader of the future Conservative Party, wich helped achieve Isabella II's abdication in favour of her son Alfonso II. -Pronuncuamiento (military revolution) by General Martínez Campos, Alfonso XII was proclaimed king.
    This bourbon restored the monarchy and after his dead (1885) his restauration continued with Maria Christina while her son was a child.
  • The Constitution of 1876

    Moderate constitution that allow any party to govern without the need to change it. Rights and suffrage it established depended on the party in power. It also shared sovereignty betweeb the Cortes and the king.
  • Fundation of the PSOE

    Founded by Pablo Iglesias. Consolidated by the huge surge in the labour movement.
  • Bases de Manresa

    Written by Prat de la Riba. Declared the official status for the Catalan language, establisment of Catalan political parties and courts, and Catalan autonomy.
  • Foundation of PNV

    Basque nationalism, driven by Sabino Arana (catholic, conservative, and defended regional charters traditions) led to the foundation of this party.
  • War between Spain and USA

    In 1894 uprising in Cuba and revolt in Philippines started the loss of the Spain Colonies.
    US support the rebels and declared the war on Spain after sinking the US NAvy battleship Maine. This war erupted i the Pacific and the Atlantic. Spain was forced to sign the 1898 Treaty of Paris, where they recognised the independence of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippies. Led to a deep Spanish crisis.
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    The reign of Alfonso XII

    His reing is divided by the crisis of 1917:
    -Continued party rotation(1902-1917):two-party rotational system maintained between the Conservative (led by Maura) and the Liberal Party (by José Canalejas).Unsuccessful regenerationist politics. Problems:War againts Moroco and Spanish war with the Rif.
    -Crisis of the Cánovas system(1917-1923) affected military, politics & society. Then a political decline led to a unity government that had to face domestic and foreing challenges.
  • The Algerciras Conference

    Divided Morocco into two protectorates (one in the north of Morocco under French control and other in the south under Spanish control).
  • The Tragic Week of 1909

    Violent protests in Barcelona caused by the war whith the inhabitants of the Rif.
  • Disaster at Annual

    Spain brutal defeat in the Rif War againts Morocco, resulting with 10000 deaths and widespread public commotion and negative public opinion.
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    Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera

    2 stages with 2 different goverments
    -Military Directory (1923-25):Primo de Rivera suspended the constitution, dissolved the Cortes, prohibited political parties, suppressed the labour movement & defeated the Mroccans after the Alhucemas landing (1925).
    -Civil Directory(1925-30):due to the 1929 crisis, rise in unemployment, spread of the labour movement, nationalis... Primo de Rivera was forced to resign in 1930. Then Alfonso XIII tried to go back to the parliament but ended up in exile in 1931.
  • Municipal elections of 1931

    As a result of popular disapproval of the king´s suppport for the dictatorship led to significant Republican victories in the 1931 municipal elections. The king went into exile and the Second Republic was declared.
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    The Second Republic

    A provisional government was formed of Republicans, socialists an nationalists who held elections for the Constituent Cortes in June 1931. This parties won and drafted a new constitution.
    The Cosntitution of 1931: established several rights, popular sovereignty, separation of powers universal male suffrage, regional autonomy through a statue of autonomy and separation of church and state.
    Defined Spain as a Republic of workers. Then this Republic went to 3 stages.
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    Reformist Biennium

    Alcalá-Zamora elected president of the Republic(coalition government made up of lef t-wing Republicans & socialists) Reforms:
    Political:process of political decentralisation.Military:reduce the number of military officials & guarantee their loyalty.Economic:the Cortes enacted an agrarian reform programme.Social:Labour conditions improved & Church influence was reduced.Cultural:push of the public education.
    This led to protests & an upset of the reforms that caused Azaña resign & new electons.
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    Conservative Biennium

    In 1933 elections political right & centre won(Radical Republican Party, support of CEDA and a coalition of right-wing parties).They halted the majority of the previous reforms incrising strikes & actions from the left-wing. Causing the October revolution of 1934 more intense in Austrias & in Barcelona.
    Lefts disatisfaction due to its represion, economic problems, & corruption scandals envolvng the Radical Party(Straperlo scandal) led to another election in February 1936(left coalition won).
  • The Popular Front (February-June 1936)

    New government led by Manuel Azaña, granted amnesty for political prisionersof 1934 revolution & brought back the reforms healted during the Conservative Biennium. This cause a growing political radicalisation.
    Political violence led to the Tragic Spring of 1936 (wave of attacks & street violence).
    Most conservative sectors of the Army decided to end the Republic through a coup d'état, led by General Emilio Mola. Assesination of Jesé Calvo Sotelo paved the way for a military insurrection.
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    The Spanish Civil War

    After the coup d'état in Melilla, Tetan & Cauta, the country was divided into 2 zones, the Republican and the Nationalist zones. In Spain upsrising & Republic legal authority supported in general of people with progressive mentaly. Abroad the Non-Intervention Committe was formed.The objetive of the insurgents was to take Madrid. For that they begin different battles and the war pass throught the Cantabrian coast and then to the Medierranian. Indurgents entered Madrid and the Civil War ended.
  • The bombing of Guernika

    When the Civil War was moved to the Cantabrian coast, german air force's Condor Legion involve this regions of harsh battles & enabled the indurgents to control key industrial & mining areas.